Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company House flag
|Successor||Royal Mail Lines Ltd|
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
|Industry||Shipping, cruise line|
|Predecessor||Royal Mail Steam Packet Company|
|Successor||Furness, Withy & Co.|
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was a British shipping company founded in London in 1839 by a Scot, James MacQueen. The line's motto was Per Mare Ubique (everywhere by sea). After good and bad times it became the largest shipping group in the world in 1927 when it took over the White Star Line.
The company was liquidated and its assets taken over by the newly formed Royal Mail Lines in 1932 after financial trouble and scandal; over the years RML declined to no more than the name of a service run by former rival Hamburg Süd.
History as Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
Queen Victoria granted the initial Royal Charter of Incorporation of "The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company" on 26 September 1839. In 1840 the Admiralty and the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company made a contract in which the latter agreed to provide a fleet of not fewer than 14 steam vessels for the purpose of carrying all Her Majesty's mails, to sail twice every month to Barbados in the West Indies from Southampton or Falmouth. Fourteen new steam vessels were built for the purpose: Thames, Medway, Trent, and Isis (built at Northfleet); Severn and Avon (built at Bristol); Tweed, Clyde, Teviot, Dee, and Solway (built at Greenock); Tay (built at Dumbarton); Forth (built at Leith); and Medina, (built at Cowes). In reference to their destination, these vessels were known as the West Indies Mail Steamers.
The West Indian Mail Service was established by the sailing of the first Royal Mail Steam Packet, PS Thames from Falmouth on 1 January 1841. A Supplemental Royal Charter was granted on 30 August 1851 extending the sphere of the Company's operations. In 1864, the mail service to the British Honduras was established. A further Supplemental Royal Charter was granted extending the sphere of the Company's operations on 7 March 1882.
In the decade before the First World War the RMSP modernised its fleet, introducing a series of larger liners ranging from 9,588 GRT to 15,551 GRT on its Southampton – Buenos Aires route. Each had a name beginning with the letter "A", so collectively they were called the "A-liners" or the "A-series". The first was RMS Aragon in 1905, followed by sister ships Amazon, Araguaya and Avon in 1906, Asturias in 1908, Arlanza in 1912, Andes and Alcantara in 1913 and Almanzora in 1915. Earlier members of the series, from Aragon to Asturias, had twin screws, each driven by a four-cylinder quadruple-expansion steam engine. The final four members of the series, from Arlanza to Almanzora, had triple screws, with the middle one driven by a low pressure Parsons steam turbine.
After the First World War RMSP faced not only existing foreign competition but a new UK challenger. Lord Vestey's Blue Star Line had joined the South American route and won a large share of the frozen meat trade. Then in 1926–27 Blue Star introduced its new "luxury five" ships Almeda, Andalucia, Arandora, Avelona and Avila to both increase refrigerated cargo capacity and enter the passenger trade. At the same time RMSP introduced a pair of new 22,200 GRT liners, RMS Asturias in 1926 and RMS Alcantara in 1927, which at that stage were the largest motor ships in the World. Although these were the biggest and most luxurious UK ships on the route, RMSP Chairman Lord Kylsant called Blue Star's quintet "very keen competition".
Reconstitution as Royal Mail Lines
The company ran into financial trouble, and the UK Government investigated its affairs in 1930, resulting in the Royal Mail Case. In 1931 Lord Kylsant was jailed for 12 months for misrepresenting the state of the company to shareholders. So much of Britain's shipping industry was involved in RMSPC that arrangements were made to guarantee the continuation of ship operations after it was liquidated. Royal Mail Lines Ltd (RML) was created in 1932 and took over the ships of RMSPC and other companies of the former group. The new company was chaired by Lord Essendon.
The new company's operations were concentrated on the west coast of South America, the West Indies and Caribbean, and the Pacific coast of North America; the Southampton – Lisbon – Brazil – Uruguay – Argentina route was operated from 1850 to 1980. RML was also a leading cruise ship operator.
RMS's largest vessel was the 25,895 GRT turbine steamship RMS Andes. She was designed as an ocean liner but when launched in 1939 was immediately fitted out as a troopship. She finally entered civilian liner service in 1948, was converted to full-time cruising in 1960 and was scrapped in 1971.
RMSP and RML lost a number of ships in their long history. One of the last was the 17,547 GRT turbine steamship RMS Magdalena, which was launched in 1948 and grounded and sank off Brazil on her maiden voyage in 1949.
In 1965 RML was bought by Furness, Withy & Co., and rapidly lost its identity. In the 1970s parts of the Furness Withy Group, including RML, were sold on to Hong Kong shipowner C.Y. Tung, and later sold on to former River Plate rival Hamburg Süd; by the 1990s Royal Mail Lines was no more than the name of a Hamburg-Süd refrigerated cargo service from South America to Europe.
