Sixth-generation jet fighter

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An early design concept of the Boeing F/A-XX.
The Boeing F/A-XX concept design as of 2013.

A sixth-generation jet fighter is a conceptualized class of fighter aircraft design more advanced than the fifth-generation jet fighters that are currently in service in the United States and in development in other countries. The United States Air Force (USAF) and United States Navy (USN) are anticipated to field their first sixth-generation fighters in the 2025–30 time frame.[1] The USAF is pursuing development and acquisition of a sixth-generation fighter through the F-X program to complement existing platforms in service such as the Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor. The USN is pursuing a similar program called the Next Generation Air Dominance, likewise intended to complement and/or replace its existing aircraft such as the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.[2]

History[edit]

On October 10, 2012, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Frank Kendall justified the need to start the program.[3]

In April 2013, DARPA started a study to try to bridge the USAF and USN concepts.[4]

The Pentagon 2015 budget request has studies to lead to an acquisition program in fiscal year 2018.[5]

Frank Kendall revealed that funding for initial sixth generation fighter development would be requested in the FY 2016 budget. Next-generation fighter efforts will initially be led by DARPA under the "Air Dominance Initiative" to develop prototype X-planes. The agency as well as industry are known to have started internal research on potential sixth generation technologies for several years. Kendall confirmed that Navy and Air Force will each have variants focused on their mission requirements.[6]

In 2016 the USAF announced a change of course to pursue "a network of integrated systems disaggregated across multiple platforms" rather than a "sixth generation fighter" in its Air Superiority 2030 plan.[7]

Design concepts[edit]

Dubbed the "Next Generation Tactical Aircraft"/"Next Gen TACAIR",[8] the USAF seeks a fighter with "enhanced capabilities in areas such as reach, persistence, survivability, net-centricity, situational awareness, human-system integration and weapons effects," a November 4, 2010 presolicitation notice states. “The future system will have to counter adversaries equipped with next generation advanced electronic attack, sophisticated integrated air defense systems, passive detection, integrated self-protection, directed energy weapons, and cyber attack capabilities. It must be able to operate in the anti-access/area-denial environment that will exist in the 2030–50 timeframe.”[9][10]

The sixth-generation fighters are expected to use advanced engines such as Adaptive Versatile Engine Technology to allow longer ranges and higher performance. Risk reduction began in 2012 so that engine development can start around 2020. An engine is to be ready when fighters are introduced by the Navy in 2028 and the Air Force in 2032.[11]

USAF General Mike Hostage has said that they have yet to decide on which features will define the sixth-generation fighters.[12]

In November 2013, the Air Force Research Laboratory released a request for information (RFI) for a laser weapon that could be mounted on next-generation air dominance fighters by the 2030s. The Air Force is interested in three categories of lasers: low-power for illuminating, tracking, targeting, and defeating enemy sensors; moderate-power for protection to destroy incoming missiles; and high-power to offensively engage enemy aircraft and ground targets. The laser and systems controls are to work at altitudes from sea level to 65,000 ft at speeds from Mach 0.6 to Mach 2.5. Laser submissions are to be at technology readiness level 4 (basic components work in a lab) by October 2014, and the Air Force wants a system to be at technology readiness level 5 (system components work in a simulated environment) or higher by 2022. The RFI requests submissions with detailed descriptions in a militarily useful configuration, potential problems and solutions, and cost estimates.[13]

The RAND Corporation has recommended that the U.S. military services avoid joint programs for the development of the design of a sixth-generation fighter. Studies by RAND have found that in previous joint programs, different service-specific requirements for complex programs have led to design compromises that raise costs far more than normal single-service programs. In a comparison between four recent joint service programs (F-35, Joint Strike Fighter, T-6A Texan II Joint Primary Aircraft Training System, E-8 JSTARS, V-22 Osprey) and four recent single-service programs (C-17 Globemaster III, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, F-22 Raptor, T-45 Goshawk), costs for joint programs rose 65 percent nine years after a Milestone B decision to move into engineering and manufacturing development compared to 24 percent for independent programs during the same timespan.[14]

