Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio
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|Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio|
|Comune di Sant'Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio|
|Province / Metropolitan city||Catanzaro (CZ)|
|• Total||20 km2 (8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||312 m (1,024 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2013)|
|• Density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||Saint Andrew the apostle|
|Saint day||30 November|
- 1 Geographical position
- 2 History
- 2.1 The territories of the Ionian Sea in the greek-Roman period and the early Middle Ages
- 2.2 Birth of the country
- 2.3 The middle Ages
- 2.4 The period from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century
- 2.5 The eighteenth century
- 2.6 The nineteenth century
- 3 Churches and chapels
- 3.1 St. Nicholas of Cammerota
- 3.2 Church of the Assumption in the Field
- 3.3 Church of All Saints (also known as Saint Catherine of Alexandria)
- 3.4 St. Andrew the Apostle
- 3.5 Saints Peter and Paul
- 3.6 Santa Maria in Arce
- 3.7 San Nicola
- 3.8 Sacred Heart of Jesus
- 3.9 Church of St. Andrew marine
- 3.10 Palace Chapel Scoppa
- 3.11 Chapel of Purgatory
- 3.12 Temple of Santa Barbara
- 3.13 San Rocco
- 3.14 Chapel of the Villa of the Fraternity
The position: The boundaries of the town of Sant'Andrea on the north by the river Alaca. on the east by the Ionian Sea, on the south by the river Salùbro and west by the foothills of the Apennines Calabro with mountains Lancina, Mancipa, Pecoraro. The village lies in the hills of La Maddalena, and Lipantana Cerasia.
The altitude:The territory of the country, currently, the level of the sea with Andrew Marina and reaches an altitude of 1,100 m above sea level Sant'Andrea higher, at the Municipal House, which is located 330 m above sea level
Administration: MAYOR: Nicola Ramogida
The territories of the Ionian Sea in the greek-Roman period and the early Middle Ages
During the period of Ancient Greece the region was rich and prosperous. The Romans defeated Pirro (275 BC), the occupied territories and ionic this occupation marked the economic decline of the same territories. The Ionian populations, when Hannibal entered Italy (218 BC), sided with the Carthaginians. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians, raged against the people who had helped Hannibal. The lands, to the dispersion of the population and the poor economic conditions of the same population, became estates in the hands of the great Roman families.
During the low Empire they were built a castle, the Cocinto, in defense of the barbarian invasions. No one knows for certain where the castle arise. Some localized ancient Cecina, today Satriano, others on the tip of stylus, for others, finally, in today's St. Andrew and the remains of the Roman fort would be built the castle of the sixteenth century.
The large estates, meanwhile, with its economy based on the exploitation of the territory, led, in time, the abandonment of many villages by the local population and consequently the land came to be progressively covered with natural vegetation. The area between the rivers and Alaca Salubro until the ninth century was, therefore, unkempt and wild. The mountains were covered with rich forests of oak, beech and other wild plants; hilly areas towards the marina, however, were for green shrubs like blueberries, strawberry.
Birth of the country
The legend of the shepherd Adriano
It is said that the first nucleus of the village dates back around the year one thousand and would have been born around the modest home of a herdsman, a native of Badolato, named Adriano. News partly historical and partly altered combined with fantastic inventions popular report that the herdsman Adriano bring his flock to pasture towards the area of the country. When winter was unable to return to Badolato for river floods Salubro stopped at a hut he had built. The hut was to become, later, a modest home and around this house would arise other houses to form a small house, the nucleus of today's St. Andrew.
The historical reality
In fact in the eighth century, following the iconoclastic persecution (Iconoclasm), many monks of St. Basil, widespread in the Middle East and Greece, took refuge in Sicily. To escape to the Arabs who own the eighth century the Basilian conquered the island were forced to move in Calabria coming over the hills of the Ionian and Tyrrhenian coasts. In the Ionian zone they withdrew many Byzantine monks and settled in Monasterace, Stilo and in several other places of the Ionian zone. A small group settled on the slope of a hill between the rivers and Alaca Salubro a fact some ruins of a Basilian monastery and as can testify the ruins of the church of San Nicola and some walls at the Villa Condò.
