The Saxon Shore (Latin: litus Saxonicum) was a military command of the late Roman Empire, consisting of a series of fortifications on both sides of the English channel. It was established in the late 3rd century and was led by the "Count of the Saxon Shore". In the late 4th century, his functions were limited to Britain, while the fortifications in Gaul were established as separate commands. Several Saxon Shore forts survive in east and south-east England.
During the latter half of the 3rd century, the Roman Empire faced a grave crisis. Internally, it was weakened by civil wars, the violent succession of brief emperors, and secession in the provinces, while externally it faced a new wave of attacks by "barbarian" tribes. Most of Britain had been part of the empire since the mid-1st century. It was protected from raids in the north by the Hadrianic and Antonine Walls, while a fleet of some size was also available.
However, as the frontiers came under increasing external pressure, fortifications were built throughout the Empire in order to protect cities and guard strategically important locations. It is in this context that the forts of the Saxon Shore were constructed. Already in the 230s, under Severus Alexander, several units had been withdrawn from the northern frontier and garrisoned at locations in the south, and had built new forts at Brancaster, Caister-on-Sea and Reculver. Dover was already fortified in the early 2nd century, and the other forts in this group were constructed in the period between the 270s and 290s.
Meaning of the term and role
The only contemporary reference we possess that mentions the name "Saxon Shore" comes in the late 4th century Notitia Dignitatum, which lists its commander, the Comes Litoris Saxonici per Britanniam ("Count of the Saxon Shore in Britain"), and gives the names of the sites under his command and their respective complements of military personnel. However, due to the absence of further evidence, theories have varied between scholars as to the exact meaning of the name, and also the nature and purpose of the chain of forts it refers to.
Two interpretations were put forward as to the meaning of the adjective "Saxon": either a shore attacked by Saxons, or a shore settled by Saxons. Some argue that the latter hypothesis is supported by Eutropius, who states that during the 280s the sea along the coasts of Belgica and Armorica was "infested with Franks and Saxons", and that this was why Carausius was first put in charge of the fleet there. It also receives at least partial support from archaeological finds, as artefacts of a Germanic style have been found in burials, while there is evidence of the presence of Saxons in some numbers in SE England and the northern coasts of Gaul around Boulogne-sur-Mer and Bayeux from the middle of the 5th century onwards, and the practice of deliberately settling Germanic tribes to strengthen the Empire's defences is well established.
The other interpretation, supported by Stephen Johnson, holds that the forts fulfilled a coastal defence role against seaborne invaders, mostly Saxons and Franks, and acted as bases for the naval units operating against them. This view is reinforced by the parallel chain of fortifications across the Channel on the northern coasts of Gaul, which complemented the British forts, suggesting a unified defensive system.
Other scholars like John Cotterill however consider the threat posed by Germanic raiders, at least in the 3rd and early 4th centuries, to be exaggerated. They interpret the construction of the forts at Brancaster, Caister-on-Sea and Reculver in the early 3rd century and their location at the estuaries of navigable rivers as pointing to a different role: fortified points for transport and supply between Britain and Gaul, without any relation (at least at that time) to countering seaborne piracy. This view is supported[vague] by contemporary references to the supplying of the army of Julian by Caesar with grain from Britain during his campaign in Gaul in 359, and their use as secure landing places by Count Theodosius during the suppression of the Great Conspiracy a few years later.
Another theory, proposed by D.A. White, was that the extended system of large stone forts was disproportionate to any threat by seaborne Germanic raiders, and that it was actually conceived and constructed during the secession of Carausius and Allectus (the Carausian Revolt) in 289-296, and with an entirely different enemy in mind: they were to guard against an attempt at reconquest by the Empire. This view, although widely disputed, has found recent support from archaeological evidence at Pevensey, which dates the fort's construction to the early 290s.
Whatever their original purpose, it is virtually certain that in the late 4th century the forts and their garrisons were employed in operations against Frankish and Saxon pirates. Britain was abandoned by Rome in 407, with Armorica following soon after. The forts on both sides continued to be inhabited in the following centuries, and in Britain in particular several continued in use well into the Anglo-Saxon period.
