The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera.
|Drains to||inferior vena cava|
There is one vein per kidney, that divides into 4 divisions upon entering the kidney:
- the anterior branch which receives blood from the anterior portion of the kidney and,
- the posterior branch which receives blood from the posterior portion.
Because the inferior vena cava is on the right half of the body, the left renal vein is generally the longer of the two.
- left inferior phrenic vein
- left suprarenal vein
- left gonadal vein (left testicular vein in males, left ovarian vein in females)
- left 2nd lumbar vein
This is in contrast to the right side of the body, where these veins drain directly into the IVC.
Often, each renal vein will have a branch that receives blood from the ureter.
It is usually singular to each kidney, except in the condition "multiple renal veins". In some people the left renal vein passes behind the abdominal aorta instead of in front of it, this is termed a retroaortic left renal vein, which is also known as "The Vein of Schnitker." If there is both a vein passing in front of and one behind the aorta this is called a circumaortic renal vein.
3D-rendered computed tomography, showing one renal vein (in red color) for each kidney
- Anatomy figure: 40:06-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Retroperitoneal structures on the posterior abdominal wall."