The Rooney Rule is a National Football League policy that requires league teams to interview ethnic-minority candidates for head coaching and senior football operation jobs. It is sometimes cited as an example of affirmative action, as there is no quota or preference given to minorities in the hiring of candidates. It was established in 2003, and variations of the rule are now in place in other industries.
History and origin
It was created as a reaction to the 2002 firings of head coaches Tony Dungy of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Dennis Green of the Minnesota Vikings, at a time when Dungy had a winning record and Green had just had his first losing season in ten years. Shortly afterwards, U.S. civil rights attorneys Cyrus Mehri and Johnnie Cochran released a study showing that black head coaches, despite winning a higher percentage of games, were less likely to be hired and more likely to be fired than their white counterparts. Former NFL players Kellen Winslow and John Wooten then put together a self-described "affinity group" of minority scouts, coaches, and front-office personnel, to advocate for the rule's creation.
Its purpose was to ensure that minority coaches, especially African Americans, would be considered for high-level coaching positions. Until 1979, when Tom Flores was hired by the Raiders, Fritz Pollard was the only minority head coach in NFL history (which was during the league's early years in the 1920s) and by the time the rule was implemented, only Tom Flores, Art Shell, Dennis Green, Ray Rhodes, Tony Dungy, and Herman Edwards had ever held head coaching jobs (only Dungy and Edwards were actively head coaching at the time of the rule's implementation, though Shell and Green would later return to head coaching). Dungy in particular had struggled for years before getting a head coaching job; he was often promoted as a head coaching candidate by Chuck Noll when Dungy was an assistant under Noll in the 1980s with the Steelers, but he would not become a head coach until 1996 when he took over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Another former Steelers assistant, Marvin Lewis, also struggled to find a head coaching position despite immense success as the Baltimore Ravens defensive coordinator and would not find a head coaching position until being hired by the Cincinnati Bengals in 2003, the year the Rooney Rule went into effect.
Since the Rooney Rule was established, several NFL franchises have hired African-American head coaches, including the Steelers themselves, who hired Mike Tomlin before their 2007 season. (The Steelers, however, had already interviewed Ron Rivera, who is ethnically Hispanic, to fulfill the requirement before interviewing Tomlin, and Rooney himself contends that Tomlin's hiring did not result from the Rule.) At the start of the 2006 season, the overall percentage of African-American coaches had jumped to 22%, up from 6% prior to the Rooney Rule.
The rule does not apply if an assistant coach has language in his contract guaranteeing him the head coaching job in case of an opening. For example, this was the case when Mike Martz took over as head coach of the St. Louis Rams before the 2000 season. Also, the requirement does not apply if the assistant coach taking over the head position is a minority, as was the case with Mike Singletary and the San Francisco 49ers in late 2008.
As of June 15, 2009[update], Rooney Rule requirements apply to all searches for senior football operations positions within the NFL, regardless of a team's title for that position. It now also includes all ethnic minorities, not just African Americans.
As of December 31, 2018[update], two of the 32 head coaches in the NFL are African-American, with one Hispanic head coach. Recently, some legal scholars have advocated for extending the Rooney Rule to college football, where the number of minority head coaches hovers around 6%, well below the 12.6% of the total US population which is African-American.
Detroit Lions case, 2003
In 2003, the NFL fined the Detroit Lions $200,000 for failure to interview African-American candidates for the team's vacant head coaching job. After Marty Mornhinweg was fired, the Lions immediately hired former San Francisco 49ers head coach Steve Mariucci (a native of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan) to replace him without interviewing any other candidates. The Lions claimed they attempted to interview other candidates but that the African-American candidates withdrew from interviews, believing Mariucci's hiring was inevitable. The Lions would not have a minority head coach until hiring Jim Caldwell in 2014.
2012 controversial non-hirings and possible rule revision
In the wake of no minority hirings to fill eight head coaching and seven general management vacancies following the conclusion of the 2012 NFL regular season, NFL Executive Vice president of Human Resources Robert Gulliver stated, "While there has been full compliance with the interview requirements of the Rooney Rule and we wish the new head coaches and general managers much success, the hiring results this year have been unexpected and reflect a disappointing lack of diversity." Analysts have pointed to the lack of interview offers for Baltimore Ravens' Offensive Coordinator Jim Caldwell, who, as head coach, led the Indianapolis Colts to a 14–2 2009 season along with winning the 2009 American Football Conference title before losing in Super Bowl XLIV, as evidence that the rule needs revision. Some sports analysts have called upon the NFL to modify the Rooney Rule by requiring NFL teams to interview a minority candidate outside their respective organizations, and extending the rule to include interviews for offensive and defensive coordinators.
