Seocho-dong public toilet murder case
|Native name||서초동 화장실 살인사건|
|Date||17 May 2016|
|Time||01:07 a.m. (KST)|
|Location||Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea|
|Outcome||one person killed
The Seocho-dong public restroom murder case, commonly known as the Gangnam Station murder case or the Gangnam Station femicide occurred at the public restroom of a karaoke bar in Seocho-gu, Seoul, South Korea on 17 May 2016. Kim Sung-min (34 years old) stabbed to death an unspecified woman he had never met before, and later claimed that he did so out of his hatred for women as they had ignored and humiliated him all his life. The police later refuted his claims and said the incident was not a hate crime against women, as claimed, but one driven by mental illness. On 13 April 2017, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea finalized the sentence of 30 years in prison for the murderer Seong-min Kim.
Kim Sung-min, a 34-year-old employee of a nearby liquor store near Gangnam Station in Seoul, entered the karaoke bar's toilet in Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul, at about 0:33 am on 17 May 2016. A 23-year-old woman, who entered the restroom at 1:07 am, was stabbed in the left chest four times with a kitchen knife measuring 32.5cm in length. The attacker testified that he committed the crime because he was ignored by women and he wasn't acquainted with the victim.
Immediately after being arrested, Kim Sung-min testified that he had often been ignored by women and committed the murder because he could not take it anymore. On 19 May, Seoul Seocho Police Station announced that "On 18 May, Kim 's mother was summoned and confirmed the medical records and medical records that Kim has been treated for a chronic illness since 2008. Kim was hospitalized four times due to his mental illness and was diagnosed by his physician at the time of discharge in early January 2016 that he could experience further episodes if he did not take the medicine that had been prescribed to him. Despite this, he did not take any medication since he got away from home at the end of March 2016." In addition, they said, "In-depth analysis of Kim's feelings and attitudes at the present stage is needed." On 19 May and 20 May, 5 profilers including the National Police Agency criminal behavior analysis team leader Il Yong Kwon were put in to conduct psychological analysis with Kim two times.
On 22 May, Seoul Seocho Police Station announced the results of the suspect's psychological analysis. He had repeated sitting and standing since adolescence, told the surrounding people that "I can hear someone swearing at me" from 2003 to 2007 and when he went to a seminary in 2014, he got an idea that "I am trying to do my best, but I think that women keep me in check and harass me". He has a delusion that he has been hurt by women. However, there were no specific cases in which he was injured by women. In fact, due to this delusion, he was diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2008 and was admitted to the psychiatric department six times in total. Since 2008, he had lost his basic self-care function, with no washing for more than a year. Kim, however, stopped taking drugs after being discharged from the hospital in early January 2016 due to no awareness of his mental illness, and had become delusional at the time of the crime.
In particular, the Seoul Seocho Police Station responded to Kim's decision to commit the crime, saying, "On 5 May, Kim was criticized for his hygiene at the restaurant where he was serving and moved to the kitchen assistant on 7 May. Even though there was no person who pointed out the hygiene problems directly to Kim, he thought women slandered him from behind. It is seen as the background of the crime." Regarding the socially controversial issue of female abomination, Kim said in an interview with the police, "I have no antipathy toward ordinary women and I am not a misogynist. There were times when I was also popular with women and there were women who liked me. The crime was due to the actual damage that women have done to me." In addition, he talked about the phenomenon of women's loathing on the internet, "I think it's childish of young people, and I'm different from them," and he spoke of the specifics of the actual damage the women inflicted on him, "women beat me on the shoulder in the subway, deliberately blocking my way and walking slowly to make me late. And women throw me a cigarette butt on me. I've endured all these trivial but unpleasant things, and I felt I couldn't stand them any longer because they had bothered me even at my work place. I thought I'd die if I stayed like this, so I thought I'd kill first. I couldn't bear to be hurt." The police decided that Kim's attitude was a delusional paradox with no clear evidence or case and announced, "He firmly believes in vague feelings and thoughts that he has been victimized by women. And his way of speaking is 'it's certain because I can feel it.' He committed a crime with deliberate accidents without directly relating to the motive of the crime or the victim. It is a characteristic of motiveless crime that the plan is not systematic compared to the purpose such as not escaping the very next day and not getting rid of the evidence but coming to the restaurant and being arrested without real plan or preparation for arrest."