Towards the end of the tenth century the Saracen raids and incursions Norman did flee populations from the coast to take refuge in the highest places. The foundation of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian, according to some authors, should go back to a period between 981 and 1010, by the Greek-Byzantine fleeing a farm house and a monastery located near the Assi river, in territory of Monasterace, plundered by the Saracens and destroyed by the Normans. The house was named St. Andrew sull'Assi. The fugitives, together with the Basilian monastery of San Nicola have founded, well, the house of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian Sea. The new house was born as a farmhouse belonging to the territory of Badolato.
The middle Ages
In 1044 the Normans arrived in Calabria and also the territory of St. Andrew came under their domination, along with the house. The territory acquired great importance when near the hamlet of Sant'Andrea was built the Grange of the Certosa di San Bruno. In the period from the year Thousand until 1400 the territory of Saint Andrew was under the rule of the Normans and then the Swabians. With the end of the Swabian house in 1266 he followed a long period during which the southern states were disputed, with mixed success from the Anjou and the Aragonese. Of great importance in the long run this will be, for the territory of St. Andrew, the events related to the Certosa di San Bruno Grange.
La Grange among the Carthusians and Cistercians
The Carthusians of Serra San Bruno and the Grange
In 1156, Malgerio Altavilla, son of Norman Hugh, after the Basilian monks had left the territory of St. Andrew, granted the church of St. Nicholas, its assets and the farmhouse to the Carthusian monks who lived in the Carthusian monastery founded by St. Bruno in the area of the town of Serra San Bruno. The donation was also included the adjoining hamlet of Basilian origin. According to other sources the Carthusians have founded, in 1131, at the house a "granary" which in time will become the building Scoppa. The term "Grange" indicates "an addiction to a Carthusian monastery, with one or more of a cell where they find lodging one or more monks to treat the assets of Cenobio". La Grange would thus become the center of social life of the house. Near the grange he was also erected the first mother church of Sant'Andrea, dedicated to St. Catherine of Alexandria.
In 1192 the Carthusians were torn by internal discord. The Charterhouse had assumed great economic importance, given its vastness that had reached 3,000 hectares. The political and economic importance of the Charterhouse was determined, over time, the loss of moral values on the part of the Carthusians themselves, causing the internal discord. For this reason, the Pope took their hermitage of Serra San Bruno which passed to the Cistercians along with several grancie territory. So the grange of St. Andrew, in 1193, became the property of the Cistercians. At the grange he lived the father procurator to collect the food and for the conduct of the farms.
The Anjou and the ecclesiastical fief
In the thirteenth century, with the end of the reign of the Swabians, the Angevins took over that organized the territory according to the feudal princes. The territory of St. Andrew was part of the feud secular Badolato, but the granary and its farms they continued to belong to the ecclesiastical fief.
The Cistercians remained in Sant'Andrea until 1513, when Pope Leo X Medici returned the Charterhouse of Serra San Bruno Carthusian monastery. The Carthusian monks, on their return, widened the grange of Sant'Andrea and at that time the back door and the yard today. The monks took possession of the granary until a few years after 1783, the year of a catastrophic earthquake. Because of the earthquake and political events the monastery came to be stripped of all his possessions.
The suppression of the Certosa di San Bruno and the end of the feud ecclesiastical
Finally the Carthusians lost all their possessions in Sant'Andrea in 1808, when Joachim Murat abolished the Certosa di San Bruno. In fact, the Napoleonic Empire had decreed the end of all the benefits and ecclesiastical possessions that were confiscated by the State. Not touched, however, a work of the Carthusians, the portal (and thus the building) Palazzo Damiani, erected in 1554, as the emblem of Auditors Damiani was clearly of French origin: the Sun, the Armigere, the Lion, the lilies of France. From research relating to Anjou, made in France, the Damiani would be their direct descendants. Thus ended the ecclesiastical fief.