Engine development for sixth generation fighters is already underway to be more efficient in making jets faster and giving them a longer range. While current engines operate best at a single point in the flight envelope, newer engines could vary their bypass ratios for optimum efficiency at any speed or altitude. That would give an aircraft a much greater range, faster acceleration, and greater subsonic cruise efficiency. A variable-cycle engine could configure itself to act like a turbojet at supersonic speeds, while performing like a high-bypass turbofan for efficient cruising at slower speeds; the ability to supercruise may not be a critical requirement, but it will likely be able to with the engine type. One critical component is the adaptive fan to allow the engine to vary its bypass ratio depending on altitude and speed with a third stream of air to increase or decrease the bypass ratio. A low-bypass configuration would be used for take offs and supersonic flight, and a high-bypass configuration would have high propulsive efficiency for cruising. The U.S. Navy and Air Force have different sixth generation fighter development programs, but both services are working together on engine development. The Air Force is aiming for a Milestone A decision by 2018, with a production version to be ready possibly by 2021. Companies involved with next-generation engine development include General Electric and Pratt & Whitney.[15]

On 30 July 2014, General Mike Hostage spoke about the evolving nature of proposed sixth-generation fighter requirements at an event hosted by the Air Force Association (AFA). Since Air Combat Command released a request for information (RFI) in 2009 for industry feedback on sixth-generation air dominance technologies, teams thinking of requirements have been told not to think in terms of a "platform" like a single-seat fighter with a certain number of engines. Hostage remarked that if next-generation air dominance capabilities came from pressing "a single button on a keyboard that makes all our adversaries fall to the ground" it would be acceptable. Concepts from the Air Force and industry have so far revolved around supersonic tailless aircraft. One of the key limitations in relying on a single platform is they have a limited weapons load, so the original RFI sought ground-based and non-kinetic solutions, with whatever sixth-generation technology being required to have a larger magazine than current fighter solutions.[16]

There are significant differences between Navy and Air Force visions for their respective next-generation jet concepts, but both agree on some fundamental characteristic aspects they will share. American sixth-generation fighters are to feature artificial intelligence as a decision aid to the pilot, similar in concept to how advanced sensor fusion is used by the F-22 and F-35. They will also have Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT), and communications that allow big data movement between both service's aircraft.[17]

Air Force General Herbert Carlisle said in February 2015 that stealth is "incredibly important" for their next-generation F-X fighter. This contrasts with statements made by Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Jonathan Greenert that their F/A-XX fighter might not be so focused on survivability as to sacrifice speed and payload. Unlike the previous F-22 and F-35 development programs that depended on new technologies that drove up cost and delayed introduction, the Air Force is intending to follow a methodical path of risk reduction to include as much prototyping, technology demonstration, and systems engineering work as possible before creation of an aircraft actually starts. Carlisle describes the sixth-generation strike capability not as just an aircraft, but a system of systems including communications, space capabilities, standoff, and stand-in options.[18]

In March 2015, the Navy revealed they were working with the Air Force to potentially release joint analysis of alternatives (AoA) in 2016 for their next-generation fighters; they are allowed to take a joint AoA, then define a service solution that would be good for each service. The Navy is focusing on replacing the capabilities of the fighter with a wide range of options for the Super Hornet, as well as the EA-18G Growler. The AoA will run parallel to several other design and technology efforts including engine technology, airframe molds, broadband and IR stealth, and new ways to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum. Part of the Navy's calculus will be based on how the F-35C performs as a critical forward sensor node for the carrier air wing. How the fifth-generation F-35C integrates with the rest of the air wing to give greater capabilities than what the platform itself can do may lend itself to the sixth-generation F/A-XX.[19]

