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The Solent

Coordinates: 50°47′12″N 1°17′42″W / 50.78667°N 1.29500°W / 50.78667; -1.29500
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The Solent
Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from Great Britain
The Solent is located in the United Kingdom
The Solent
The Solent
The Solent within the United Kingdom
The Solent is located in Hampshire
The Solent
The Solent
The Solent within Hampshire
LocationEnglish Channel
Coordinates50°47′12″N 1°17′42″W / 50.78667°N 1.29500°W / 50.78667; -1.29500
Basin countriesEngland
Max. length20 miles (32 km)
Max. width5 miles (8.0 km)
Min. width1 mile (1.6 km)
Official nameSolent and Southampton Water
Designated1 October 1998
Reference no.965[1]
View of the Solent from Gurnard, near Cowes, Isle of Wight
The Solent from Wootton, Isle of Wight, showing Wightlink Fishbourne–Portsmouth ferries crossing.

The Solent (/ˈslənt/ SOH-lənt) is a strait between the Isle of Wight and mainland Great Britain; the major historic ports of Southampton and Portsmouth lie inland of its shores. It is about 20 miles (32 kilometres) long and varies in width between 2+12 and 5 mi (4 and 8 km), although the Hurst Spit which projects 1+12 mi (2.4 km) into the Solent narrows the sea crossing between Hurst Castle and Colwell Bay to just over 1 mi (1.6 km).

The Solent is a major shipping lane for passenger, freight and military vessels. It is also an important recreational area for water sports, particularly yachting,[2] hosting the Cowes Week sailing event annually. It is sheltered by the Isle of Wight and has a complex tidal pattern, which has benefited Southampton's success as a port, providing a "double high tide" that extends the tidal window during which deep-draught ships can be handled.[3] Spithead, an area off Gilkicker Point near Gosport, is known as the place where the Royal Navy is traditionally reviewed by the monarch of the day.

The area is of great ecological and landscape importance, particularly because of the coastal and estuarine habitats along its edge.[4] Much of its coastline is designated as a Special Area of Conservation.[5] It is bordered by and forms a part of the character of a number of nationally important protected landscapes including the New Forest National Park, and the Isle of Wight AONB.



The word predates Old English, and is first recorded in 731 as Soluente (Bede, H.E. 4, 16). This original spelling suggests a possible derivation from the Brittonic element -uente, which has endured throughout the history of Hampshire, as in the Roman city of Venta Belgarum (Latinised as Venta), the post-Roman kingdom of Y Went, and the modern name of Winchester.[6]

It later appears in Anglo-Saxon records as Solentan.[7]

A pre-Celtic and supposedly Semitic root meaning "free-standing rock" has also been suggested as a possible description of the cliffs marking western approach of the strait. This Semitic origin may be a relic of the Phoenician traders who sailed to Britain from the Mediterranean as part of the ancient tin trade.[8]

Another suggestion is that the name may reflect the number of Northern Gannets (previously known as Solans or the Solan Goose) along the coast.[9]



Originally a river valley, the Solent has gradually widened and deepened over many thousands of years. The River Frome was the source of the River Solent, with four other rivers—the Rivers Avon, Hamble, Itchen and Test—being tributaries of it.[10][11] Seismic sounding has shown that, when the sea level was lower, the River Solent incised its bed to a depth of at least 46 metres (151 ft) below current Ordnance Datum.[12][13]

The Purbeck Ball Clay contains kaolinite and mica, showing that in the Lutetian stage of the Eocene water from a granite area, probably Dartmoor, flowed into the River Solent.

Seabed survey shows that when the sea level was lower in the Ice Age the River Solent continued the line of the eastern Solent (Spithead) to a point roughly due east of the east end of the Isle of Wight and due south of a point about 3 kilometres (2 mi) west of Selsey Bill, and then south-south-west for about 30 kilometres (19 mi), and then south for about 14 kilometres (9 mi), and then joined the main river flowing down the dry bed of the English Channel.

During the Ice Age, meanders of the Solent's tributaries became incised: for example, an incised meander of the River Test is buried under reclaimed land under the Westquay shopping centre (Google Earth link), near Southampton docks;[14][15]

Since the retreat of the most recent glaciation, the South East of England, like the Netherlands, has been steadily slowly sinking through historic time due to forebulge sinking.

In 2008 a new theory—that the Solent was originally a lagoon—was reported in the Southern Daily Echo by Garry Momber from the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology.[16][17][18]

The Isle of Wight was formerly contiguous with the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset—the Needles on Wight and Old Harry Rocks on Purbeck are the last remnant of this connection.

