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Khosrow and Shirin

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Khosrow Parviz's first sight of Shirin, bathing in a pool, in a manuscript of Nezami's poem. This is a famous moment in Persian literature.
The Sasanian King Khusraw and Courtiers in a Garden, Page from a manuscript of the Shahnama of Ferdowsi, late 15th-early 16th century. Brooklyn Museum.
Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing, From Pictorial Cycle of Eight Poetic Subjects, mid 18th century. Brooklyn Museum

Khosrow and Shirin (Persian: خسرو و شیرین) is the title of a famous tragic romance by the Persian poet Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209), who also wrote Layla and Majnun. It tells a highly elaborated fictional version of the story of the love of the Sasanian king Khosrow II for the Christian Shirin, who becomes queen of Persia.[1][2][3][4] The essential narrative is a love story of Persian origin which was already well known from the great epico-historical poem the Shahnameh and other Persian writers and popular tales, and other works have the same title.[5]

Variants of the story were also told under the title, "Shirin and Farhad" (Persian: شیرین و فرهاد).

Plot[edit]

Nizami's version begins with an account of Khosrow's birth and his education. This is followed by an account of Khosrow's feast in a farmer's house; for which Khosrow is severely chastised by his father. Khosrow asks forgiveness and repents his offence. Hormizd IV, who is now pleased with his son, forgives him. That very night, Khosrow sees his grandfather Anushirvan in a dream and Anushirvan gives him glad tidings of a wife named Shirin, a steed named Shabdiz, a musician named Barbad, and a great kingdom, that is Iran.

Shapur, Khosrow's close friend and a painter, tells Khosrow of the Armenian queen Mahin Banu and her niece Shirin. Hearing Shapur's descriptions of Shirin's flawless features, the young prince falls in love with Shirin, the Armenian princess. Shapur travels to Armenia to look for Shirin. Shapur finds Shirin and shows the image of Khosrow to Shirin. Shirin falls in love with Khosrow and escapes from Armenia to Khosrow's capital Mada'in; but meanwhile, Khosrow also flees from his father's anger and sets out for Armenia in search of Shirin.

On the way, he finds Shirin unclothed bathing and washing her flowing hair; Shirin also sees him; but since Khosrow was traveling in peasant clothes, they do not recognize one another. Khosrow arrives in Armenia and is welcomed by Shamira - and he finds out that Shirin is in Mada'in. Again, Shapur is sent to bring Shirin. When Shirin reaches Armenia, Khosrow – because of his father's death - has to return to Mada'in. The two lovers keep travelling to opposite places until Khosrow is overthrown by a general named Bahrām Chobin and flees to Armenia.

In Armenia, Khosrow finally meets Shirin and is welcomed by her. Shirin, however, does not agree to marry Khosrow; unless Khosrow first claims his country back from Bahrām Chobin. Thus, Khosrow leaves Shirin in Armenia and goes to Constantinople. The Caesar agrees to assist him against Bahrām Chobin on condition that he marry his daughter Mariam. Khosrow is also forced to promise not to marry any one else as long as Mariam is alive. Khosrow succeeds in defeating his enemy and reclaims his throne. Mariam, out of jealousy, keeps Khosrow away from Shirin.

Meanwhile, a sculptor named Farhad falls in love with Shirin and becomes Khosrow's love-rival. Khosrow cannot abide Farhad, so he sends him as an exile to Behistun mountain with the impossible task of carving stairs out of the cliff rocks. Farhad begins his task hoping that Khosrow will allow him to marry Shirin. Yet, Khosrow sends a messenger to Farhad and gives him false news of Shirin's death. Hearing this false news, Farhad throws himself from the mountaintop and dies. Khosrow writes a letter to Shirin, expressing his regret for Farhad's death. Soon after this incident, Mariam also dies. According to Ferdowsi's version, it was Shirin who secretly poisoned Mariam. Shirin replies to Khosrow's letter with another satirical letter of condolences.

