Ribes aureum

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Golden currant
Ribes aureum var aureum 4.jpg
R. aureum var. aureum, Spring Mountains, Nevada.
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Grossulariaceae
Genus: Ribes
Subgenus: Ribes subg. Ribes
Section: Ribes sect. Symphocalyx
Species:
R. aureum
Binomial name
Ribes aureum
Pursh 1813
Synonyms[1]
List
  • Chrysobotrya aurea (Pursh) Rydb.
  • Chrysobotrya intermedia Spach
  • Chrysobotrya lindleyana Spach
  • Chrysobotrya odorata (H.L.Wendl.) Rydb.
  • Chrysobotrya revoluta Spach
  • Coreosma longiflora Lunell
  • Coreosma odorata (H.L.Wendl.) Nieuwl.
  • Ribes aureum var. longiflorum (Nutt.) Jancz.
  • Ribes aureum var. tenuiflorum (Lindl.) Jeps.
  • Ribes flavum Berland.
  • Ribes fragrans Lodd.
  • Ribes longiflorum Nutt.
  • Ribes odoratum H.L.Wendl.
  • Ribes odoratum var. intermedium (Spach) Rehder ex A. Berger
  • Ribes palmatum Deshmukh
  • Ribes tenuiflorum Lindl.

Ribes aureum, known by the common names golden currant,[2] clove currant, pruterberry and buffalo currant, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Ribes native to North America.[3]

Description[edit]

The plant is a small to medium-sized deciduous shrub, 2–3 metres (6+12–10 feet) tall. The leaves are green, semi-leathery,[4] with 3 or 5 lobes, and turn red in autumn.[5]

The plant blooms in spring with racemes of conspicuous golden yellow flowers, often with a pronounced, spicy fragrance similar to that of cloves or vanilla. Flowers may also be shades of cream to reddish, and are borne in clusters of up to 15.[6] The shrub produces berries about 1 centimetre (38 inch) in diameter from an early age. The ripe fruits are amber yellow to black.[6] Those of variety villosum are black.[7]

Taxonomy[edit]

The species belongs to the subgenus Ribes, which contains other currants such as the blackcurrant (R. nigrum) and redcurrant (R. rubrum), and is the sole member of the section Symphocalyx.[8]

Varieties[edit]

  • Ribes aureum var. aureum: below 910 m (3,000 ft) in the western U.S.[9]
  • Ribes aureum var. gracillimum: below 910 m (3,000 ft) in the California Coast Ranges[10]
  • Ribes aureum var. villosum – clove currant (syn: Ribes odoratum); native west of Mississippi River, but naturalized further to the east[11]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Ribes aureum is native to Canada and most of the United States (except the southeast).[12][11]

It can be found around gravel banks and plains around flowing water.[4]

Ecology[edit]

Pollinators of the plant include hummingbirds, butterflies and bees. The fruit is eaten by various birds and mammals.[13]

This currant species is susceptible to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), a fungus which attacks and kills pines, so it is sometimes eradicated from forested areas where the fungus is active to prevent its spread.[6][14]

Cultivation[edit]

R. aureum is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, in traditional, native plant, drought tolerant, and wildlife gardens, and natural landscaping projects.[15] Unlike some other species of currants, Ribes aureum is in the remarkably drought-tolerant group of Ribes. Named cultivars have been introduced also.

Although the flowers are hermaphroditic, the yield is greatly benefited by cross-pollination.

Uses[edit]

The fruits are edible raw, but are very tart or bitter.[16] They are usually cooked with sugar and can be made into jelly.[4] The flowers are also edible.[6][5]

The berries were used for food, and other plant parts for medicine, by various Native American groups across its range in North America.[6][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ribes aureum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Ribes aureum". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Ribes aureum". Plants for a Future.
  4. ^ a b c Taylor, Ronald J. (1994) [1992]. Sagebrush Country: A Wildflower Sanctuary (rev. ed.). Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Pub. Co. p. 42. ISBN 0-87842-280-3. OCLC 25708726.
  5. ^ a b Morin, Nancy R. (2009). "Ribes aureum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 8. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  6. ^ a b c d e USDA Species Profile
  7. ^ "Ribes aureum var. villosum (Clove currant) | Native Plants of North America". Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. The University of Texas at Austin. 2018-01-25. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  8. ^ "Ribes aureum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  9. ^ Jepson Manual treatment for Ribes aureum var. aureum
  10. ^ Jepson Manual treatment for Ribes aureum var. gracillimum
  11. ^ a b Morin, Nancy R. (2009). "Ribes aureum var. villosum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 8. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  12. ^ "Ribes odoratum". Plants for a Future.
  13. ^ "Ribes aureum (Golden currant) | Native Plants of North America". Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. The University of Texas at Austin. 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  14. ^ Marshall, K. Anna (1995). "Ribes aureum". Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service (USFS), Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  15. ^ Las Pilitas Nursery horticultural treatment: Ribes aureum . accessed 1.30.2013
  16. ^ Fagan, Damian (2019). Wildflowers of Oregon: A Field Guide to Over 400 Wildflowers, Trees, and Shrubs of the Coast, Cascades, and High Desert. Guilford, CT: FalconGuides. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-4930-3633-2. OCLC 1073035766.
  17. ^ University of Michigan (Dearborn): Ethnobotany

External links[edit]