The period from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century
In 1458 the country of St. Andrew had about 800 inhabitants, all agricultural workers. Since 1483 the estate passed to the family of secular Toraldo and during their reign the castle was raised on the ruins of the "castrum Romanum". From the early years of the sixteenth century, with the Kingdom of Naples, and then also the territory of St. Andrew, it was passed under the control of the Spanish crown who established a Viceroyalty. In the sixteenth century, the Turkish incursions were very frequent. However the Turks pushed ever within the village that resulted very well protected and easily defended, thanks to its in fort. The sea, however, were defenseless and the Turks there could rage burning crops and crops and capturing young men and young women to sell to the slave market. Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, to cope with this situation, created a system of castles to defend the coast, using old fortification or by building new ones. Entrusted, therefore, a feudal lord of Toraldo Ravaschiera build the castle, which took place, probably between 1532 and 1537, date that is engraved on a stone embedded in the main church, built over the ruins of the castle. The castle had a square with four towers (there is one). On the front door was the emblem baronial now seen on a wall of the bell tower of the mother church. Nevertheless, pirate raids continued throughout the seventeenth century. In the seventeenth century has particular relevance Jannoni family who owned (and still owns) a beautiful building seventeenth century, then expanded in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to the edge of the village towards the Castle.
The eighteenth century
In May 1734, the Kingdom of Naples (and therefore also the territory of St. Andrew) came under the dynasty of the Bourbons with Charles III. At St. Andrew in the eighteenth century living important noble families, some linked to the Spanish court, which own attractive private palaces. Several representatives of these families were engaged in the Church, they excelled others in the cultural and intellectual, as, in particular Saverio Mattei. Saverio Mattei was actually born in Montepaone in 1742, but lived in Sant'Andrea to die in Naples in 1795. Lawyer, writer of religious and secular works, illustrious figure in music, had correspondence with Metastasio and other men of culture of 'era. He worked, holding important roles in the administration of the Kingdom of Naples.
In the eighteenth century Saracen invasions thinned up to stop.
In 1775, by decree of King Ferdinand IV, who continued the work of abolition of feudalism started by his father Charles III, he will put an end to the feud secular. The people erected, out of gratitude, a cast-iron statue in the square Malajra where he remained until 1860, the year he was deposed by the patriots andreolesi and placed in a cellar.
The nineteenth century
For a brief period, between 1800 and 1805, the Turks returned to threaten the Ionian coast, because of the uncertainties and confusion policies. The threats stopped with the consolidation of the Kingdom of the Bourbons. However, the latest raid on the Turkish coast of Sant'Andrea occurred on August 15, 1815. On this occasion he was caught a young Andreolese.
On October 4, 1806 Andrew knew the French violence. In 1805, after the victory at Austerlitz, Napoleon had declared forfeited by the Bourbon king of Naples. Calabria was militarily occupied by French troops but encountered the hostility of the people of Calabria who saw the French enemies of the Catholic religion and feared for the honor of their women. The revolt against the French broke out when the Bourbon received the help of the British. But hopes were short-lived because the Bourbon, the French regained the upper hand and took revenge on the hostility of the people of Calabria, putting on fire countries. In October 1806, French troops reached the area of St. Andrew. Among the French was also the then twenty-three Guglielmo Pepe, a native of Squillace, who tells the story in his memoirs. Upon arrival of the French troops, the notables and the archpriest made ready to reach out to the French in submission, but a young Andreolese, named "Panzareddha" enemy oppression, he injured the adjutant general of the French He commanded the troops. The reaction was immediate and violent. The French entered the Gate and St. Andrew swept through the village, burning, killing, looting, respecting only the houses of Liberals and Masons; and, as we have pointed out, Palazzo Damiani and its family, the insignia of the portal being clearly of French royal (the Damiani, originally D'Amiens, in fact, came from Normandy, but - as mentioned earlier - it seems that the origins date back to Anjou). Even today, the building has a chapel, where stands the family crest.