Khosrow, before proposing marriage to Shirin, tries to get intimate with another woman named Shekar in Isfahan, which further delays the lovers' union. Finally, Khosrow goes to Shirin's castle to see her. Shirin, seeing that Khosrow is drunk, does not let him into the castle. She particularly reproaches Khosrow for his intimacy with Shekar. Khosrow, sad and rejected, returns to his palace.

Shirin eventually consents to marry Khosrow after several romantic and heroic episodes. Yet, Shiroyeh, Khosrow's son from his wife Mariam, is also in love with Shirin. Shiroyeh finally murders his father and sends a messenger to Shirin conveying that after one week, she would have to marry him. Shirin, in order to avoid marrying Shiroyeh, kills herself. Khosrow and Shirin were buried together in the same grave.

Popularity in Persian literature[edit]

Khosrow Parviz and Shirin in a miniature

There are many references to the legend throughout the poetry of other Persian poets including Farrokhi, Qatran, Mas'ud-e Sa'd-e Salman, Othman Mokhtari, Naser Khusraw, Anwari and Sanai. Nizam al-Mulk mentioned that the legend was a popular story in his era.[6]

Nizami's version[edit]

Although the story was known before Nizami, it was brought to its greatest romantic height by him. Unlike the Shahnameh, which focuses on the history, kingship and battles of Khosrow, Nizami decided to focus on the romantic aspect of the story.


Nizami Ganjavi (1141–1209) himself considered it the sweetest story in the world:

The tale of Khosraw and Shirin is well known
And by Truth, there is no sweeter story than it.

It is believed to be one of the best works of Nizami. His first wife Afaq died after it was completed.[7] Many versions of Nizami's work have been retold. The story has a constant forward drive with exposition, challenge, mystery, crisis, climax, resolution, and finally, catastrophe.

Besides Ferdowsi, Nizami's poem was influenced by Asad Gorgani and his "Vis and Rāmin",[8] which is of the same meter and has similar scenes. Nizami's concern with astrology also has a precedent in the elaborate astrological description of the night sky in Vis and Ramin. Nizami had a paramount influence on the romantic tradition, and Gorgani can be said to have initiated much of the distinctive rhetoric and poetic atmosphere of this tradition, with the absence of the Sufi influences, which are seen in Nizami's epic poetry.

Influence[edit]

According to the Encyclopædia Iranica: "The influence of the legend of Farhad is not limited to literature, but permeates the whole of Persian culture, including folklore and the fine arts. Farhad's helve supposedly grew into a tree with medicinal qualities, and there are popular laments for Farhad, especially among the Kurds (Mokri)."[6]

In 2011, the Iranian government's censors refused permission for a publishing house to reprint the centuries-old classic poem that had been a much-loved component of Persian literature for 831 years. While the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance offered no immediate official explanation for refusing to permit the firm to publish their eighth edition of the classic, the Islamic government's concerns reportedly centered on the "indecent" act of the heroine, Shirin, in embracing her husband.[9]

Orhan Pamuk's novel My Name Is Red (1998) has a plot line between two characters, Shekure and Black, which echoes the Khosrow and Shirin story, which is also retold in the book. The novel uses the Turkish spelling of Khosrow's name, Hüsrev.

Other versions[edit]

The tale has been retold by countless Sufi poets and writers in areas which were previously part of the Persian Empire or had Persian influences, such as the northern parts of the neighbouring Indian subcontinent. In Europe, the story was told by Hungarian novelist Mór Jókai. However, the story is usually told under the name of "Shirin Farhad". The story has also become a standard tale in traditional Punjabi Qisse and Bengali Kissa.[10][11] The story has been filmed numerous times including: 1926,[12] 1929,[13] 1931,[14] 1934,[15] 1945,[16] 1948,[17] 1956 starring Madhubala and Pradeep Kumar,[18][19] 1970,[20] 1975[21] and 1978.[22]

The tale was used as the inspiration for a 2008 Iranian film, Shirin, made by Abbas Kiarostami. In this formally unusual film, the story is told via the reactions of an audience of Iranian women as they sit watching the film in a cinema. The viewer has to divine the story by only ever seeing these emoting faces and listening to the film's soundtrack.