Profiler Il-yong Kwon who investigated the suspect, pointed out that the case was "a crime committed by a delusion of persecution" of the suspect suffering from schizophrenia, and that the delusion of the suspect "is not necessarily manifested only in women, but entirely hostile to the actions of others." However, he said that the aggressiveness of patients with schizophrenia is "most often expressed toward a person who is relatively vulnerable." He also said, "such schizophrenia itself is not what destroys all life. Even though he/she suffers from schizophrenia, he/she sometimes shows systematic behavior in order to achieve what he or she wants." He explained that even crime of schizophrenia can be planned systematically.
Before the second psychological interview on 20 May, on 19 May, interrogation of the suspect before arrest(real examination of warrant) was held and a warrant for arrest was issued by Seoul Central District Court because the crime was serious and Kim may run away or destroy evidence.
On 24 May at 8:30 am, the suspect who came out of the Seocho Police Station in Seoul, boarded a convoy without answering the questionnaires of the reporters. At 8:55 am, he stopped at the entrance before proceeding to field verification at the karaoke toilet near the exit 10 of Gangnam Station in Seocho-gu, Seoul, where he committed the crime and told the reporters "I am calm now. I do not have any personal grudge or feelings about the victim, and I am sorry that she had been sacrificed anyway." About the motive of the crime, he said, "I spoke during the process of investigation and I will talk about it in the course of the trial." On this day, on-site verification was conducted for 30 minutes from 9 am with a final check by the suspect alone to reproduce process of crime from beginning to end.
In a decision-making trial on 30 September 2016, the prosecution sought life imprisonment for the suspect and requested 20 years of medical care and an order to attach an ankle monitor. The Seoul Central District Court sentenced the suspect to 30 years in prison on 14 October. The Seoul High Court's Criminal Department 2 rejected both the prosecution and the defendant's appeals in an appeals court held on 12 January 2017, maintaining a 30-year prison term handed down by the first trial. The Supreme Court upheld a 30-year prison term handed down by the plaintiff to the defendant, Kim, in an appeal on 13 April 2017.
Remembrance Movement and Conflict
At the suggestion of a netizen, the victim's memorial campaign began and exit 10 of Gangnam Station, close to the scene of the incident, was posted with post-it notes pointing to misogyny issues such as "female hate is a social problem" and "women who remain will make a better world." Social controversy arose over the issue of misogyny, with post-its and flowers for remembrance expressing their condolences for the victims at the site of Exit 10 of Gangnam Station. Meanwhile, some posts posted on SNS claiming that interpreting the case as a misogynistic crime is a leap of logic such as "Women with victim mentality are over-expanding the case," "Are we supposed to be treated as potential criminals just because we're men?" A wreath with a ribbon, which read "Don't forget the soldiers of Cheonan Ship who died because they were men," arrived on 19 May at Gangnam Station, but the ribbon was then blocked by a memorial post-it by citizen in memory of the victim, and eventually the ribbon was removed.
On 20 May, a man wearing a pink elephant mask at Exit 10 of Gangnam Station said, "It's not that carnivores are bad, it's that animals that commit crimes ... Zootopia without prejudice. "We are making it together, men and women of the Republic of Korea, which is currently number one in security in the world, but is safer." Some female mourners tried to remove the mask, saying, "If you're not a member of Ilbe, take it off with dignity." Seocho Police were called to the police station as a physical confrontation took place and eventually to end the situation. The Ilbe Storehouse reportedly posted an article predicting that he would "wear a mask and go to the memorial site." On the afternoon of 21 May, hundreds of mourners took part in a memorial march to and from Gangnam Station and the scene of the incident, and members of the Ilbe Reservoir showed up at the event, arguing with the mourners. Fear the conflict were dispatched after dozens of police were deployed to the scene.
