|• Mayor||José Javier Ruiz Arana PSOE|
|• Total||84 km2 (32 sq mi)|
|• Land||84 km2 (32 sq mi)|
|• Water||0.00 km2 (0.00 sq mi)|
|• Density||340/km2 (890/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
The town of Rota is a Spanish municipality located in the Province of Cádiz, Andalusia. Its surface area is 84 km2 and is bordered by the towns of Chipiona, Sanlúcar de Barrameda and El Puerto de Santa María. It is located near the city of Jerez de la Frontera and is 36 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cadiz. It had in the year 2009 28,516 inhabitants, with a density of 339 inhabitants / km2. It belongs to two associations, the Association of Municipalities of Cadiz Bay along with the municipalities of Cadiz, Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María, San Fernando, Chiclana and Puerto Real; and the Association of Municipalities of the Lower Guadalquivir that comprises municipalities of Northwest Coast of Andalusia.
Located along the Bay of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean, it is halfway between Portugal and Gibraltar, is predominantly a tourist town, a vacation/holiday destination for travelers from all over Europe. During the low season, its main business activity is the fishing industry. In the municipality is located the Naval Station Rota, which is the largest source of employment to the municipality. It also served as a transoceanic abort landing site for the Space Shuttle program.
Archaeological evidence suggests that there was a Bronze Age settlement on the present site of Rota. The current town was founded by the Phoenicians at approximately the same time as Cádiz. Rota is assumed to be the same city known as Astaroth of the Tartesian empire. It later passed to the Romans, who knew the town as Speculum Rotae.
Following the arrival of the Moors in Spain, the city became known as Rabita Rutta ("watchtower of Rota"), from which it derives its present name. In 1217 the city was raided by a group of Frisian Crusaders en route to the Holy Land. From 1248 onwards, the Moors were gradually expelled from Spain, and the city became Christian. In 1297, Sancho IV awarded the town to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán in honour of his defence of Tarifa. Later, Pérez de Guzmán gave it to his daughter, Isabel, as a wedding present when she married Fermin Ponce de León, Maestre of Alcántara and First Lord of Marchena. Construction of the Castillo de la Luna (Castle of the Moon) had begun in 1295, two years prior to the bequest to Pérez de Guzmán, as part of Sancho IV's effort to develop strong coastal defenses, especially near the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. During the Middle Ages, the town was an important port for trading with North Africa. In 1780 the 11th Duke of Arcos died without issue, and the city was rendered to the Duke of Osuna.
Rota is primarily a resort town, offering eight hotels and nearly two thousand beds. It is a summer destination for tourists from all over Europe. During the off-season, its main commercial activity centres on the fishing industry.
Rota is also the location of the Rota naval base, a joint Spanish and U.S. naval base, opened in 1955 (which also hosts U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Air Force units). It is also the usual first and last port of call for U.S. naval vessels after leaving the Mediterranean Sea. Once contributing up to 80 percent of Rota's economy directly or indirectly, the significant decrease in the American presence since about 1995, and the city's modern infrastructures that enable those remaining to commute readily from surrounding towns and cities, the base has given way to tourism as the leading source of revenue.
Rota has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with mild winters and hot summers. Rota has significant maritime influences from the Atlantic Ocean. The average temperature during the coldest month (January) is around 12 °C (54 °F) while the average temperature during the hottest month (August) is around 26 °C (79 °F). Rota is very sunny, as the annual sunshine hours are above 3,000h. The average sea temperature is around 16 °C (61 °F) during the winter and around 23 °C (73 °F) during the summer.
|Climate data for Rota averages. Rota Base Naval 1988-2021 extremes, 21 metres (69 ft)|
|Record high °C (°F)||22.6
|Average high °C (°F)||15.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.8
|Average low °C (°F)||8.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||76
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||6||5||5||5||4||1||0||0||3||6||6||7||48|
|Average relative humidity (%)||76||67||68||66||58||55||53||55||63||70||71||76||65|
|Source: Climate-data.org / AEMET|
|Source: INE (Spain)|
A traditional dish is the arranque made with chopped bread, tomatoes, green peppers, garlic, salt and olive oil. The local wine, known as tintilla, is made with dark, ripe grapes. It can be found in the numerous bodegas spread over the old town, one of them being El Gato which produces its own wine.
Spanish, Andalucian, Cádiz, and Rota gastronomic delights are many and varied. Most Spanish people enjoy dishes such as caracoles (snails), menudo (tripe soup), chicharrón (deep fried pork rinds), a variety of wines, and of course gazpacho (cold tomato soup taken as a drink).
The Foundation Ruiz Mateos delivers a biannual award called Villa de Rota in the field of the plastic arts, music and literature. This constitutes nowadays an extensive art collection which is being shown in the Museum Ruiz Mateos since opened its doors on 4 February 2005. This museum gathers a total of 102 works composed of oil paintings, watercolors, engravings and sculptures, and includes all first prizes awarded in the course of the national contests “Villa de Rota” as well as individual donations received. Among other artists, Antonio Utrera, Francisco Luque and Dominika Grisgrabed have won the contest.
Traditionally the town has four predominant parties: People's Party, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, United Left, and the local Roteños Unidos (United Rotanians). While there are occasional independent parties, the only one to successfully enter the Town Council is Roteños Unidos.
Rota has two football (soccer) teams: CD Rota and UD Roteña, and also a basketball team: C.D. Don Bosco 88.
- Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
- Villegas-Aristizábal, Lucas, "A Frisian Perspective on Crusading in Iberia as Part of the Sea Journey to the Holy Land, 1217–1218," Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, 3rd Series 15 (2018, Pub. 2021): 88-149. https://www.academia.edu/37460772/A_Frisian_Perspective_on_Crusading_in_Iberia_as_part_of_the_Sea_Journey_to_the_Holy_Land_1217_1218
- "CLIMATE ROTA - SPAIN". Climate-data.org. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- "Rota Sea Temperature". seatemperature.org. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- "CLIMATE ROTA - SPAIN". Climate-data.org. 2021. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
- Meteorología, Agencia Estatal de. "Valores extremos: Rota, Base Naval - Valores extremos absolutos - Selector - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología - AEMET. Gobierno de España". www.aemet.es (in Spanish).
- INE (Spain)
- Villa de Rota
- Museum Ruiz Mateos
- Rota municipal government, official website (in Spanish)
- VillaDeRota.com (previously ROTAcom° Web Oficial - Rota, Andalusia (Spain) On-line since 1999! News, premiere information, pictures, weather, etc. Into Spanish, English... (https://villaderota.com) (in Spanish and English)
- Rota.City Tourism website. Find out what's on in Rota City and explore the best routes, shows & events)
- U.S. Naval Station Rota Spain website
- U.S. Naval Hospital Rota Spain website