The story was also referenced in the Jonathan Richman and the Modern Lovers song "Shirin & Fahrad".

The tale was also an inspiration for the 2012 Bollywood romantic comedy film, Shirin Farhad Ki Toh Nikal Padi.[19]

Illustrations[edit]

Depictions of Khosrow and Shirin take many different forms, with many depictions coming from adapted versions of Nizami's story that have achieved great popularity.[23] These other illustrations are influenced by European styles of art and the variations in text to picture interpretations are reflections of previous artistic deviations from Nizami's story.

Illustrated Adaptations[edit]

The story was especially popular at the Ottoman court during the reign of Bayezid II. There were five illustrated copies produced by the artist Şeyhi titled Hüsrev ve Şirin, one of which was produced in 1498 CE.[24] Nizami's illustrations for Khosrow and Shirin were likely the inspiration for these copies as Şeyhi's plot was closely related to Nizami's. [24]

Another illustrated copy is a poem by Hatifi with illustrations by Sūzī. Although Hatifi's plot does not closely follow Nizami's or Şeyhi's, the illustrations are typical of Nizami's story. [24] Sūzī's depictions showcase a mixture of Persian and Ottoman artistic style. It is one of the few manuscripts that researchers are confident was made during Bayezid II's reign (1481 - 1512). [24]

An adaptation that also gained widespread popularity is the Khamsa of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi. Dihlavi composed his Khamsa around the 13th to 14th century.[23] The Khamsa follows the plot of Nizami's story, but also deviates from the original in some parts.[23]

Hatifi's Poem and Ottoman influence[edit]

Hatifi's poem takes inspiration from Nazimi's story, but with some new scenes added in and some other scenes cut out. The illustrated copy of Hatifi's poem dates from the reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II, a celebrated patron of the arts. There are a total of 6 miniatures in the manuscript.[24] The colophon indicates that the author, who went by the pseudonym Sūzī, meaning "burning one", [25]copied the entire text as well as painted the illustrations by themselves.[24]

Figure.1

Kusraw and Shirin frontispiece by Suzi Medium: Ink, watercolor, gold on paper Date:1498–99

Collection: Islamic Art at the Met
Single-volume Qur'an

Medium: ink, gold and opaque watercolour on paper Date: 1480 and 1500

Collection: The Khalili Collections

Early Ottoman artistic influence is visible when looking at the illustrated miniatures. The manuscript starts with a double frontispiece (figure 1) that resembles the first pages in luxury Qur'ans produced at the time, albeit less elaborate. Within the bands, there are 8 medallions, each of which contains a verse from the text. Between each gold medallion are clouds, which were typical of the Ottoman artistic style.[24]

Figure 2.Shirin looks at Khusraw's image by Suzi   Medium: ink, watercolor, and gold on paper   Date:1498–99   Collection: Islamic Art at the Met

We also see influences of Ottoman court in the depiction of Shīrīn viewing Khosrow's picture from her room (figure 2) . The balconies and curved, leaded roofs of the palace building exemplify the Ottoman architectural style and so do the arched openings and iron grilles on the garden walls. Furthermore, although not consistent throughout all the miniatures, this scene has demonstrations of perspective and shadowing.[24] The right wall and roof of the palace is slightly darker than that of the left side wall, implying that light must be coming from the left side of the painting. This incorporation of realism is distinctly Ottoman, with Persian art styles typically foregrounding idealism and romanticism. [26]

Amir Khusrau Dihlavi's Khamsa[edit]

Dihlavi's Khamsa was produced in Iran in the year 1599 CE.[23] Mu'izz al-Din Husayn Langari was the scribe that copied the manuscript.[23] After the 16th century, it was widely copied and illustrated in Iran and India.[23] One scene that was illustrated differently in Persia and India was that of Shirin visiting Farhad at work.