Unlike the positions of the administrative departments, such as investigative agencies, some experts from opposition parties, academia and civic groups expressed their opinion that mental illness and misogyny are not exclusive, and that there is a possibility that it is both a crime of mental illness and a crime of misogyny. The Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency also said the previous day that it concluded that Kim's case was a "don't ask questions" caused by his persecutory delusion schizophrenia, based on a comprehensive analysis of Kim's psychology through two meetings on 19 and 20 July. They say that regardless of the nature of the crime, the reaction of women and men to the case itself is important because it reflects the current state of politics, society.
Professor Oh Yoon-seong explained, "From the perspective of the victims, we chose a weak partner, which is called a woman," and "nothing more than that." "I think there's a local symbolism," he said. "There are a lot of young couples coming and going (the chair) and I think they've been stressed out, and I think they have any special feelings for the Gangnam area," he said. "Even though this person is said to have a history of mental illness, if he thought about not being arrested by the police, he could continue to be satisfied." "To solve this problem, it's an unspecified number of crimes that choose as a way to relieve their stress when they don't find something to solve," he said. "To solve that problem, it's a kind of way for our society as a whole to pay attention to those people and solve the negative aspects through communication." "There is a danger that women's misogyny can be put to the fore," she said. "The concept of a confrontation between sexes is under considerable stress now that some people call it a misogyny crime," adding, "It is not desirable for society to be swayed by a single criminal statement." "The primary reason is that there are quite a few young women in and out of the area (Gangnam Station)," said a memorial event related to Gangnam Station. "I believe that I can be that person, and that kind of psychological panic is spreading.”
The 20th National Assembly president-elect of the Democratic Party, along with Pyo Chang-won, who once served as a profiler, said, "It is clear that it is a crime against unrelated women, including the history of the chair's mental illness," but added, "It is also true that there is a twisted male-centered subculture represented by Ilbe and Soranet." Meanwhile, he expressed his opposition to the politicization of crimes on the murder case at Gangnam Station.
In a commentary, the Labor Party, an outside party, described the case as a "female hate crime," while "do not ask" refers to crimes characterized by impulsive acts of abuse against an unspecified person. The murder at Gangnam Station was neither directed nor impulsive toward an "unspecified majority." He chose the location of the crime, and waited for "women" to come in for more than an hour. And the motive for the crime, 'for being ignored by a woman,' proves that the case is not a 'killer' but a murder due to misogyny. Denying and not taking countermeasures against misogyny crimes can lead to another similar misogyny crime.
Hong Seong-soo, a law professor at Sookmyung Women's University, said the case is not just about "anyone" but about "anyone among women," so it is not too much to be seen as a misogyny case. Hong said, "Now that the subject of the crime was a matter of "anyone" versus "anyone of women," I think it's safe to see the case as a misogyny crime. The problem of these crimes should be taken seriously. Based on unjustified anger, crimes are often brutal. The members of the group are terrified to target all groups. If it is "don't ask questions" targeting unspecified people, the scope of potential victims will be broadened, which is unlikely to be considered a "my problem." However, if there are frequent crimes against a certain group, such as women, foreigners and sexual minorities, it becomes a 'my problem' for the members of the group.”
Bang Yi-seul of the Korea Sexual Violence Counseling Center said, "It is rather out of touch with reality to see the case as irrelevant to misogyny through the identity of the perpetrator, because the original misogyny itself is not done on a logical basis, but only because it is a woman."
Seo Cheon-seok, a psychiatrist for youth psychiatry, said, "The symptoms of mental illness are in the social context," adding, "The problem is that he said he committed crimes 'because women ignored me.' It has a social context and it is 'female disgust,'" he pointed out. "In the past authoritarian dictatorship, many Cho Hyun-byung patients complained of hearing, telling me that the Central Intelligence Agency was following me and eavesdropping," and saying, "In the late 1980s, the CIA should pay attention to the emergence of "female hatred" as in the late 2000s, and that if a woman-hating consciousness is developing into a symptom of mental illness, this kind of change in society as a whole." Or is this the cause of the suspicion?' We have to stop this low-level debate." As for public reaction, "The reason this case became a big issue is not because of what one criminal said, but because of the dangerous reality in our society where the crime took place. Women are not safe, as the percentage of victims in violent incidents is eight times more than that of men," he said.