List of RMSP Company vessels
|Trent||1841||1,856||paddle||wood||Involved in the Trent Affair between the UK and US|
|City of Glasgow||1841||1,700||paddle||wood|
|Great Western||1847||1,775||paddle||wood||Brunel's first ship|
|Amazon||1851||2,256||paddle||wood||Caught fire at sea and sank on Maiden Voyage|
|Monmouthshire||1907||5,091||screw||steel||Ex Shire Line. Renamed Tyne in 1919. Sold to Japan in 1922 and renamed Toku Maru. Scrapped in 1934,|
|Denbighshire||1907||3,844||screw||steel||Ex Shire Line. Renamed Tamar in 1919. Sold in 1923 and renamed Joyce Nancy. Resold in 1925 and renamed Sassa. Sold again the same year and renamed Argostoli. Sold once more in 1928 and renamed Avgy. Scrapped in 1930.|
|Flintshire||1907||3,815||screw||steel||Ex Shire Line. Sold in 1913 to Ellerman Lines and renamed Algerian. Mined by UC-5 on 12 January 1916.|
|Asturias||1908||12,015||screw||steel||Requisitioned for use as a hospital ship in WW!. Torpedoed by UC-66 on 20 March 1917 and beached. Subsequently salvaged for use as an ammunition hulk. Repurchased by RMSP in 1920 and refitted as a cruise ship and renamed Arcadian. Scrapped in 1933.|
|Arzila||1908||2,722||screw||steel||Ex Mersey Steamship Co. Sold in 1922 to Kehdivial Mail Line and renamed Bilbeis. Wrecked 5 March 1934.|
|Agadir||1908||2,722||screw||steel||Ex Mersey Steamship Co. Sold in 1922 to Kehdivial Mail Line and renamed Belkas. Resold in 1935 and renamed Damas. Sold again in 1940 and renamed Sakara. Requisitioned by the MoWT in WW2. Returned to KML in 1946 and scrapped in 1955.|
|Berbice||1909||2,379||screw||steel||Originally deployed on the West Indies inter-island service. Requisitioned in 1915 as a hospital ship. Sold to Mitchell Cotts & Co in 1922 and renamed Suntemple. Resold in 1924 and renamed Baltara. Wrecked in 1929.|
|Balantia||1909||2,379||screw||steel||Originally deployed on the West Indies inter-island service. Requisitioned in 1916 as a hospital ship and renamed St. Margaret of Scotland. Returned in 1918 and resumed former name. Sold in 1922 to Kehdivial Mail Line and renamed Boulac. Scrapped in 1935.|
|Deseado||1911||11,475||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Scrapped in 1934.|
|Arlanza||1912||15,044||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Returned to civilian service in 1920. Passed to RML. Scrapped in 1938.|
|Demerara||1911||11,484||screw||steel||Scrapped in 1933.|
|Desna||1912||11,484||screw||steel||Scrapped in 1933.|
|Alcala||1913||10,660||screw||steel||Ex Lamport and Holt Vauban. Returned to L&H in 1914 and resumed original name. Chartered again for a short time in 1922. Scrapped in 1932 after having been laid up for two years.|
|Andes||1913||15,620||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Renamed Atlantis in 1929 and redeployed as a cruise chip. Passed to RML. Requisitoned as a hospital ship in WW2 and retained as an emigrant ship afterwards. Scrapped in 1952.|
|Radnorshire||1913||4,302||screw||steel||Operated by Shire Line. Captured and sunk by SMS Möwe, 7 January 1917.|
|Caribbean||1913||5,824||screw||steel||Ex Union-Castle Line Dunnottar Castle. Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Foundered 27 September 1915.|
|Merionethshire||1913||4,308||screw||steel||Ex Cambrian SN Co Reptonian. Operated by Shire Line. Torpedoed and sunk by U-62, 27 May 1918.|
|Cardiganshire||1913||9,426||screw||steel||Operated by Shire Line. Requisitioned as a troopship in WW1. Sold to Christian Salvesen in 1929 and renamed Salvestria. Mined and sunk, 27 July 1940.|
|Cobequid||1913||4,738||screw||steel||Ex Union-Castle Line Goth. Stranded and wrecked, 13 January 1914.|
|Caraquet||1913||4,917||screw||steel||Ex Union-Castle Line Guelph. Ran aground on a reef and sank, 25 June 1923.|
|Alcantara||1913||15,831||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Sunk in action with SMS Greif, 29 February 1916.|
|Carnarvonshire||1913||9,406||screw||steel||Operated by Shire Line. Scrapped in 1933|
|Drina||1913||11,483||screw||steel||Ex Elder Dempster Lines. Initially requisitioned as a hospital ship but returned to RMSP. Mined and sunk, 1 March 1917.|
