Endō in 1954
March 27, 1923|
|Died||September 29, 1996
|Literary movement||"Third Generation"|
|Spouse||Junko Endo (wife, m. 1955)|
Shūsaku Endō (遠藤 周作 Endō Shūsaku, March 27, 1923 – September 29, 1996) was a Japanese author who wrote from the rare perspective of a Japanese Roman Catholic. Together with Junnosuke Yoshiyuki, Shōtarō Yasuoka, Junzo Shono, Hiroyuki Agawa, Ayako Sono (his co-religionist), and Shumon Miura, Endō is categorized as one of the "Third Generation", the third major group of Japanese writers who appeared after World War II.
Soon after Endō was born in Tokyo in 1923, his family moved to Dalian, part of the Kwantung Leased Territory in Manchuria. When his parents divorced in 1933, Endō's mother brought him back to Japan to live with an aunt in Kobe. Endō was baptized as a Catholic at the age of 11 or 12 in the year 1934. Some say this was brought on by his mother, who had converted to Catholicism after her divorce, while others state the aunt instigated the initiation.
Endō began studying at Keio University in 1943, but his studies were interrupted by the war; he worked in a munitions factory. Nonetheless, he contributed to literary journals during this period. In 1968, he would become chief editor of one of these, the prestigious Mita Bungaku.
His alma mater is not the only university Endō is associated with. He first attended Waseda University for the stated purpose of studying medicine. An interest in French Catholic authors precipitated a visit to the University of Lyon beginning in 1950, and he lectured at at least two Tokyo universities. In 1956, he was hired as an instructor at Sophia University, and Seijo University assigned him the role of "Lecturer on the Theory of the Novel" in 1967. He was considered a novelist not a university professor, however.
In 1954, a year after completing his studies in France, he won the Akutagawa Prize for Shiroi Hito (White Men). Endō married Okada Junko, a year later. They had one son, Ryūnosuke, born in 1956.
Throughout his life bouts of disease plagued him, and he spent two years in hospital at one point. In 1952, while studying in France, he came down with pleurisy in Paris. A return visit in 1960 prompted another case of the same disease, and he stayed in hospital (in France and Japan) for the greater part of three years. It is possible that he may have contracted tuberculosis, underwent thoracoplasty, and had a lung removed.
While Endō wrote in several genres, his oeuvre is strongly tied to Christianity if not Catholicism. Endō has been called "a novelist whose work has been dominated by a single theme... belief in Christianity." Others have said that he is "almost by default... [labeled] a 'Japanese Catholic author' struggling to 'plant the seeds of his adopted religion' in the 'mudswamp' of Japan." He often likened Japan to a swamp or fen. In the novel Silence, an official tells a priest who has apostatized, "Father, it was not by us that you were defeated, but by this mudswamp, Japan." In Endo's stage version of this story, The Golden Country, this official also says: "But the mudswamp too has its good points, if you will but give yourself up to its comfortable warmth. The teachings of Christ are like a flame. Like a flame they set a man on fire. But the tepid warmth of Japan will eventually nurture sleep." Thus, many of Endo's characters are allegories.
He may not be embraced by fellow Christians—Catholics, in particular. Some of his characters (many of whom are allegories) may reference non-Western religions. While not the main focus of his works, a few of Endō's books mention Kakure Kirishitans. Incidentally, he used the term "かくれ切支丹" instead of the more common "かくれキリシタン".
His books reflect many of his childhood experiences, including the stigma of being an outsider, the experience of being a foreigner, the life of a hospital patient, and the struggle with tuberculosis. However, his books mainly deal with the moral fabric of life.
His Catholic faith can be seen at some level in all of his books and it is often a central feature. Most of his characters struggle with complex moral dilemmas, and their choices often produce mixed or tragic results.