Salt marsh near Lepe Country Park, with the Isle of Wight in the distance

Ten thousand years ago a band of relatively resistant chalk rock, part of the Southern England Chalk Formation, ran from the Isle of Purbeck area of south Dorset to the eastern end of Isle of Wight, parallel to the South Downs. Inland behind the chalk were less resistant sands, clays and gravels. Through these weak soils and rocks ran many rivers, from the Dorset Frome in the west and including the Stour, Beaulieu River, Test, Itchen and Hamble, which created a large estuary flowing west to east and into the English Channel at the eastern end of the present Solent. This great estuary ran through a wooded valley and is now referred to as the Solent River.[19]

When glaciers covering more northern latitudes melted at the end of the last ice age, two things happened to create the Solent. Firstly, a great amount of flood water ran into the Solent River and its tributaries, carving the estuary deeper. Secondly, post-glacial rebound after the removal of the weight of ice over Scotland caused the island of Great Britain to tilt about an east–west axis, because isostatic rebound in Scotland and Scandinavia is pulling mantle rock out from under the Netherlands and south England: this is forebulge sinking.[19]

Over thousands of years, the land sank in the south (a process still continuing) to submerge many valleys creating today's characteristic rias, such as Southampton Water and Poole Harbour, as well as submerging the Solent. The estuary of the Solent River was gradually flooded, and eventually the Isle of Wight became separated from the mainland as the chalk ridge between The Needles on the island and Old Harry Rocks on the mainland was eroded. This is thought to have happened about 7,500 years ago.[19]

The process of coastal change is still continuing, with the soft cliffs on some parts of the Solent, such as Fort Victoria, constantly eroding, whilst other parts, such as Ryde Sands, are accreting.

The Solent is a comparatively shallow stretch of tidal water. It has an unusual double tide[20] that is both favourable and hazardous to maritime activities with its strong tidal movements and quickly changing sea states.

Coupled with the above, the Solent is renowned for its large volume of vessel usage, thus resulting in one of the highest density of declared lifeboat stations in the world. This includes six RNLI (e.g. Calshot and Cowes) and five independently run stations (e.g. Hamble Lifeboat and Gosport and Fareham Inshore Rescue Service).



Remains of human habitation have been found from the prehistoric, Roman, and Saxon eras, showing that humans retreated towards progressively higher ground over these periods. Offshore from Bouldnor, Isle of Wight, divers have found at 11 metres (36 ft) depth the submerged remains of a wooden building that was built there on land around 6000 BC when the sea level was lower and the land was higher.[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][excessive citations]

There is an early Norman period report that much land on the south of Hayling Island was lost to sea flood. South of Hayling Island in the Solent is a deposit of stones, which scuba divers found to be the remains of a stone building, probably a church. There is an old report that this church was formerly in the middle of Hayling Island. If similar amounts of land have been lost on other parts of the Solent shore, the Solent was likely to have been much narrower in Roman times, and it is possible to believe Diodorus Siculus's report that in his time men could wade to the Isle of Wight at low tide.

In the early 16th century, Henry VIII of England built an extensive set of coastal defences at each end of the Solent, part of his Device Forts, effectively controlling access to east and west. In 1545, a naval battle was fought in the Solent between English and French naval forces. The battle was inconclusive with no significant losses other than Henry VIII's flagship, the Mary Rose, which foundered and sank while making a sharp turn. From a total crew of over 400 (some estimates have suggested as many as 700[30]), fewer than 35 survived the sinking. The remains of the Mary Rose were discovered at the bottom of the Solent by a salvage project in 1971 and were successfully salvaged in 1982. The remains of the hull and a large number of artefacts can be seen in the Mary Rose Museum [31] located in the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard.

In 1685, King James II narrowly escaped shipwreck while sailing in the Solent. Musician Henry Purcell wrote "They that go down to the sea in ships" to be sung by the extraordinary voice of John Gostling in commemoration of this event. More forts were built on land and at sea in the 19th century. These were generally known as Palmerston Forts.

The Solent was one of two sites for the sailing events at the 1908 Summer Olympics.[32] The Solent became the departure area of the ill-fated ocean liner, Titanic, in April 1912.

A bank in the centre of the Solent, Bramble Bank, is exposed at low water at spring tide. This, combined with the unique tidal patterns in the area, makes navigation challenging. There is an annual cricket match on Bramble Bank during the lowest tide of the year, but games are often cut short by rising tide.

