Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
Royal Mail Steam Packet Company House flag
|Successor||Royal Mail Lines Ltd|
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
|Industry||Shipping, cruise line|
|Predecessor||Royal Mail Steam Packet Company|
|Successor||Furness, Withy & Co.|
The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was a British shipping company founded in London in 1839 by a Scot, James MacQueen. The line's motto was Per Mare Ubique (everywhere by sea). After good and bad times it became the largest shipping group in the world in 1927 when it took over the White Star Line.
The company was liquidated and its assets taken over by the newly formed Royal Mail Lines in 1932 after financial trouble and scandal; over the years RML declined to no more than the name of a service run by former rival Hamburg-Süd.
History as Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
Queen Victoria granted the initial Royal Charter of Incorporation of "The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company" on 26 September 1839. In 1840 the Admiralty and the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company made a contract in which the latter agreed to provide a fleet of not fewer than 14 steam vessels for the purpose of carrying all Her Majesty's mails, to sail twice every month to Barbados in the West Indies from Southampton or Falmouth. Foureteen new steam vessels were built for the purpose: Thames, Medway, Trent, and Isis (built at Northfleet); Severn and Avon (built at Bristol); Tweed, Clyde, Teviot, Dee, and Solway (built at Greenock); Tay (built at Dumbarton); Forth (built at Leith); and Medina, (built at Cowes). In reference to their destination, these vessels were known as the West Indies Mail Steamers.
The West Indian Mail Service was established by the sailing of the first Royal Mail Steam Packet, PS Thames from Falmouth on 1 January 1841. A Supplemental Royal Charter was granted on 30 August 1851 extending the sphere of the Company's operations. In 1864, the mail service to the British Honduras was established. A further Supplemental Royal Charter was granted extending the sphere of the Company's operations on 7 March 1882.
In the decade before the First World War the RMSP modernised its fleet, introducing a series of larger liners ranging from 9,588 GRT to 15,551 GRT on its Southampton – Buenos Aires route. Each had a name beginning with the letter "A", so collectively they were called the "A-liners" or the "A-series". The first was RMS Aragon in 1905, followed by sister ships Amazon, Araguaya and Avon in 1906, Asturias in 1908, Arlanza in 1912, Andes and Alcantara in 1913 and Almanzora in 1915. Earlier members of the series, from Aragon to Asturias, had twin screws, each driven by a four-cylinder quadruple-expansion steam engine. The final four members of the series, from Arlanza to Almanzora, had triple screws, with the middle one driven by a low pressure Parsons steam turbine.
After the First World War RMSP faced not only existing foreign competition but a new UK challenger. Lord Vestey's Blue Star Line had joined the South American route and won a large share of the frozen meat trade. Then in 1926–27 Blue Star introduced its new "luxury five" ships Almeda, Andalucia, Arandora, Avelona and Avila to both increase refrigerated cargo capacity and enter the passenger trade. At the same time RMSP introduced a pair of new 22,200 GRT liners, RMS Asturias in 1926 and RMS Alcantara in 1927, which at that stage were the largest motor ships in the World. Although these were the biggest and most luxurious UK ships on the route, RMSP Chairman Lord Kylsant called Blue Star's quintet "very keen competition".
Reconstitution as Royal Mail Lines
The company ran into financial trouble, and the UK Government investigated its affairs in 1930, resulting in the Royal Mail Case. In 1931 Lord Kylsant was jailed for 12 months for misrepresenting the state of the company to shareholders. So much of Britain's shipping industry was involved in RMSPC that arrangements were made to guarantee the continuation of ship operations after it was liquidated. Royal Mail Lines Ltd (RML) was created in 1932 and took over the ships of RMSPC and other companies of the former group. The new company was chaired by Lord Essendon.
The new company's operations were concentrated on the west coast of South America, the West Indies and Caribbean, and the Pacific coast of North America; the Southampton – Lisbon – Brazil – Uruguay – Argentina route was operated from 1850 to 1980. RML was also a leading cruise ship operator.
RMS's largest vessel was the 25,895 GRT turbine steamship RMS Andes. She was designed as an ocean liner but when launched in 1939 was immediately fitted out as a troopship. She finally entered civilian liner service in 1948, was converted to full-time cruising in 1960 and was scrapped in 1971.
RMSP and RML lost a number of ships in their long history. One of the last was the 17,547 GRT turbine steamship RMS Magdalena, which was launched in 1948 and grounded and sank off Brazil on her maiden voyage in 1949.