Professor Bae Eun-kyung of the sociology department at Seoul National University said, "If the incident was caused by real schizophrenia, it shows the unconsciousness that misogyny worked," adding, "The aggression shown in irrational and irrational thinking shows the unconscious structure facing women."
Lee Woong-hyeok, a professor of police administration at Konkuk University, explained both cases of misogyny crime and the combination of two factors: misogyny and mental illness. Lee first explained that police did not believe the suspect was targeted at women because they did not believe it was credible. However, if the motive for targeting women is true, it could be seen as a hate crime," he said. "When I approach a woman in social life, I think I'm being ostracized, or because I had this kind of emotional shock, I think there was a problem in my mental judgment. If so, it clearly has a slightly different nature to view this as a mere pattern of motorized crime, so-called "questionless crime," that has occurred so far. Because there has been a lot of the so-called hate, demeaning expressions and moods for women in our society recently. For example, 'Kimchi girl' or 'Doenjang Girl' and a number of other disparaging expressions, it clearly had vague hatred and hatred of women by some excluded and marginalized men." As to the growing impact of the incident, he said, "For now, I think it could be interpreted that most women share a lot of sympathy with this case. "I feel like I'm joining in remembrance in this sense, with a sense of empathy for enough victims, and for women's social and structural discriminatory treatment, wage structure and other socio-economic positions," he said.
Lee Soo-jeong, a criminal psychology professor at Kyonggi University who sees the "targeted women" statement itself as "not credible," said after interviewing the assailant, "The level of schizophrenia was so severe that it was so difficult to make realistic judgments during schizophrenia that it was almost impossible to make a realistic judgment on a particular group of people." "It was an attack on something that looked weaker than yourself in hallucinations or oblivion, not a misogyny crime," she asserted. It also stressed "poor management of the mentally ill." On the other hand, the drug-induced psychosis treatment was more effective than expected and suggested that "if someone had kept taking the drug now, it would not have happened now."
Lee Na-young, a sociology professor at Chung-Ang University, diagnosed it as "not a direct hate crime, but I think it can be seen as a crime caused by disgust imprinted on unconsciousness." She also assessed how people accepted the case rather than whether an individual felt misogyny and killed it. She said it should look in the context of why the public has taken issue with the crime of misogyny, with many responding to the campaign to post a memorial note and criticize misogyny.
Some say the move is only natural when women are relatively weak in a male-dominated society. "This case is a crime based on innocent women's sacrifice and misogyny," Shin Kwang-young said "This could be an opportunity for us to strongly demand a new social-level awareness and response to misogyny because of the campaign." Shin said "Seeing this move as an overreaction means that the Gender-aware education has not been done properly,” "The entire Korean society is male-dominated. Language violence, physical violence, and even murder are occurring based on misogyny, although they differ. It can be seen as a matter of society, not of individuals anymore," he stressed. "Public hate speech and crime against foreigners, women and minorities should be punished through legislation," he said. "We should also strengthen the perception that it is a serious crime through education."
Mental illness abhorrence
Medical workers also have considerable concerns about the crime being dismissed as a matter of 'mental illness.' They say that even though there is no causal relationship between schizophrenia and extreme violence, it can have an unfair effect on patients with schizophrenia. In fact, according to the 《2011 Crime Analysis Report》 prepared by the Supreme Prosecutors' Office of the Republic of Korea, the crime rate of schizophrenia patients is one-tenth that of that of ordinary people.