According to the BBC, the 12 mi (800 m) tide[clarify] at Ryde gives a major advantage to hovercraft which can travel right up a beach and the Solent is the only place in Western Europe where there is a regular passenger service. The operator, Hovertravel, claims it is the world's only commercial passenger hovercraft.[33] It celebrated 50 years of operation in 2015.[34]

See also



  1. ^ "Solent and Southampton Water". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  2. ^ "www.solentpedia.info". www.solentpedia.info. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Unbeatable combination—DP World Southampton". www.dpworldsouthampton.com.
  4. ^ "www.solentpedia.info". www.solentpedia.info. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  5. ^ "www.solentpedia.info". www.solentpedia.info. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  6. ^ Matasović, Ranko. "wentā" in the Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic at Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online. Brill Online, 2020. Accessed 18 March 2020.
  7. ^ A.D. Mills, Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 1998: ISBN 0-19-280074-4), p. 318.
  8. ^ Theo, Vennemann. Europa Vasconica, Europa Semitica. pp. 511–512.
  9. ^ "Our Heritage". Solentpedia.
  10. ^ "Geology of Hengistbury Head". www.hengistbury-head.co.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  11. ^ "Solent Geology—Introduction—Dr. Ian West". Soton.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  12. ^ Dyer, K.R (1975), "The buried channels of the 'Solent River', southern England", Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 86 (2): 239–245, Bibcode:1975PrGA...86..239D, doi:10.1016/S0016-7878(75)80103-9
  13. ^ Link to map showing former course of Solent River
  14. ^ "What is the Solent?". 10 August 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  15. ^ link to geological map of the area
  16. ^ Peter Law (14 September 2008). "Secrets of the Solent". Daily Echo.
  17. ^ thisishampshire.net, "Startling evidence of a Stone Age structure in the Solent". Retrieved 3 Oct. 2009.
  18. ^ * Carter, Dave; Bray, Malcom (2003). "Sediment Transport Study East Head to Pagham Harbour. Section 1.1". SCOPAC. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2010.}
  19. ^ a b c Murphy, Peter (2009). English Coast: A History and a Prospect. London: Continuum. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-1-8472-5143-5.
  20. ^ "English Channel Double Tides". www.bristolnomads.org.uk.
  21. ^ Momber, G., Satchell, J & Gillespie, J. 2009. Mesolithic Horizons Volume 1. Occupation in a submerged Mesolithic landscape pp. Eds McCarton, S, Schulting, R., Warren G & Woodman, P Oxbow 324-332.
  22. ^ Momber, G, 2008. Boatyard beneath the waves. Current Archaeology. L Westcott (ed), 28 (12), London: Current Publishing.
  23. ^ Momber, G. 2007. Submerged in Mesolithic Archaeology. In Mesolithic Studies in the North Sea Basin and Beyond. Proceedings of a Newcastle Conference. Eds. Clive Waddington & Kristian Pederson. Oxbow 33-39
  24. ^ Momber, G. 2006. Mesolithic Occupation: 11m below the waves: In A. Hafner, U. Niffler and U. Ruoff ed. The New View: Underwater Archaeology and the Historic Picture. Antiqua 40. Basel: 56–63.
  25. ^ Momber, G. 2006. Extracting the Cultural Heritage: a new challenge for the underwater archaeologist: Underwater Technology. Vol. 26 No. 4 pp 105-111.
  26. ^ Momber, G. 2005. The Art of Living Under Water: Book review: IJNA (2005) 34.1 p 347
  27. ^ Momber, G. and Campbell, C. 2006. Stone Age Stove under the Solent: IJNA (2005) 34.2 p 148-9
  28. ^ Momber, G. 2004. The inundated landscapes of the Western Solent: In Submarine prehistoric archaeology of the North Sea: research priorities and collaboration with industry. Research Report 141 37-42
  29. ^ Momber, G. (2000). Drowned and Deserted: a submerged prehistoric landscape in the Solent. I.J.N.A. 29.1: 86-99
  30. ^ "Why did the Mary Rose sink?". Mary Rose Trust. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  31. ^ "The Mary Rose - flagship of Henry VIII". The Mary Rose. Retrieved 31 July 2023.
  32. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. p. 339.
  33. ^ "Our Hovercraft". Hovertravel. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  34. ^ Justin Parkinson (9 November 2015). "What happened to passenger hovercraft?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 9 November 2015.