The raids made 46 dead. After bivouacked the night, the French resumed their journey, but, arrived at the Church of St. Andrew, as a final insult, broke down the door of the church and brought out the statue of the saint. The soldiers began to mock the Holy, a legend, when they tried to throw the statue of the saint in the ravine (now there is a staircase built in 1907 by Dr. Joseph Jannone) failed in the enterprise because the statue had become heavy. Then a graduated, angry, he took his eyes from the statue with a bayonet and ran away. They were later forgiven eyes of the statue, the same one that, still, is the altar and that is carried in procession twice a year.
The family Scoppa
But the nineteenth century is marked by family Scoppa. A rider, Giuseppe Scoppa Badolato, had acquired several estates in the area of Monasterace and many farms in the area of Badolato. The son, Pier Nicola Scoppa (1760-1840), received the title of Baron of Badolato and inherited the family assets including the marina of St. Andrew. Over time he extended its possessions and even bought the old granary of Sant'Andrea. Near the granary built a magnificent palace, now home of the Sisters of Reparation, in the period between 1818 and 1825. In 1833 the building was attacked by robbers. Baron, with good presence of mind, he hid behind a door and escaped. In thanks for the narrow escape he had engraved the episode, dated 1833, his escape and the pursuit of the robbers on the door of the Sacred silver ciborium, in the church of Sant'Andrea. The son of Pier Nicola, Giuseppe Scoppa (1794-1857), married Saveria Greek, died in 1886. From Saveria had four daughters. Three married nobles of the area, while the daughter Henriette (1831-1910) remained unmarried and lived in the main house, retaining the title of baroness and all the properties of Isca on the Ionian and Sant'Andrea.
Henrietta Scoppa devoted himself to prayer and good works. Built in 1897, the college and the church of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (the church is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus), helped several seminarians, bestowed a dowry to poor girls, he restored the main church and the aqueduct of Niforio . Granted the Palace to the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, with a commitment to found an orphanage. Baroness Henriette died at his villa Condò in February 1910, leaving her property to his niece Henrietta Of France, wife of the Marquis Armando Lucifer. The sons of Henrietta and the Marquis Armando Lucifer were the natural heirs and today maintain their assets.
The exhibition water
In 1877 the water was brought to town by the fountain near the palace Jannoni. The water was channeled from the town Niforio.
In 1925 there were a series of fountains in and around the country.
Churches and chapels
St. Nicholas of Cammerota
It was built by the Basilian and officiated in the IX-X century, the territory over Condò, in the period, that is, where the Basilian from Sicily, spread in Calabria. Few ruins remain of the church, but you can find the Byzantine structure, once the apse to the east. The finishing art, however, the Byzantine-Norman origin, with Arab influences, like the windows in black and white, back to the eleventh century. They would have found the burial Hugh Norman Altavilla Rufo and his wife. Hugh possessed the territories of up to Satriano Badolato. In 1156, the son of Hugh, Malgerio Altavilla, after the Basilian had left the territory of St. Andrew, granted the church and its property to the Carthusian monks of San Bruno. In the donation also includes the farmhouse adjoining the period Basilian.
Church of the Assumption in the Field
It is near St. Andrew's Marina, in Campo, near the stream Salubro. According to tradition it was built on the site where it was found a picture of the Virgin. It is difficult to date, but should pick up in the period of expansion of the Basilian in the IX-X century. The cult of the Assumption, in fact, was brought to the West from the East. The original title was to the Church of St. Martin, which is preserved in the nearby district. It presents a very simple structure, in a square shape of 10x13 meters. The altar facing east according to the Eastern usage, the atrium consists of three pillars. The church, in the early decades of the twelfth century to the Carthusian monks of the Carthusian monastery of Serra San Bruno. The earthquake of 1783 destroyed most. In the early nineteenth Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa took possession of the church when he bought the Grange Carthusian following the abolition of the property of religious orders in 1808, by the will of Joachim Murat, King of Naples. Baron had the church rebuilt and made to paint, or renew, the picture of the Assumption. Baroness Scoppa subsequently granted donated the land and the church of St. Martin del Campo at the College of the Redemptorist Fathers, which she founded in 1898. The Redemptorist Fathers did restore the church in 1964, remaking make the picture of the Virgin and regreted the altar with marble brought from another church. On August 15, the church celebrates the feast of the Assumption. In ancient times, during the festival, it took place also the exhibition of animals subsequently suppressed by the frequent fights between andreolesi and Ischia.