Outside the NFL
In association football (soccer), players' representatives have been campaigning for a similar practice in England. Gordon Taylor, Chief Executive of the PFA (the players' trade union) said in September 2014 the sport "has a 'hidden resistance' preventing black managers getting jobs," pointing out that "you see so many black players on the pitch, yet we have two black managers out of 92." Garth Crooks, a prominent black former player, was especially scathing of the failure of the English Football League (a large association of clubs below the top-tier Premier League) to pursue the matter, suggesting the league lacked courage. Black coaches Kieron Dyer and Titus Bramble spoke out against the idea of Rooney Rule, saying they did not want to be perceived as having their roles because of a "quota". On January 9, 2018, it was reported that the England national football team would implement the Rooney Rule for all future interviews for the manager position.
Some companies outside of sports, such as Pinterest, Facebook, Patreon and Checkr, have put similar rules in place for their hiring processes. In general, the Rooney rule in these companies focuses on the diversity of the applicants in the pipeline for a particular position; the rule requires pausing at some stage of the hiring process until some diversity benchmark has been reached for the pool of applicants at that stage. Some data suggests that the Rooney Rule is not fully effective, leading to proposal of a "Mansfield Rule" requiring that 30% of candidates be non-white.
List of minority NFL head coaches
|Interim head coach only|
|Active head coach|
Note: List is correct through December 31, 2018.
|Head coach||Teams||Years||Regular season||Playoffs||Best results|
|W||L||T||Win %||W||L||Win %|
|Fritz Pollard||Akron Pros, Hammond Pros||1921, 1925||8||4||.667||0||0||0|
|Tom Flores||Oakland/LA Raiders, Seattle Seahawks||1979–1987, 1992–1994||97||87||.527||8||3||.727||Won Super Bowl XV and Super Bowl XVIII|
|Art Shell||Los Angeles Raiders||1989–1994, 2006||56||52||.518||2||3||.400||1990–1991 AFC Championship Game|
|Dennis Green||Minnesota Vikings and Arizona Cardinals||1992–2001, 2004–2006||113||94||.546||4||8||.333||1998 and 2000 NFC Championship Game|
|Ray Rhodes||Philadelphia Eagles and Green Bay Packers||1995–1998, 1999||37||42||.468||1||2||.333||1995 NFC Divisional Game|
|Tony Dungy||Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Indianapolis Colts||1996–2001, 2002–2008||139||69||.668||9||10||.474||Won Super Bowl XLI|
|Herman Edwards||New York Jets and Kansas City Chiefs||2001–2005, 2006–2008||54||74||.422||2||4||.333||2002, 2004 AFC Divisional Game|
|Rooney Rule Instituted, 2003|
|Marvin Lewis||Cincinnati Bengals||2003—2018||112||92||2||.549||0||6||.000||1st in AFC North, Lost all AFC Wild-Card games played|
|Lovie Smith||Chicago Bears and Tampa Bay Buccaneers||2004–2012, 2014–2015||89||87||0||.506||3||3||.500||Won 2006 NFC Championship, Lost Super Bowl XLI|
|Terry Robiskie||Washington Redskins*, Cleveland Browns*||2000, 2004||2||7||0||.222||—||—||—||3rd AFC North (with Cleveland)|
|Romeo Crennel||Cleveland Browns, Kansas City Chiefs||2005–2008, 2011–2012||28||55||0||.337||—||—||—||2nd AFC North (with Cleveland)|
|Mike Tomlin||Pittsburgh Steelers||2007–||103||57||0||.644||8||6||.571||Won Super Bowl XLIII|
|Emmitt Thomas||Atlanta Falcons*||2007||1||2||0||.333||—||—||—||4th NFC South|
|Mike Singletary||San Francisco 49ers||2008–2010||18||22||0||.462||—||—||—||2nd NFC West|
|Jim Caldwell||Indianapolis Colts and Detroit Lions||2009–2011, 2014–2017||62||50||0||.554||2||4||.333||2009 AFC Champion, Lost Super Bowl XLIV|
|Raheem Morris||Tampa Bay Buccaneers||2009–2011||17||31||0||.354||—||—||—||3rd NFC South|
|Perry Fewell||Buffalo Bills*||2009||3||4||0||.429||—||—||—||4th AFC East|
|Leslie Frazier||Minnesota Vikings||2010–2013||21||32||1||.382||0||1||.000||2nd NFC North|
|Eric Studesville||Denver Broncos*||2010||1||3||0||.250||—||—||—||4th AFC West|
|Ron Rivera||Carolina Panthers||2011–||53||42||1||.557||3||3||.500||2015 NFC Champion, Lost Super Bowl 50|
|Todd Bowles||New York Jets||2015–2018||26||41||—||.4388||—||—||—||2nd AFC East in 2015|
|Hue Jackson||Oakland Raiders and Cleveland Browns||2011, 2016–2018||11||44||1||.205||—||—||—||3rd AFC West|
|Anthony Lynn||Buffalo Bills and Los Angeles Chargers||2016, 2017–||21||12||0||.636||1||1||.500||2018 Divisional Round (2nd AFC West)|
|Vance Joseph||Denver Broncos||2017–2018||11||21||0||.344||—||—||—||3rd AFC West|
|Steve Wilks||Arizona Cardinals||2018||3||13||0||0.188||—||—||—||4th NFC West|
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