- Branodunum (Brancaster, Norfolk). One of the earliest forts, dated to the 230s. It was built to guard the Wash approaches and is of a typical rectangular castrum layout. It was garrisoned by the Equites Dalmatae Brandodunenses, although evidence exists suggesting that its original garrison was the cohors I Aquitanorum.
- Gariannonum (Burgh Castle, Norfolk). Established between 260 and the mid-270s to guard the River Yare (Gariannus Fluvius), it was garrisoned by the Equites Stablesiani Gariannoneses. Although there is some discussion as to whether this is actually the fort at Caister-on-Sea, and being on the opposite bank of the same estuary as Burgh Castle.
- Othona (Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex). Garrisoned by the Numerus Fortensium.
- Regulbium (Reculver, Kent). Together with Brancaster one of the earliest forts, built in the 210s to guard the Thames estuary, it is likewise a castrum. It was garrisoned by the cohors I Baetasiorum since the 3rd century.
- Rutupiae (Richborough, Kent), garrisoned by parts of the Legio II Augusta.
- Dubris (Dover Castle, Kent), garrisoned by the Milites Tungrecani.
- Portus Lemanis (Lympne, Kent), garrisoned by the Numerus Turnacensium.
- Anderitum (Pevensey Castle, East Sussex), garrisoned by the Numerus Abulcorum.
- Portus Adurni (Portchester Castle, Hampshire), garrisoned by a Numerus Exploratorum.
There are a few other sites that clearly belonged to the system of the British branch of the Saxon Shore (the so-called "Wash-Solent limes"), although they are not included in the Notitia, such as the forts at Walton Castle, Suffolk, which has by now sunk into the sea due to erosion, and at Caister-on-Sea. In the south, Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight and Clausentum (Bitterne, in modern Southampton) are also regarded as westward extensions of the fortification chain. Other sites likely connected to the Saxon Shore system are the sunken fort at Skegness, and the remains of possible signal stations at Thornham, Corton and Hadleigh.
Further north on the coast, the precautions took the form of central depots at Lindum (Lincoln) and Malton with roads radiating to coastal signal stations. When an alert was relayed to the base, troops could be dispatched along the road. Further up the coast in North Yorkshire, a series of coastal watchtowers (at Huntcliff, Filey, Ravenscar, Goldsborough, and Scarborough) was constructed, linking the southern defences to the northern military zone of the Wall. Similar coastal fortifications are also found in Wales, at Cardiff and Caer Gybi. The only fort in this style in the northern military zone is Lancaster, Lancashire, built sometime in the mid-late 3rd century replacing an earlier fort and extramural community, which may reflect the extent of coastal protection on the north-west coast from invading tribes from Ireland.
As mentioned above, the Notitia also includes two separate commands for the northern coast of Gaul, both of which belonged to the Saxon Shore system. However, when the list was compiled, in c. 420 AD, Britain had been abandoned by Roman forces. The first command controlled the shores of the province Belgica Secunda (roughly between the estuaries of the Scheldt and the Somme), under the dux Belgicae Secundae with headquarters at Portus Aepatiaci:
- Marcae (unidentified location near Calais, possibly Marquise or Marck), garrisoned by the Equites Dalmatae. In the Notitia, together with Grannona, it is the only site on the Gallic shore to be explicitly referred to as lying in litore Saxonico.
- Locus Quartensis sive Hornensis (probably at the mouth of the Somme), the port of the classis Sambrica ("Fleet of the Somme")
- Portus Aepatiaci (possibly Étaples), garrisoned by the milites Nervii.
Although not mentioned in the Notitia, the port of Gesoriacum or Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer), which until 296 was the main base of the Classis Britannica, would also have come under the dux Belgicae Secundae.
To this group also belongs the Roman fort at Oudenburg.
- Grannona (disputed location, either at the mouths of the Seine or at Port-en-Bessin), the seat of the dux, garrisoned by the cohors prima nova Armoricana. In the Notitia, it is explicitly mentioned as lying in litore Saxonico.
