Saad El Shazly
|Born||1 April 1922|
Basyoun, Gharbiya, Egypt
|Died||10 February 2011 (aged 88)|
|Years of service||1942–1975|
|Commands held||Commander of the first Paratroops Battalion in Egypt (1955–1959)|
Commander of the United Arab forces in UN mission to Congo (1960–1961)
Military attaché in London (1961–1963)
Commander of the 2nd Infantry Division (1965–1966)
Commander of the Special forces Corps (Commandos & Paratroopers) (1967–1969)
Commander in chief of the Third Field Army (1970–1971)
Chief of staff of the Egyptian armed forces
|Battles/wars||World War II|
1948 Arab–Israeli War
War of Attrition
Yom Kippur War
Saad Mohamed el-Husseiny El Shazly (Arabic: سعد الدين محمد الحسيني الشاذلي, IPA: [sæʕd edˈdiːn elħoˈseːni eʃˈʃæzli]) (1 April 1922 – 10 February 2011) was an Egyptian military commander. He was Egypt's chief of staff during the October War. Following his public criticism of the Camp David Accords, he was dismissed from his post as Ambassador to Britain and Portugal, then he went to Algeria as a political refugee.
He is credited with the equipping and preparation of the Egyptian Armed Forces in the years prior to the successful capture of the Israeli Bar-Lev line at the start of the 1973 war. He was dismissed from his post on Dec 13 1973.
Six-Day War (1967)
During the Six-Day War, al-Shazly showed great merit and tactical awareness. He was positioned in the middle of Sinai with a mixed unit of one infantry battalion, two Sa'ka(Thunderbolt) battalions, and one tank battalion. Following the initial air raid and subsequent superiority of the Israeli Air Force (IAF), the Egyptian command had given a chaotic order for all of its troops to retreat westward which would cause most of them to be mopped by the IAF, especially after most communications were lost between the troops and the Egyptian command; al-Shazly, however, took the most unbelievable of chances and headed eastward through thin passages, invading Israel itself. He eventually positioned himself in the Negev desert, behind most enemy lines. This feat would have made him one of the few Arab generals to ever successfully take and hold territory inside Israel.
He stayed there with his battalions under the cover of two mountains to avoid IAF bombing for two days, the 6th and 7th of June. Finally, he succeeded in making contact with the Egyptian command which ordered him to immediately retreat west of the Suez Canal. He responded with one of the most difficult maneuvers executed in the history of the Egyptian–Israeli conflict, a night march (with mechanized units and tanks accompanying) in the desert and through enemy lines. His unit managed to cover about 60 miles of ground throughout the Sinai, without any air support or intelligence. As dawn broke, the column was spotted by Israeli aircraft, which made low-level passes, bombing and strafing his forces. Lacking anti-aircraft weaponry, his forces could only reply with machine gun and small arms fire. Over 100 of his troops were killed, but the Israeli planes eventually went off in search of other targets, and his column drove on, managing to avoid Israeli ground forces and reaching the Suez Canal. He was then the last military commander to pass from the east of the canal to the west.
In the later years, he was highly respected within the Egyptian military for his feats and was eventually granted the command of the combined paratroopers and Sa'ka Forces from which he would move on to be the chief of staff of the Egyptian army and play a major role in the Egyptian major offensive in 1973.
Yom Kippur War (1973)
The Israeli army previously made a defensive line called Bar Lev Line that was strengthened with several fortresses at the eastern bank of the Suez canal that is separating the Israeli army from the Egyptian one. it also built a sand barrier 17 meters high at the canal shores to refrain any attempt to cross the canal by the Egyptian army.
At 2 pm 6 of October 1973, Under General Shazly's command, 200 Egyptian aircraft skimmed low over the canal, headed deep into Sinai and struck the Israeli key forces, while 2000 artillery pieces opened heavy bombardment on the Bar-Lev forts and minefields, under which cover engineer reconnaissance teams paddled over to check the outlets for the Israeli inflammable liquid had been blocked from the night before. The first assault wave of 4000 men crossed the Suez Canal and opened 70 passages through the sand barrier using high pressure water pumps. Waves of infantry followed crossing the Canal and captured most of the strong points and forts of the Ber lev line. On the next day, 7 October, 5 bridges were assembled over the canal, and the armored divisions began to cross the canal into Sinai. On 8 October, the Israeli counter-attack failed to push the Egyptians back, Israel tried again on 9 October but also suffered heavy losses. Israel lost more than 260 tanks in two days.
After that initial victory, El Shazly clashed with president Sadat over Sadat's decision to launch a new offensive to advance towards Sinai Passages. General Shazly strongly opposed any eastward advance that would leave Egyptian forces exposed to IAF without adequate air cover. Sadat insisted and ordered the generals to execute the order which aimed at helping the Syrians. On October 14th, the offensive was launched but failed with heavy Egyptian losses. This may have contributed to the success of a daring Israeli operation which pushed its way west in between Egypt's second and third armies and crossed from Sinai into mainland Egypt through the Bitter Lakes. Once again president Sadat refused General Shazly's plan to move some of the Egyptian's armored brigades to fight the Israeli troops.
Positions held and medals
- Founder and Commander of the first Parachute Battalion in Egypt (1954–1959). Command of 75th Parachute Battalion during Suez Crisis.
- Commander of the United Arab battalion (Egyptian-Syrian) in the United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) (1960–1961)
- Military attaché in London (1961–1963)
- Commander of the 2nd Infantry Division (1965–1966)
- Commander of the Special forces (Commandos & Paratroopers) Corps (1967–1969)
- Commander in chief of the Red Sea Military Zone (1970–1971)
- Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces from May 1971 to December 1973.
- Ambassador to the UK
- Ambassador to Portugal
After leaving the army El Shazly wrote his account of the 1973 war.
After the 25 of January revolution in 2011 and removal of Mubarak from the Egyptian government, El Shazly was honored by putting his name on the Egyptian Military Academy graduates of the year 2013.
He was awarded the Nile Medal of Honour, Egypt's highest award, in October 2012 by President Mohammed Morsi for his conduct during the 1973 war with Israel. 
He was also honored by naming a new highway connecting the Cairo ring road to Ismailia desert road that is being built by the armed forces engineers. Aljazeera documentary channel produced a film about his life in 2012-2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saad el-Shazly.|
- Dunstan 2003, p. 33.
- The International Who's Who 2004 - Europa Publications - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- "الأخبار العربية والعالمية – Yahoo! مكتوب". News.maktoob.com. 2011-04-20. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- Dunstan 2003, p. 34.
- El Shazly, Saad (1980). The crossing of the suez (first ed.). San Francisco: American Mideast Research. ISBN 0-9604562-0-1.
- Dunsten 2003, p. 34.
- * Shazly, Lieutenant General Saad el (2003). The Crossing of the Suez, Revised Edition (Revised ed.). American Mideast Research. ISBN 0-9604562-2-8.
- http://gate.ahram.org.eg/News/314737.aspx al-Ahram newspaper 28 February 2013
- "Morsi grants Sadat & El-Shazli highest medal for October War 'victory' - Politics - Egypt - Ahram Online". english.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 2018-01-09.