|Almanzora||1914||15,551||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Passed to RML. Requisitiond as troopship in WW2 then retained as an emigrant ship until 1947, Scrapped 1948.|
|Essequibo||1914||8,489||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Sold to Pacific Steam Navigation Company in 1922. Sold to USSR in 1935 and renamed Neva.|
|Ebro||1914||8,480||screw||steel||Requisitioned as an AMC in WW1. Sold to Pacific Steam Navigation Company in 1922. Resold to Jugoslavia in 1935 and renamed Princess Olga. Sold to Portugal in 1940 and renamed Serpa Pinto. Scrapped in 1954.|
|Carmarthenshire||1915||7,823||screw||steel||Scrapped in 1929.|
|Pembrokeshire||1915||7,821||screw||steel||Scrapped in 1933.|
|Larne||1916||3,808||screw||steel||Ex Aberdeen Line Ninevah, ex E&ASC Aldenham. Sold in 1917 and scrapped in 1923.|
|Brecknockshire||1916||8,422||screw||steel||Operated by Shire Line. Captured and sunk on her maiden voyage by SMS Möwe, 15 February 1915.|
|Darro||1916||11,493||screw||steel||Collided with the troopship SS Mendi 21 February 1917, the latter sank with great loss of life. Scrapped in 1933.|
|Navasota||1917||8,795||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-47, 5 December 1939.|
|Sambre||1919||5,260||screw||steel||Ex War Swift. Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-34, 27 Jul 1940.|
|Glamorganshire||1919||8,192||screw||steel||Ex War Armour. Operated by Shire Line. Scrapped in 1933|
|Nagara||1919||8,803||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-404, 29 March 1943.|
|Segura||1919||5,295||screw||steel||Ex War Pansy. Sold 1921 to Buenos Aires & Great Southern Railway. Resold in 1932 to Houlder Line and renamed Langton Grange. Sold to Greece in 1937 and renamed Nicolaos M. Embiricos. Mined and sunk 4 November 1939.|
|Somme||1919||5,265||screw||steel||Ex War Toucan. Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-108, 18 February 1942.|
|Severn||1919||5,246||screw||steel||Ex War Pelican. Sold to Greece in 1932 and renamed Leonidas II. Scrapped in 1934.|
|Radnorshire||1919||6,723||screw||steel||Ex War Diamond. Operated by Shire Line. Sold to Henry Thompson in 1931 and renamed Sithonia. Torpedoed and sunk by U-201, 13 July 1942.|
|Silarus||1919||5,101||screw||steel||Sold to G N Stathatos in 1931 and renamed Nemea. Torpedoed and sunk by the Luigi Torelli, 15 January 1941.|
|Siris||1919||5,242||screw||steel||Ex War Gem. Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-201, 12 July 1942.|
|Narenta||1919||8,266||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Sold to Japan in 1939. and renamed Kosei Maru. Torpedoed and sunk by USS Tunny, 7 April 1943.|
|Nictheroy||1920||8,265||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Sold to Lauro Lines in 1937 and renamed Cuma. Mined and sunk, 18 October 1940.|
|Orcana||1920||7,814||screw||steel||Ex Aberdeen Line Militiades. Sold to Pacific Steam Navigation Company in 1922. Scrapped in 1924.|
|Oruba||1920||7,818||screw||steel||Ex Aberdeen Line Marathon. Sold to Pacific Steam Navigation Company in 1922. Scrapped in 1924.|
|Natia||1920||8,723||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Captured and scuttled by the German raider Thor, 8 October 1940.|
|Nariva||1920||8,723||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-91, 17 Mar 1943.|
|Nebraska||1920||8,261||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-843, 8 Apri 1944.|
|Sarthe||1920||5,371||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-68, 8 October 1942.|
|Sabor||1920||5,212||screw||steel||Ex War Whale. Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-506, 7 March 1943.|
|Montgomeryshire||1921||6,650||screw||steel||Ex War Valour. Operated by Shire Line. Sold to Italy in 1931 and renamed Riv. Sunk in an air raid, 30 August 1941.|
|Lochkatrine||1921||9,419||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Torpedoed and sunk by U-552, 3 August 1942.|
|Lochgoil||1922||9,462||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Taken over by MoWT in 1939 and converted to CAM ship Empire Rowan. Torpedoed by Italian aircraft, 27 March 1943 and beached. Wreck blew up in 1951.|
|Culebra||1923||3,044||screw||steel||Ex War Mirage, ex Riposto. Passed to RML. Sunk by gunfire from U-123, 25 January 1942.|