In The Sea and Poison, one of the narrators, a salaryman, stumbles across evidence that American prisoners of war were used as guinea pigs and then killed, but did the experimenters want anything more than this narrator, "just an ordinary bit of happiness"? Yellow Man starts with the quotation, "I know your works; you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were cold or hot! So, because you are lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spew you out of my mouth." A character says, " A yellow man like me has absolutely no experience of anything so profound and extreme as the consciousness of sin you white men have. All we experience is fatigue, a deep fatigue—a weariness murky as the color of my skin, dank, heavily submerged." A series of essays comments on "the threefold insensitivity of the Japanese": insensitivity to God, sin, and death.
While he lost out to Kenzaburō Ōe the 1994 Nobel prize for literature, he received the Order of Culture the subsequent year. Endō died shortly thereafter from complications of hepatitis at Keio University Hospital in Tokyo on September 29, 1996.
Partial list of works
- 白い人 (White Man) (1955)
- 黄色い人 (Yellow Man) (1955): A novella in the form of a letter written by a young man, no longer a practicing Catholic, to his former pastor, a French missionary.
- 海と毒薬 (The Sea and Poison) (1957): Set largely in a Fukuoka hospital during World War II, this novel is concerned with medical experimentation carried out on downed American airmen. It is written with alternating points of view: the bulk of the story is written with a subjective, limited (but shifting) third-person view; three segments are told in first-person view. Inspired by true events, this novel was made into the 1986 movie The Sea and Poison. Directed by Kei Kumai, it stars Eiji Okuda and Ken Watanabe.
- おバカさん (Wonderful Fool) (1959): A story about a kind, innocent and naive Frenchman visiting post-war Tokyo. Gaston Bonaparte is a Christ-like figure who comes to live with a Japanese family. He befriends a variety of "undesirables" including stray dogs, prostitutes and a killer. In spite of this unusual behavior he changes everyone he meets for the better.
- 十一の色硝子 (Stained Glass Elegies) (1959) Translated to English in 1984.
- 火山 (Volcano) (1960): A novel concerning three declining figures: an apostate Catholic priest, the director of a weather station in provincial Japan, and the volcano on which the latter is an expert.
- 私が棄てた女 (The Girl I Left Behind) (1964): A story of a young man and his mismatches with an innocent young woman. As Endō writes in the foreword to the English translation, one of the characters has a connection with Otsu, a character in Endo's later novel Deep River.
- 留学 (Ryūgaku) Foreign Studies (1965) Three linked narratives chart the gulf between East and West. Evoking Paris in the 1960's, 17th century Rome and provincial France in the post WWII years Endo acutely conveys the alienation felt by three Japanese students when confronted by the spiritual values and culture of Europe.
- 沈黙 (Silence) (1966): Winner of the Tanizaki Prize and Endō's most famous work, it is generally regarded as his masterpiece. Silence has been published into English by Peter Owen Publishers, London. This historical novel tells the story of a Catholic missionary priest in early 17th-century Japan, who apostatizes to save the lives of several people, and then becomes a retainer of the local lord, but continues to keep the Christian faith in private. The character is based on the historical figure of Giuseppe Chiara. The book inspired the feature film adaptations Silence (1971) by Masahiro Shinoda, Os Olhos da Ásia (1996) by Portuguese film director João Mário Grilo, and Silence (2016) by Martin Scorsese. was premiered in Vatican City on November 29, 2016, and was released in the United States on December 23, 2016.
- The Golden Country (1966): A play featuring many of the characters who appear in the novel Silence.
- 死海のほとり ("Banks of the Dead Sea") (1973)
- イエスの生涯 (Life of Jesus) (1973)
- 口笛をふく時 (When I Whistle) (1974)
- 王妃マリーアントワネット (Marie Antoinette) (1979): This book inspired the musical Marie Antoinette by German musical dramatist and lyricist Michael Kunze.