- Rotomagus (Rouen), garrisoned by the milites Ursariensii
- Constantia (Coutances), garrisoned by the legio I Flavia Gallicana Constantia
- Abricantis (Avranches), garrisoned by the milites Dalmati
- Grannona (uncertain whether this is a different location than the first Grannona, perhaps Granville), garrisoned by the milites Grannonensii
- Aleto or Aletum (Aleth, near Saint-Malo), garrisoned by the milites Martensii
- Osismis (Brest), garrisoned by the milites Mauri Osismiaci
- Blabia (perhaps Hennebont), garrisoned by the milites Carronensii
- Benetis (possibly Vannes), garrisoned by the milites Mauri Beneti
- Manatias (Nantes), garrisoned by the milites superventores
In addition, there are several other sites where a Roman military presence has been suggested. At Alderney, the fort known as "The Nunnery" is known to date to Roman times, and the settlement at Longy Common has been cited as evidence of a Roman military establishment, though the archaeological evidence there is, at best, scant.
In popular culture
- In 1888, Alfred Church wrote a historical novel entitled The Count of the Saxon Shore. It is available online.
- The American band Saxon Shore takes its name from the region.
- The Saxon Shore is the fourth book in Jack Whyte's Camulod Chronicles.
- Since 1980, the "Saxon Shore Way" exists, a coastal footpath in Kent which passes by many of the forts.
- David Rudkin's play The Saxon Shore takes place near Hadrian's Wall as the Romans are withdrawing from Britain.
- Notitia Dignitatum, Pars Occ. XXVIII
- Eutropius, Breviarium, IX.21
- CBA Report 18: The Saxon Shore, pp. 63-67
- Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus XXXIX.20-21
- Fields, Nic (2006). Rome's Saxon Shore - Coastal Defences of Roman Britain AD 250-500 (Fortress 56). Osprey Publishing. pp. 39–42. ISBN 978-1-84603-094-9.
- Fields 2006, pp. 43–45
- Ammianus Marcellinus, Historia Romana, XVIII.2.3; Zosimus, Historia Nova, III.5.2
- Ammianus Marcellinus, Historia Romana, XXVII.8.6-7
- Fields 2006, pp. 42–43
- CBA Report 18: The Saxon Shore, pp.3-5
- CBA Report 18: The Saxon Shore, p. 8
- Attested by the only inscription found (see Regulbium at RomanBritain.org)
- D. White (1961)
- Roman Frontier Studies, pp. 124-147
- Notitia Dignitatum, Pars Occ. XXXVIII
- Notitia Dignitatum, Pars Occ. XXXVII
- CBA Report 18: The Saxon Shore, p. 67
- Alderney ruin found to be Roman fort, BBC News, 25 November 2011
- CBA Report 18: The Saxon Shore, pp. 31-34
- Breeze, David J. (1994). Roman Forts in Britain. Shire Publications. ISBN 0-85263-654-7.
- Cotterill, John (1993). "Saxon Raiding and the Role of the Late Roman Coastal Forts of Britain". Britannia 24 (XXIV): 227–239. doi:10.2307/526729. JSTOR 526729.
- Fields, Nic (2006). Rome's Saxon Shore - Coastal Defences of Roman Britain AD 250-500 (Fortress 56). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-094-9.
- Johnson, Stephen (1979). The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore. London: Elek. ISBN 978-0-236-40165-9.
- Maxfield, Valerie A. (1989). The Saxon Shore, a Handbook. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 0-85989-330-8.
- Pearson, Andrew (2002). The Roman Shore Forts: Coastal Defences of Southern Britain. Tempus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7524-1949-7.
- Ward, John (1911). Romano-British Buildings and Earthworks.
- White, Donald A. (1961). Litus Saxonicum: the British Saxon Shore in Scholarship and History. Madison, W: University of Wisconsin Press.
- Johnston, David E.; et als. (1977). "The Saxon Shore" (PDF). CBA Research Report (18). Retrieved 2007-08-20.
- Maxfield, Valerie A.; Dobson, Michael J. (Eds.) (1991). Roman Frontier Studies: Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies. Exeter: Exeter University Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-710-5. Cite uses deprecated parameter
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