Church of All Saints (also known as Saint Catherine of Alexandria)
The church of All Saints was the first mother church of St. Andrew, near which stood the Grange of All Saints. It was founded in 1114 by the Carthusian monks and was the first church of the Latin rite in the territory of Saint Andrew. He was known, too, with the name of St. Catherine of Alexandria. The cult of the holy martyr was widespread in the area. From 1806 it was no longer used because dilapidated.
St. Andrew the Apostle
The church is dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, patron of the country. Andrew of Bethsaida, a fisherman of Lake Tiberias, was one of the apostles of Jesus. The cult of the saint was of Greek origin and had spread in Monasterace and Badolato by the Basilian. According to some authors, the construction of the church was completed in 1737. But others report the origin of the church at times much more distant. The church, in fact, had to be built, albeit in different forms, with the nascent settlement that later took the name of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian Sea. A document from 1131 shows, in fact, for the first time the existence of St. Andrew the Apostle of the Ionian Sea, which suggests the existence, in addition to the house, even the church which is named the same house. Even the statue of St. Andrew dates back to ancient times on the basis of an inscription found during restoration following the outrage suffered by the statue by the French in 1806. The statue is of particular interest to establish its ancient origin. In fact, the saint has three symbols, two "normal" as the cross and the fish, a "unique" as the book bearing in the left hand. This book might be referring to "the Gospel of St. Andrew," recalled one of the apocryphal gospels. The particular recalls the ancient Eastern tradition concerning a gospel attributed to the holy tradition of which the sculptor took account. The date of 1757 engraved on the new portal of granite, indicates that in that year the church was restored and enlarged. The interior has a nave. The altar, in baroque style, dates back to the eighteenth century. The door of the enclosure, silver, on the altar, is a votive offering of Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa for the narrow escape during an assault by robbers at his palace in 1833. The housing contains a bone fragment relic of St. Andrew . It is not known how long the church has, this relic. In 1893, the façade was enriched with an architectural ornament, which was inserted in the bell (the bell tower was demolished dilapidated) was built and the new time. In 1927 he was decorated with interesting frescoes by painters Zimatore and Grillo. Keep the statue of the saint. Even the statue of Saint Andrew, like the church, dates back to ancient times on the basis of an inscription found during restoration following the outrage suffered by the statue by the French in 1806. The statue is of particular interest to establish its ancient origin. In fact, the saint has three symbols, two "normal" as the cross and the fish, a "unique" as the book bearing in the left hand. This book might be referring to "the Gospel of St. Andrew," recalled one of the apocryphal gospels. The particular recalls the ancient Eastern tradition concerning a gospel attributed to the holy tradition of which the sculptor took account. In 1970 they were made to the existing marble floor and the ambos. In 1908 they built the external stairway and the adjacent villa. In 1952, in the apse exterior, he was leaning on a pillar in the shape of palm and covered canopy, a marble statue of St. Andrew. Previously, instead of the marble statue, was a statue of St. Andrew in the throne kept in the cupboard to the right of the church. Popularly known as "Saint Andrew Assettatu". The statue was of cardboard and was commissioned after the French, in September 1806, had gouged out his eyes to the historic statue. It was later restored. When it was created the pillar-shaped palm, in the apse exterior, there was a statue of cardboard which eventually deteriorated. It was replaced, so, in 1952, with the current marble statue.
