Province of Catanzaro
|Province of Catanzaro|
Map highlighting the location of the province of Catanzaro in Italy
|• President||Wanda Ferro|
|• Total||2,391 km2 (923 sq mi)|
|• Density||150/km2 (400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||88020, 88021, 88024, 88025, 88040, 88044, 88046, 88050, 88051, 88054, 88056, 88060, 88062, 88064, 88070, 88100|
|Telephone prefix||0961, 0967, 0968|
The province of Catanzaro (Italian: provincia di Catanzaro) is a province of the Calabria region of Italy. The city Catanzaro is both capital of the province and capital of the region of Calabria. The province has a total population of 363,707 inhabitants as of 2015 and spans an area of 2,415.45 square kilometres (932.61 sq mi), giving it a population density of 150.58 inhabitants per square kilometre. The capital Catanzaro has a population of 90,840 inhabitants over an area of 112.72 square kilometres (43.52 sq mi) and has a population density of 805.86 inhabitants per square kilometre. The province contains a total of 80 municipalities (comuni). Its provincial president is Vincent Bruno.
The Province of Crotone was created in 1996 by partition from Catanzaro. Inhabitants of the province are referred to as "Italoi" by the Greeks as this refers to King Italo, who descended from Trojans in legends. It contains the Isthmus of Catanzaro between Sant'Eufemia and the Gulf of Squillace. It borders the provinces of Crotone (formed from it), Cosenza, Reggio Calabria, and Vibo Valentia, and it also borders the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas to the east and west, respectively.
After the last ice age, stone age hunter-gatherers lived in this area. By about 3,500 BC they had turned to farming and started settling in villages. In the ninth and eighth centuries BC, Greeks began colonising the coastal regions of Calabria, calling the area Magna Graecia. They brought with them their Hellenic civilization and the olives, figs and vines that are cultivated in the province today.
By the third century BC, the Greeks were conquered by tribes from northern Italy, including a branch of the Samnites called the Bruttii. They established their sovereignty over present day Calabria and founded new cities, including their own capital "Consentia", now known as Cosenza. After their victory in the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC), the Romans occupied Calabria, and the region remained under their control until the fifth century AD.
After the Visigoths overthrew the Romans, there followed an unsettled period for Calabria. However, by the middle of the sixth century, the Byzantine Empire was in control of southern Italy. The city of Catanzaro was founded by the Byzantines during the tenth century. The city, atop a hill above the Gulf of Squilis, was named Katanrzarion or Catasarion as these derive from the Greek words for "terrace" and "under"; terrace farming took place in the province. The city was fortified in 1055 and a castle was constructed; this allowed it to resist French invasion attempts lasting four months in 1528.
The area of the plateau of La Sila towards the Ionian Sea was settled by immigrants from Albania in the period 1448–1535. They formed an ethnic minority and created the communities known as Sila Greca (Greek Sila).
The province of Catanzaro is one of the four provinces in the region of Calabria in southern Italy. To the south and east, the province has a coastline on the Ionian Sea, and to the northwest, a coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Province of Cosenza lies to the north and the Province of Crotone to the east. To the south west lie the provinces of Vibo Valentia and Reggio Calabria. The provincial capital as well as the capital of the region is the city of Catanzaro.
The province occupies both sides of the Calabrian Apennines and has a total area of 5,200 square kilometres (2,000 sq mi). The central part of the province is the isthmus of Catanzaro, a long narrow valley of 30 kilometres (19 mi), connecting the north and south parts of the coastline, the Gulf of Squillace and the Gulf of St. Euphemia; it is the narrowest part of the whole Italian peninsula. Other parts of the province are mostly mountainous, with steep sided valleys formed by short rivers. The River Ampollino on the boundary with the Province of Crotone is impounded to form the Ampollino Lake.
The eastern part of the province forms part of the high plateau of La Sila, about 1,200 m (3,900 ft) above sea level, which covers around 2,000 square kilometres (770 sq mi) of territory along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres (6,325 ft). There are large numbers of lakes surrounded by dense coniferous forests. The province includes much of the Sila National Park, a wild area with rough grassland and forests of pine, oak, beech and fir.
The main transport hub of the province is the central town of Lamezia Terme, located beside the A3 Salerno-Reggio Calabria Motorway. From here, the SS.288 State Route runs to Catanzaro. The town is on the main line leading from Reggio Calabria to Naples, and is a major terminal for goods traffic. Secondary branch lines connect to Catanzaro and Crotone. Near Lamezia Terme is the principal airport of Calabria, the Lamezia Terme International Airport.
Since 2009, various people have been arrested in the provinces of Catanzaro, Crotone and Reggio Calabria in connection with various crimes; alleged offences include insurance fraud, the sale of bogus degrees, fraud in relation to grants and subsidies, collusion with the Mafia, forgery, irregularities in tendering procedures, extortion, murder, electoral fraud, supply of drugs and intimidation.
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