In the Persian depiction of Dihlavi's manuscript, Farhad wants Shirin to visit him but is simultaneously tormented by her visits due to his love for her. In the illustration, Farhad crouches on the left side of the illustration while Shirin is placed on the right side, riding in on her famous black horse. She dons a headdress and an orange coat over her blue gown.[23]

In the Mughal illustration, Shirin rides in on her black horse from the left side of the illustration while Farhad stands on the right side.[23] Although different in structure, slight details remain the same between the Persian and Mughal illustrations. For example, the outfit Shirin wears in the Persian illustration, headdress, orange robe, and blue gown, is also present in the Mughal illustration. However, it is not Shirin that dons this outfit, but rather her attendant that does.[23] The similarity in details between the Mughal and Persian copies gives insight into the kind of access that the Mughal painters had to the Persian illustration. Such specific details regarding Shirin's outfit could not have been passed between artists via verbal communication. Thus, it is possible that the Mughal artists were able to view the Persian illustrations in a library before starting their own adaptations. [23]

One scene that deviates from Nizami's story is that of Khusrau giving false news to Farhad. [23] Khusrau hears of Farhad's love for Shirin and devises a plan to tell him that Shirin is dead. In both versions, this message causes Farhad to commit suicide. In Nizami's version, Khusrau already knows Farhad's intentions and sends the messenger with the false news.[23] However, in Dihlavi's version, Khusrau is unsure of Farhad's love and visits him while disguised as a shepherd. [23]Only after the visit does Khusrau send the false news of Shirin's death.[23] In the illustration of this scene, there are similarities between the Persian illustration of Dihlavi's version and Nizami's illustrations. Dihlavi's illustration shows Khusrau dressed in a bonnet and with a walking stick. [23]The structure of this scene is very comparable to Nizami's. Khusrau is in such a similar outfit and position as that of the messenger in Nizami's illustration that one could mistake him for a messenger. [23]

Figure 3.Khusraw discovers Shirin bathing in a pool by Murshid al-Shirazi Medium: Ink, watercolor, and gold on paper   Date: Mid 16th century   Collection: Eugene Fuller Memorial Collection at Seattle Art Museum

Variations In Common Scenes Illustrated[edit]

Illustrations of Shirin Bathing[edit]

There are a few common scenes from the epic love story that are chosen by artists to illustrate over and over. One particular scene is that of Khosrow stumbling upon Shīrīn bathing. The variations in depictions of the same scene demonstrate influences of other art styles and stylistic choices of each illustrator. The type of body of water Shīrīn bathes varies across different artists. In Nizami's text, Khosrow accidentally sees Shīrīn bathing when he rides by a pool of water in disguise. Shīrīn is alone aside from her famous black horse.

One depiction of the scene hangs in the Seattle Art Museum and is titled Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing in a Pool. The painting comes from calligrapher Murshid al-Shirazi from the mid-16th century (figure 3).[27]  Staying faithful to Nizami's text, her horse is black and she is unaccompanied. In this depiction, Khusraw has a hand up to his mouth to showcase his awe of Shīrīn's beauty. [27] Although now tarnished to a dull grayish black, the water was originally a bright silver color. There is a sense of intimacy in this scene due to the languid way Shīrīn's clothes hang from the tree branch. The materials used, watercolor, ink, gold, and paper, were typical of Persian illustrations.[28] In this version, Murshid al-Shirazi decided to place Shīrīn in a river.

Figure 4.Khusrau Catches Sight of Shirin Bathing by Shaikh Zada   Date: 1524–25 CE   Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper   Collection: Islamic Art at the Met

A second illustration, titled Khusrau Catches Sight of Shirin Bathing, by Shaikh Zada is from 1524 CE (figure 4). Made in present day Afghanistan, its materials include watercolor, ink, and gold on paper.[29] Shīrīn is alone aside from her horse while Khusrau has his hand raised to his mouth. Her clothes are left hanging on a tree branch. Art historian, Abolala Soudavar, believes that Khusrau is actually a portrait of Hosayn Khān, the patron of the manuscript for which this illustration was produced.[30]  In this illustration, Shīrīn is shown bathing in a stream rather than a river.

