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This article is about the mythical Persian hero. For the warship, see Iranian frigate Alvand. For the warship class, see Alvand class frigate.

Sām /sɑːm/ (سام), also transliterated Saam is a mythical hero of ancient Persia, and an important character in the Shahnameh epic. He was the son of Nariman, grandson of Garshasp and father to Zāl. He was Iran's champion during the rule of Fereydun, Manuchehr and Nowzar. He was appointed by Manuchehr to rule Zabulistan (Sistan), and then Mazandaran. After Manuchehr, because of Nowzar's corrupted and failed rulership, Iranian champions asked Sām to rule Iran. Sām didn't accept, he supported Nowzar and advised him to follow Fereydun and Manuchehr. Sām returned to Mazandaran, and died soon after that. Afrasiab then attacked Zabulistan.

The name Sām is equivalent to the Avestan name 'Saama', which means dark and Sanskrit 'Shyaama' which means the same.[1]


  1. ^ "UNKNOWN TITLE" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-09-26. [dead link]

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