In 1965 RML was bought by Furness, Withy & Co., and rapidly lost its identity. In the 1970s parts of the Furness Withy Group, including RML, were sold on to Hong Kong shipowner C.Y. Tung, and later sold on to former River Plate rival Hamburg Süd; by the 1990s Royal Mail Lines was no more than the name of a Hamburg-Süd refrigerated cargo service from South America to Europe.
List of RMSP Company vessels
|RMS Trent||1841||1,856||paddle||wood||Involved in the Trent Affair between the UK and US|
|City of Glasgow||1841||1,700||paddle||wood|
|Great Western||1847||1,775||paddle||wood||Brunel's first ship|
|RMS Amazon||1851||2,256||paddle||wood||Caught fire at sea and sank on Maiden Voyage|
|Darro||1916||11,493||screw||steel||Collided with the troopship SS Mendi 21 February 1917. The latter sank with great loss of life.|
List of Royal Mail Lines Vessels
This list is of the additional vessels acquired by RML in addition to those passed directly from RMSP.
|Highland Chieftain||1932 - 1958||14,131||ex Nelson Line. Sold and renamed Calpean Star|
|Highland Brigade||1932 - 1959||14,131||ex Nelson Line. Troopship in WWII. Sold and renamed Henrietta.|
|Highland Monarch||1932 - 1958||14,139||ex Nelson Line. Scrapped 1960|
|Highland Patriot||1932 - 1940||14,157||ex Nelson Line. Torpedoed and sunk by U-38 in the North Atlantic.|
|Highland Princess||1932 - 1959||14,128||ex Nelson Line Sold and renamed Marianna.|
|Nagoya||1932 - 1936||8,442||ex Nelson Line Highland Warrior. Sold and renamed Marlene.|
|Nasina||1932 - 1935||7,206||ex Nelson Line Meissonier. Sold and renamed Asmara.|
|Nela||1932 - 1946||7,206||ex Nelson Line Moliere.|
|Nalon||1932 - 1940||7,206||ex Nelson Line Murillo. Bombed and sunk off Ireland, 6 November 1940.|
|Magdalena||1948 - 1949||17,547||Sank off the coast of Brazil on Maiden Voyage.|
|Andes||1948 - 1971||25,895||Launched 1939, taken over as a troopship.|
|Amazon||1959 - 1968||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Akaroa.|
|Aragon||1959 - 1969||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Arawa.|
|Arlanza||1960 - 1969||20,348||Transferred to Shaw Saville and renamed Aranda.|
- See Royal Mail Case for more details on RML's financial situation.
- "Royal Mail Steam Packet Company". Shipping Lines. Plimsoll.org. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Anonymous 1910
- Dodd, George (1867). Railways steamers and telegraphs: a glance at their recent progress and present state. London: W&R Chambers. pp. 159–161.
- Nicol 2001b, p. 101.
- Nicol 2001a, p. 130.
- Nicol, Stuart. "The Royal Mail Story". Users.on.net. Archived from the original on December 8, 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
- Nicol 2001b, p. 138.
- Nicol 2001b, pp. 162–186.
- Nicol 2001b, pp. 186–193.
- Nicol 2001a, pp. 222–241.
- The steamer Dane was running to Cape Town in 1860: Morning Chronicle, 30 November 1860 - Cape of Good Hope
- Anonymous (1910). A Link of Empire; or, 70 years of British Shipping: Souvenir of the 70th year of incorporation of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. London: Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.
- Bushell, T.A. (1958) . Royal Mail: a Centenary History of the Royal Mail Line 1839–1939. London: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd.
- Bushell, T.A. (1950). Eight Bells, Royal Mail Lines War Story 1939–1945. London: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd.
- Nicol, Stuart (2001a). MacQueen's Legacy; A History of the Royal Mail Line. 1. Brimscombe Port and Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2118-2.
- Nicol, Stuart (2001b). MacQueen's Legacy; Ships of the Royal Mail Line. 2. Brimscombe Port and Charleston, SC: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2119-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.|
- Swiggum, Susan; Kohli, Marjorie (2 June 2009). "Royal Mail Steam Packet Company / Royal Mail Lines Limited". TheShipsList. Susan Swiggum & Stephen Morse.
- "Archival material relating to Royal Mail Steam Packet Company". UK National Archives.