A third depiction, titled Shirin Before Her Bath, comes from an artist named Kamal from 1580 CE. It centralizes Shīrīn by not including Khosrow at all (figure 5). This stylistic choice reflected the common practice in the late 16th and 17th century to show Shīrīn alone.[31] Its materials are similar to Murshid al-Shirazi's illustration and include watercolor, ink, and gold on paper.[31] In this illustration, Shīrīn is preparing for a bath at a pond rather than a stream or river.

Figure 5.Shiring Before her Bath by Kamal   Medium: watercolor, ink, gold on paper   Date: 1580-90     Collection: The Aga Khan Museum

A fourth painting of the scene, titled Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing, comes from an unknown artist from the 18th century. Khosrow is in his princely attire, rather than in disguise, and Shīrīn's horse is silver and brown, instead of black (figure 6) . These deviations from Nizami's text are all perpetuations of previous miniatures. However, the painter of this miniature decided to add three extra people to the scene, disrupting the intimacy between the two lovers in the text.[32] Although the lack of perspective in the illustration is a sign of Persian miniature art style,[33] the muted colors, use of chiaroscuro, and materials (oil on canvas) all show the influence of European artistry. In this illustration, the painter decided to portray Shīrīn bathing in a pond.

Illustrations of Shirin visiting Farhad[edit]

Another scene that is commonly illustrated is that of Shirin visiting Farhad in the mountains. As mentioned above, the scenes from Nizami and Dihlavi's stories were widely illustrated. One such illustration is located in the Princeton University Special Collections. This illustration is part of a manuscript by Dihlavi from 1524.[34] In this version the color palette is dull and almost monochrome aside from a few colorful patches.[35]Shirin rides visits Farhad on a black horse and wears a white headdress. The milker (Farhad was creating a channel of milk to Shirin's palace) wears a turban. Shirin is depicted with lush hair and a round face. She seems to be staring right at Farhad.[35]

Figure 6.Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing by unknown artist   Medium: Oil on canvas   Date: Mid 18th century   Collection: Arts of the Islamic World at Brooklyn Museum
Figure 7.Shirin Visiting Farhad/ Lewis P 265  Date: Early 20th Century   Collection: Free Library of Philadelphia

A depiction of the same scene, from the rare books department of the Free Library of Philadelphia, has the same overall structure as that of the Princeton illustration (figure 7). This illustration is from the early 1900s and was an imitation of a Safavid painting.[36] However, there are differences in color and dress. The use of color in this illustration is bountiful and not at all monochromatic.[35] Shirin rides in on a dappled horse and instead of a headdress, she wears a golden crown.[35] The milker, who is also present in this illustration, wears a cap instead of a turban.[35] Shirin is depicted slightly slimmer in this version and seems to be looking above Farhad, rather than right at him. [35]

An illustration of a similar scene is from a manuscript of Nizami's story. Titled Shirin Visits Farhad at Mount Bisutun, it was created in 1527 in Iran. Its materials include the typical Persian tools of watercolor, gold, ink, and paper.[37]  The scene depicts the moment before Khusrau delivers the false new of Shirin's death to Farhad. Shirin is astride a black horse and hands Farhad a jug of milk.[37]