Crime vulnerability in public toilet
It was pointed out that the case occurred in men's and women's public bathrooms without door locks or locks were relatively vulnerable to crime. Rep. Pyo Chang-won, president-elect of the National Assembly, said, "The excessive crime risk sensitivity promoted by the government, which emphasizes unsafe environmental design (such as public restrooms) and advanced security countries, is also a part of the problem."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Memorials for the victim of Seocho-dong public toilet murder case.|
- "주점 화장실에서 20대 여성 살해한 피의자 검거" [Police arrested a suspect in a murder of woman in her 20s at the bar public toilet]. Seoul Seocho Police Station. 18 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 설, 승은 (22 May 2016). "강남 묻지마 살인, 정신질환자 전형적 범죄…'女가 괴롭혀' 망상" [Motiveless murder in Gangnam, typical crimes of a mental patient... The delusion that women are bothering him.]. Yonhap News. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 임, 정요 (23 May 2016). "Pink elephant's 'Zootopia' protest aggravates Gangnam murder controversy". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 옥, 현주 (22 May 2016). "Gangnam murder was not a hate crime: police". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 서, 유미 (13 January 2017). "'강남역 살인 사건' 범인 항소심도 징역 30년" ['Kangnam Station murder case' criminal appellate sentence 30 years in prison]. Seoul Shinmun. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 이, 가영 (13 April 2017). "'강남역 묻지 마 살인사건' 범인 징역 30년 확정" [30 years in prison for the killer of Gangnam Station]. JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 최, 성욱 (19 May 2016). ""강남역 화장실 살인, 여성혐오 동기 아니다"…경찰, '정신분열 범행' 입장" ["Murder in Gangnam Station, not misogynistic." Police position, 'schizophrenic crime']. Newsis. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 한, 영익 (22 May 2016). "경찰 "강남역 살인사건은 '묻지마 범죄'"" [Police said the murder case at Gangnam Station was a 'Motiveless crime']. JTBC. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- "강남역 한복판서 "여자들이 나를 무시했다" 묻지마 살인" ["Women ignored me" motiveless crime in the middle of Gangnam Station.]. 스포츠경향 (in Korean). 18 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 이, 현지 (19 May 2016). "강남역 묻지마 살인 피의자에 프로파일러 투입… 경찰 "여성 혐오 범죄 아니다"" [Putting a profiler in a motiveless murder suspect at Gangnam Station... Police said "It's not a misogynistic crime."]. News Inside. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 연, 규욱 (20 May 2016). "`강남역 살인` 수사에 프로파일러 추가 투입…추모열기 이어져" ['Murder at Gangnam Station' Add profilers to the investigation... cherishing the memory of victims atmosphere continued]. MBN. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 윤, 정민 (22 May 2016). "경찰 "강남역 살인 '정신질환에 의한 묻지마 범죄'"…김씨 "난 여성혐오 아냐" 주장" [Police said the murder of Kangnam Station was a 'motiveless crime caused by mental illness'... Mr. Kim insists, "I'm not a misogynist."]. JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 조, 유경 (23 May 2016). "강남역 '묻지마 살인사건', 조현병 환자도 계획범죄 가능" [Motiveless murder case at Gangnam Station, patients with schizophrenia can also commit premeditated crimes.]. News.donga.com. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 박, 규리 (24 May 2016). "강남역 살인사건 현장검증, 경찰 "미안한 마음 간간히 표현했다"" [On-site verification of the murder case in Gangnam Station, "The suspect expressed his feelings of regret," the police said.]. Asia news agency. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 원, 호연; 김, 진원 (24 May 2016). "[강남역 살인사건 현장검증] 피의자 "담담하다"…범행 묵묵히 재연" [[Site Check of Gangnam Station Murder] Suspect "Shameful"... a silent reenactment of a crime]. Herald economy. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 박, 용하 (14 October 2016). "'강남역 살인사건' 범인, 징역 30년" [30 years in prison for the murder of Gangnam Station.]. Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- 황, 재하 (12 January 2017). "강남 '묻지마' 살인범 2심도 징역 30년…"범행 중대성 고려"" [The second trial of a suspect in a murder case at Gangnam Station also carries a 30-year prison sentence... 