- 侍 (The Samurai) (1980): A historical novel relating the diplomatic mission of Hasekura Tsunenaga to Mexico and Spain in the 17th century. In 1613 a small group of samurai together with a Spanish missionary travel to Mexico, Spain and eventually Rome. The missionary (Pedro Velasco) hopes to become primate of a Catholic Japan and his mission is to bargain for a crusade to Japan in return for trading rights.
- 女の一生：キクの場合 (Kiku's Prayer) (1982): A novel set during the final period of Christian persecutions in Japan in the 1860s.
- 私の愛した小説 (Novels loved by me) & 本当の私を求めて (Search for the real me) (1985)
- スキャンダル (Scandal) (1986): Set in Tokyo, the book is about a novelist who finds himself caught up in the scandal of the title. One man's apparently successful attempt to live a good life is extinguished by evil. "Scandal" addresses the great questions of our age - how can we straddle the gulf between faith and modernity? How can humankind be so tender and yet so cruel?
- 深い河 (Deep River) (1993): Set in India, it chronicles the physical and spiritual journey of a group of five Japanese tourists who are facing a wide range of moral and spiritual dilemmas. Working among the poor, sick and dying one of the group finds the man that she seduced long ago at college in an attempt to undermine his faith.
- The Final Martyrs (English translation in 2008) A series of eleven short stories published in Japan between 1959 and 1985.
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- 1955 Akutagawa Prize — White Men (Shiroi hito 「白い人」)
- 1966 Tanizaki Prize — Silence (Chinmoku 「沈黙」)
- 1971 Order of St. Sylvester
- 1995 Order of Culture (文化勲章)
The Syusaku Endo Literature Museum, in Sotome, Nagasaki, is devoted to the writer's life and works.
- Morton, Leith (November 1994). The Image of Christ in the Fiction of Endō Shūsaku. Working Papers in Japanese Studies. 8. Japanese Studies Center, Monash University, Australia.
- Williams, Mark B. (21 June 1999). Endō Shūsaku: a literature of reconciliation. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-14481-0.
- Van C. Gessel (translator)
- Olive Classe. Encyclopedia of literary translation into English: A-L. Taylor & Francis. p. 406. ISBN 978-1-884964-36-7. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
- Williams, p. 225
- Morton, p. 1
- Shusaku Endo Is Dead at 73; Japanese Catholic Novelist New York Times. September 30, 1996. Case, Eric.
- Williams, p. 226
- Morton, p. 2
- Sharma, OP. "Shushaku Endo (1923-1996): his tuberculosis and his writings". Postgrad Med J. 82: 157–61. PMC . PMID 16517794. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2005.037366.
- Morton, p. 3
- Morton, p. 11
- Francis Mathy, SJ, of Sophia University, (1974), Wonderful Fool (Obaka San), Tokyo: Tuttle, p. 6, OCLC 1858868.
- Morton, p. 8
- Emi Mase-Hasegawa (2008). Christ in Japanese culture: theological themes in Shusaku Endo's literary works. BRILL. p. 24. ISBN 978-90-04-16596-0. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Revelation 3:15-16.
- Francis Mathy, SJ, of Sophia University, (1974), " Introduction ", Wonderful Fool (Obaka San), Tokyo: Tuttle, pp. 5-7, ISBN 9780068598534.
- Williams, p. 1
- Williams, p. 60
- Morton, p. 4
- Morton, p. 5
- McNary, D. "Martin Scorsese Locks Funding for ‘Silence’". Variety. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
- Jaugernauth, Kevin (August 5, 2016). "Martin Scorsese Says 2016 Release Of ‘Silence’ "Depends On Paramount"". The Playlist. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Friedman, Roger (August 4, 2016). "Oscars: Martin Scorsese Says "Silence" Will Be Golden for End of Year Release". Showbiz411. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Phillips, Caryl (January 3, 2003), "Confessions of a True Believer", theguardian.com, Guardian Media Group
- Yancey, Philip (February 1996). "Japan's Faithful Judas". Books & Culture. 2 (1).