See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Encyclopædia Iranica ("Ḵosrow o Širin" Archived 2020-11-17 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Iranica, Paola Orsatti)"Two traditions soon formed around the figure of Širin: one in her favor, with its roots in Armenia and in the Christian regions of the Caucasus, where, as we have seen, Neẓāmi found his source; and the second, represented in the Šāh-nāma, where Širin is shown as a woman of humble origin and ill repute, who makes merciless use of poison (in Ferdowsi, Širin, wrought with jealousy, poisons Maryam)."
  2. ^ The Encyclopædia Iranica ("Farhad" Archived 2020-11-08 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Iranica, Heshmat Moayyad)
  3. ^ The Khuzistan Chronicle, written by a Syriac Christian from Khuzistan (Beth Huzaye in Aramaic/Syriac) [Iran], probably in 680, is described as the Syriac counterpart of the Armenian work of Sebeos. We read about the relationship between the bishop Isho Yahb and the Persian king Khosrau II Parvez (590–628): "Isho Yahb was treated respectfully throughout his life, by the king himself and his two Christian wives Shirin the Aramean and Mary the Roman". (Theodor. Nöldeke: Die von Guidi herausgegebene syrische Chronik, Wien 1893, p. 10.) The Chronicle of Séert (Siirt) is an anonymously authored historiographical text written by the Nestorian Church in Persia and the Middle East, possibly as early as the 9th century AD. The text deals with ecclesiastical, social, and political issues of the Christian church giving a history of its leaders and notable members. LVIII. – History of Khosrau Parvez, son of Hormizd "Khosrau, by gratitude for Maurice, ordered to rebuild churches and to honor the Christians. He built himself two churches for Marie (Maryam) and a large church and a castle in the country of Beth Lashpar for his wife Shirin, the Aramean." (Patrologia Orientalis, Tome VII. – Fascicule 2, Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de Séert), Seconde Partie (1), publiée et traduite par Mgr Addai Scher, Paris 1911, Published Paris : Firmin-Didot 1950 p. 467.)
  4. ^ Johan Christoph Burgel & Christine van Ruyuymbeke, "Nizami: A Key to the Treasure of the Hakim ", Amsterdam University Press, 2011. pg 145: "Shirin is presented as an Armenian princess
  5. ^ Chelkowski, P. "Nezami's Iskandarnameh:"in Colloquio sul poeta persiano Nizami e la leggenda iranica di Alessandro magno, Roma,1977). pp 10: "The Persian legend of Alexander the Great seems to overshadow all of the other fantastic Alexander stories not only in the tale of the successful accomplishment of many a "mission-impossible" but especially concerning the nature of his career. In Iran he rose from the stature of a damned evil conqueror of the country, to that of a national Iranian hero king, and even more, to that of the great prophet of God, preparing all the nations for the true religion. Yet the Persian legend of Alexander is very little known in the Western world."" pp 13: "Nizami was a typical product of the Iranian culture. He created a bridge between Islamic Iran and pre-Islamic Iran and also between Iran and the whole ancient world. His great humanism, strong character, sensibility, drama, colorful description of nature, rich language, and the poetic genius created a new standard of literary achievements and captured the imagination of countless imitators". pg 17: "In the case of previous romances of Khosraw and Bahram, Nizami dealt with national Iranian heroes, though from pre-Islamic times. In the tale of Layla and Majnun, the Arab nationality of the lover is of no importance since the story is based on a simple Arab folktale which was later absorbed and embellished by the Persians". pp 19: "Alexander was glorified by a small minority of the Muslims as a divine agent, a prophet-king and the blessed conqueror of the lands that were to become the stronghold of Islam. To some Muslims, Islam was a realization of Alexander's "koine" --- a commonwealth where people could live in harmony and in peace of heart and mind. In this atmosphere attempts were made to make out of Alexander not only a Muslim but a Persian as well". pg 21: "However, it was not Tabari directly, but Ferdowsi who was Nizami's source of inspiration and material in composing Iskandarnameh. Nizami constantly alludes to the Shahnameh in his writing, especially in the prologue to the Iskandarnameh. It seems that he was always fascinated by the work of Firdawsi and made it a goal of his life to write an heroic epic of the same stature. pg22: "It seems that Nezami's favorite pastime was reading Firdawsi's monumental epic Shahnameh (The book of Kings)". pg 22: "In fact, although Alexander conquered Iran, he was soon conquered by Persian customs and ways of life. In many aspects he was so overwhelmed by Persian civilization that he became more Persian than the Persians. He tried to make a blend of the Greek and Persian civilization."