'Considering the gravity of the crime']. Yonhap News. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 최, 원우 (19 May 2016). ""여자라서 죽었다" vs "정신 이상자의 개인 범행일뿐" 강남역 묻지마 살인 사건, 여성 혐오 논란으로 비화" ["She died because she was a woman" vs. "It's just a personal crime of a psychopath", The murder case of Gangnam Station has sparked controversy over misogyny.]. Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 김, 예지 (20 May 2016). "강남역 10번 출구에 간 '일베 화환'의 최후" [The End of a wreath of 'Ilbe' at Exit 10 of Gangnam Station]. Ohmynews. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- "강남역 추모 현장에 '핑크 코끼리' 등장…정체는 일베?" ['Pink Elephant' appeared at the memorial site of Gangnam Station... identity of that is Ilbe?]. Seoul Shinmun. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 박, 세환 (21 May 2016). "강남역 살인사건 현장에 나타난 핑크코끼리 '논란'" [Controversy over 'Pink Elephant' appearing at the site of a murder case in Gangnam Station]. Kukmin Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 오, 로라 (23 May 2016). ""'묻지마' 아니라 '여성혐오' 범죄"…20대 여성들 항의 퍼포먼스, 바닥에 드러누워" ["Not motiveless crime, this is ’Misogyny’ crime"… A protest performance for women in their 20s, lying on the floor.]. Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 정, 봉오 (19 May 2016). "전문가 "강남역 묻지마 살인, 여성혐오? 사건 본말 전도 위험…약자 택한 것 뿐"" [Expert said “Seocho-dong public toilet motiveless murder case, Misogyny? The risk of reversing the case’s the right order of things… Just we have chosen the weak.”]. News.donga.com. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 표, 창원 (26 May 2016). "강남·부산 묻지마 범죄에 표창원 "범죄의 정치화는 반대한다"" [Pyo Chang-won, “I oppose to the criminalization of politics.” about motiveless crimes in Gangnam and Busan]. MBN. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- "[여성위원회 논평] 강남역 여성혐오 살인사건에 부쳐 - '묻지마 사건'에 대해 묻는다" [Put to Seocho-dong misogyny murder case - ask about 'Motiveless crime']. Laborparty.kr. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 김, 예지 (19 May 2016). "정신병력 거론, 가해자에게 면죄부 주는 것" [Mention of mental illness; absolve the perpetrator of an offense]. Ohmynews. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 최, 민영 (19 May 2019). ""정신병의 증상은 사회적 맥락"... 서천석 정신과 전문의 '강남 살인사건'은 "여성혐오" 지적" ["Symptoms of mental illness are in the social context”… Psychiatrist Seo Cheon-seok points out that "Seocho-dong murder case" is a "misogyny."]. Kyunghyang Shinmun. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 황, 덕현; 정, 수영; 최, 은지 (19 May 2016). "묻지마 살인 아니라 여성혐오 살인이다" [Not motiveless murder, it is murder of misogyny]. News1. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 신, 율 (20 May 2016). "[신율의출발새아침] 강남묻지마 '여성혐오'와 '정신분열' 함께 잠복된 사건" [Shin Yul’s start new morning - Seocho-dong 'Motiveless crime' murder case, an case in which 'Misogyny' and ‘Schizophrenia' were concealed together]. YTN. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 이, 재은 (20 May 2016). "강남역 살인 추모 신드롬화…"여성혐오 단정은 과잉반응"" [Remembrance of Seocho-dong murder case become syndrome… “It is an overreaction to predicate misogyny.”]. Segye Ilbo. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 한, 수진 (23 May 2016). "[한수진의 SBS 전망대] "4대 강력범죄 피해자 87%가 여성, 체계적 보호필요"" [Han Soo-Jin’s SBS observatory - 87% of the victims of the four major violent crimes are women. They need systematic protection.]. SBS. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 설, 승은 (19 May 2016). "강남 화장실 여성 '묻지마 살인범' 무의식엔 혐오 각인" [Seocho-dong public toilet murder case, abhorrence is imprinted on the ‘Motiveless crime’ killer's unconscious mind.]. Yonhap News. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- 김, 길원; 김, 병규 (22 May 2016). "'화장실 살인'…정신분열증이 '여성 피해망상' 불렀나" [‘Murder in the bathroom’… Is schizophrenia caused him a ‘persecution complex about female’?]. Yonhap News. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
- "엿보고 찍고... 잠금장치 없는 공포의 공용화장실" [Peeping inside and taking a photo... Public toilet of fear without locks]. YTN. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.