|Orca||1923||16,063||screw||steel||Ex Pacific Steam Navigation Company. sold to White Star Line in 1927 and renamed Calgaric. Scrapped in 1934.|
|Orduña||1923||15,499||screw||steel||Ex Pacific Steam Navigation Company. Returned to PSNC in 1926 Scrapped in 1951.|
|Orbita||1923||15,486||screw||steel||Ex Pacific Steam Navigation Company. Initially chartered in 1921 then purchased in 1923. Returned to PSNC in 1926, Scrapped in 1950|
|Ohio||1923||18,940||screw||steel||Sold to White Star Line in 1927 and renamed Albertic. Scrapped in 1934.|
|Lochmonar||1923||9,412||screw||steel||Wrecked off Liverpool, 30 November 1927.|
|Asturias||1925||22,048||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Requisitioned as an AMC in WW2, later converted for use as an emigrant ship. Scrapped in 1958.|
|Alcantara||1926||22,209||screw||steel||Passed to RML. Requisitioned as an AMC in WW2, later converted as a troopship. Returned to service in 1948 and scrapped in 1958.|
List of Royal Mail Lines Vessels
This list is of the additional vessels acquired by RML in addition to those passed directly from RMSP.
|Highland Chieftain||1932 - 1958||14,131||ex Nelson Line. Sold and renamed Calpean Star|
|Highland Brigade||1932 - 1959||14,131||ex Nelson Line. Troopship in WWII. Sold and renamed Henrietta.|
|Highland Monarch||1932 - 1958||14,139||ex Nelson Line. Scrapped 1960|
|Highland Patriot||1932 - 1940||14,157||ex Nelson Line. Torpedoed and sunk by U-38 in the North Atlantic.|
|Highland Princess||1932 - 1959||14,128||ex Nelson Line Sold and renamed Marianna.|
|Nagoya||1932 - 1936||8,442||ex Nelson Line Highland Warrior. Sold and renamed Marlene.|
|Nasina||1932 - 1935||7,206||ex Nelson Line Meissonier. Sold and renamed Asmara.|
|Nela||1932 - 1946||7,206||ex Nelson Line Moliere.|
|Nalon||1932 - 1940||7,206||ex Nelson Line Murillo. Bombed and sunk off Ireland, 6 November 1940.|
|Magdalena||1948 - 1949||17,547||Sank off the coast of Brazil on Maiden Voyage.|
|Andes||1948 - 1971||25,895||Launched 1939, taken over as a troopship.|
|Amazon||1959 - 1968||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Akaroa.|
|Aragon||1959 - 1969||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Arawa.|
|Arlanza||1960 - 1969||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Aranda.|
- See Royal Mail Case for more details on RML's financial situation.
- "Royal Mail Steam Packet Company". Shipping Lines. Plimsoll.org. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Anonymous 1910
- Dodd, George (1867). Railways steamers and telegraphs: a glance at their recent progress and present state. London: W&R Chambers. pp. 159–161.
- Nicol 2001b, p. 101.
- Nicol 2001a, p. 130.
- Nicol, Stuart. "The Royal Mail Story". Users.on.net. Archived from the original on December 8, 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Nicol 2001b, p. 138.
- Nicol 2001b, pp. 162–186.
- Nicol 2001b, pp. 186–193.
- Nicol 2001a, pp. 222–241.
- The steamer Dane was running to Cape Town in 1860: Morning Chronicle, 30 November 1860 - Cape of Good Hope
- Anonymous (1910). A Link of Empire; or, 70 years of British Shipping: Souvenir of the 70th year of incorporation of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. London: Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.
- Bushell, T.A. (1958) . Royal Mail: a Centenary History of the Royal Mail Line 1839–1939. London: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd.
- Bushell, T.A. (1950). Eight Bells, Royal Mail Lines War Story 1939–1945. London: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd.
- Nicol, Stuart (2001a). MacQueen's Legacy; A History of the Royal Mail Line. 1. Brimscombe Port and Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2118-2.
- Nicol, Stuart (2001b). MacQueen's Legacy; Ships of the Royal Mail Line. 2. Brimscombe Port and Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2119-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.|
- Swiggum, Susan; Kohli, Marjorie (2 June 2009). "Royal Mail Steam Packet Company / Royal Mail Lines Limited". TheShipsList. Susan Swiggum & Stephen Morse.
- "Archival material relating to Royal Mail Steam Packet Company". UK National Archives.