  6. ^ a b Heshmat Moayyad (1999-12-15). "Farhad". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  7. ^ Lornejad, Siavash; Doostzadeh, Ali (2012). Asatrian, Garnik (ed.). "ON THE MODERN POLITICIZATION OF THE PERSIAN POET NEZAMI GANJAVI" (PDF). Yerevan Series For Oriental Studies. 1: 208.
  8. ^ Dick Davis (2005-01-06). "Vis o Rāmin". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  9. ^ Recknagel, Charles (19 August 2011). "Iranian Censors' Heavy Hand Falls On A Persian Classic". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  10. ^ A poetic legend retold Archived 2020-02-10 at the Wayback Machine. Mahmood Awan. Academy of the Punjab in North America.
  11. ^ Islam, Sirajul (2012). "Kissa". In Islam, Sirajul; Miah, Sajahan; Khanam, Mahfuza; Ahmed, Sabbir (eds.). Banglapedia: the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Online ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: Banglapedia Trust, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. ISBN 984-32-0576-6. OCLC 52727562. OL 30677644M. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  12. ^ Shirin Farhad (1926) at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  13. ^ "Shirin Khushrau (1929)". Indiancine.ma.
  14. ^ Ashish Rajadhyaksha; Paul Willemen (2014). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-135-94325-7.
  15. ^ شیرین و فرهاد (فیلم ۱۳۱۳) Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine sourehcinema.com (Persian language)
  16. ^ Shirin Farhad (1945) at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  17. ^ "Aaj ka Farhad". Cinemaazi. Retrieved 2021-05-05.
  18. ^ "Shirin Farhad (1956)". Indiancine.ma.
  19. ^ a b Filippo Carlà-Uhink; Anja Wieber (2020). Orientalism and the Reception of Powerful Women from the Ancient World. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-350-05011-2.
  20. ^ Ferhat ile Şirin at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  21. ^ Shirin Farhad (1975) at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  22. ^ Bir Aşk Masalı at IMDb Edit this at Wikidata
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Brend, Barbara (2013). "From Persia and Beyond: a discussion of the illustrations to a Khamsa of Amir Khusrau Dihlavi in the State Library of Victoria" (PDF). La Trobe Journal. 91: 97–107.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Yoltar-Yildirim, Ayşin (2005-03-22). "A 1498–99 Khusraw va Shīrīn: Turning the Pages of an Ottoman Illustrated Manuscript". Muqarnas Online. 22 (1): 95–109. doi:10.1163/22118993_02201006. ISSN 0732-2992.
  25. ^ "Hatifi | Khusrau and Shirin". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  26. ^ Mesineh, Maryam (November 2017). "A Comparative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Evolution of Miniature in Safavid and Ottoman Periods". International Journal of Cultural and Social Studies (IntJCSS). 3.
  27. ^ a b "Folio from a Khamsa (Quintet) by Nizami (d.1209); recto: text; verso: illustration: Khusraw sees Shirin bathing". Smithsonian's National Museum of Asian Art. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  28. ^ "Transforming Discolored Pigments in a 16th-Century Persian Watercolor | Yale University Art Gallery". artgallery.yale.edu. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  29. ^ "Nizami | "Khusrau Catches Sight of Shirin Bathing", Folio 50 from a Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami of Ganja". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  30. ^ Soudavar, Abolala (2016). Reassessing Early Safavid Art and History, Thirty Five Years after Dickson & Welch 1981. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-329-97615-3.
  31. ^ a b "Shirin Before Her Bath, AKM422, The Aga Khan Museum". Aga Khan Museum. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  32. ^ "Khusraw Discovers Shirin Bathing (article)". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  33. ^ Dimand, M. S. (1935). "Persian and Indian Miniature Paintings". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 30 (12): 248–250. doi:10.2307/3255244. ISSN 0026-1521.
  34. ^ Amīr Khusraw Dihlavī (1524). [Khamsah] (in Persian).
  35. ^ a b c d e f Simpson, Marianna Shreve (2008). "Mostly Modern Miniatures: Classical Persian Painting in the Early Twentieth Century". Muqarnas. 25: 359–395. ISSN 0732-2992.
  36. ^ "OPenn: Lewis P 265 Illustration of Shirin Visiting Farhad". openn.library.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2024-04-19.
  37. ^ a b "Remastered | AKM270 Fol. 81r | Aga Khan Museum". remastered.agakhanmuseum.org. Retrieved 2024-04-19.

External links[edit]