Saints Peter and Paul
It is the mother church. It stands on the highest point of the old town. In 1569 the church was included within the walls of the castle built by Emperor Charles V. In 1725, around the castle was transformed into a church with works that went from 1719 to 1725 using the outer walls of the castle. In 1860 the church was restored, consolidated and extended with the addition of the chancel and apse. Also raised was the dome and made the circular vault, all in Renaissance style. He contributed to the work, with great generosity, Baroness Henriette Scoppa. The bell was made in part in 1781 but was only completed at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1954 the church was reinforced after the injuries suffered in the earthquake of 1947. However, on Feb. 3, 1965, was closed because it was deemed unsafe. October 27 began the demolition, despite the resentment of the public. The eighteenth-century church had its remarkable architectural beauty. Admission envisaged on the current square Saverio Mattei and not as now, on the final stretch of Via Belvedere. She gave access to the church through a majestic staircase with two flights 24 settembre1972, the new church was consecrated by the Bishop of Squillace, Monsignor Armando Fares. The present church has three naves and a large gallery. Behind the altar is a beautiful mosaic depicting Christ ascending to heaven. In the chapel on the left nave is a valuable altar of 1700, polychrome marble stained, typical of the artistic culture of the south from the XVIII century. It is a faithful reproduction of the altar of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament in the church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of the Redemptorist Fathers. In the chapel at the end of the left aisle it is preserved a valuable painting depicting the Immaculate Conception, attributed to the great seventeenth-century painter Mattia Preti, born in Taverna, which presumably left even his self-portrait in a corner of the canvas. Along the wall of the right aisle is the headstone of the burial of Mariantonia Samà, called the "nun of San Bruno" translated to the Church in 2003.
Santa Maria in Arce
The church of Santa Maria in Arce was founded in 1629, under the patronage of the Greek family. Collapsed in 1783 because of the earthquake was rebuilt in 1850 by the priest Bruno Dominijanni. Behind the church they are buried the children who die without baptism. In 1914 there were established the festive oratory and the catechism school, animated by the priest Bruno Cosentino. His work was responsible for the construction of the hall (1931) and the theater Dominic Savio (1934). In 1932 the oratory became the seat of the Catholic Action. Later, in 1955 the church was rebuilt, as damaged by the earthquake of 1947. Near the church was also built the sports field.
The church, not to be confused with that of St. Nicholas of Cammerota, was built in 1746 by the family Parise. He was leaning against the church of Santa Caterina (or All Saints). It was destroyed in 1976. The statue of Saint Nicholas is now the mother church.
Sacred Heart of Jesus
The building was built in 1897 (as you can read on the clasp of iron on the floor at the entrance of the church) to the munificence of the Baroness Henriette Scoppa the whole of the College of the order founded by St. Alphonsus Redemptorist Fathers of the Spirits. It is a large, bright composite Neo-Renaissance-style church, baroque and neoclassical, of great beauty both inside and outside. The interior has three naves. The nave is divided by 14 columns while the presbytery is characterized by 10 columns. In the presbytery is the main altar in polychrome marble. The banister that divides the sanctuary from the nave was built in the later period.
The "great choir" was inaugurated in 1909, while the throne of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in 1929, the work of a local master, Xavier Armogida, father Francesco Armogida architect who designed the throne. On the six altars, polychrome marble, were built six niches, from local craftsmen to house the statues of St. Alphonsus (first was the right nave), St. Gerard, St. Anthony of Padua, the Immaculate Conception, St. Joseph, St. Henry, St. Francis Xavier.
Church of St. Andrew marine
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Palace Chapel Scoppa
The palace chapel Scoppa opens onto the courtyard of the palace itself. They were kept two paintings depicting a San Bruno kneeling before the Pope Urban II and the other San Bruno while giving the rule to his brothers. The two paintings were destroyed to open the niche of Our Lady of Lourdes and place the side of the choir nuns. The chapel was built following the work of restoration and extension of the Grange took Baron Pier Nicola Scoppa after he bought the Grange and its territory in 1806, after the confiscation of property of religious orders by the Kingdom of Naples, under Gioachcino Murat. The work, carried out respecting the structure of the Grange century, took place between 1818 and 1825. This led to huge palace which Baron did add the superb porch overlooking the marina.
Chapel of Purgatory
It is located in Via Grande's Seat. Currently he is filing the congregation of SS. Sacrament