In April 2015, the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA) released a report concluding that the next-generation U.S. Air Force fighter should be larger and more resembling a bomber than a small, maneuverable traditional fighter. It analyzed over 1,450 air-to-air engagements since 1965 and found that long-range weapons and sensors have dramatically decreased instances of dogfighting. With the increase of air defense systems using electronic and infrared sensors and high-speed weapons, traditional designs relying on small size, high speed, and maneuverability may be less relevant and easier to intercept. As a result, the CSBA suggests building a fighter significantly larger relying on enhanced sensors, signature control, networked situational awareness, and very-long-range weapons to complete engagements before being detected or tracked. Larger planes would have greater range that would enable them to be stationed further from a combat zone, have greater radar and IR detection capabilities, and carry bigger and longer-range missiles. One airframe could be fitted with various attachments to fill several roles. The concept of a small number of large, intercontinental and heavily-armed combat aircraft could link itself to the development of the Long Range Strike Bomber.[20]

Examples[edit]

In September 2011, Boeing unveiled a sixth-generation fighter concept for the U.S. Navy and Air Force. It is planned to have supercruise and fly faster and further than the F-35 Lightning II. Boeing is self-funding the project until an official fighter program starts to have a design ready.[21]

Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works division has revealed a conceptual next-generation fighter design that offers the first hints of an ambitious, long-term technology strategy for the new class of tactical aircraft that will emerge after 2030. The concept was published in a 2012 calendar, which was distributed to journalists. Lockheed Martin has called for greater speed, range, stealth and self-healing structures.[22]

In January 2015, Northrop Grumman revealed it had stood up teams dedicated to developing a sixth-generation fighter and that it would compete for the next fighter. Individual teams were created to focus on the specific separate requirements for the Navy and Air Force. The company indicates it is looking at a supersonic tailless jet, something never created before due to complexity; it may also be optionally manned.[23]

International development[edit]

In 2010, the Japanese Ministry of Defence exposed the concept of sixth-generation national product jet fighter.[24] This would be based on the I3 concepts of an aircraft that was informed, intelligent and instantaneous.[25] On March 22, 2016, Japan conducted the first flight of the Mitsubishi X-2 Shinshin testbed aircraft for this project.

On 26 August 2013, Russia revealed it would proceed with development of a sixth-generation jet fighter. They say the aircraft will most likely be pilotless. However, they would not skip completing development of fifth-generation fighter projects, like the Sukhoi T-50.[26]

France has abandoned any attempt to develop an indigenous fifth-generation fighter and have moved resources directly to development of a sixth-generation fighter aircraft.[27]

On the 29th of July 2014, "IHS Jane’s" reported that a House of Commons Defence Select Committee had published a report in late July 2014 about the UK's future, "post-2030 combat aviation force structure". The report highlighted a possibility of the UK committing to a next generation fighter program to potentially replace the Eurofighter Typhoon post-2030, however, the Eurofighter Typhoon has since had its intended service life extended to around 2040.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Sixth Generation Fighter", Airforce Magazine, October 2009, retrieved 28 December 2010 .
  2. ^ "Boeing's fighting comeback", Flightglobal, 12 July 2011, retrieved 22 January 2014 .
  3. ^ Maloof, F Michael (3 November 2012), "U.S. looking to new generation fighter", WND .
  4. ^ Majumdar, Dave (24 April 2013). "DARPA working on sixth-generation fighter study". Flight International. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Air Force Sets Plan To Launch Sixth-Gen Fighter Program In 2018". Inside defense. Inside Washington Publishers. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  6. ^ New Budget Will Feature 6th Gen Fighter - Defensenews.com, 28 January 2015
  7. ^ Seligman, Lara (18 April 2016). "Beyond the Fighter Jet: The Air Force of 2030". www.defensenews.com. Defense News. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  8. ^ "USAF wants F-22 Replacement by 2030", IDRW, Reuters .
  9. ^ USAF: Next Generation Tactical Aircraft (Next Gen TACAIR) Materiel and Technology Concepts Search, US: FBO .
  10. ^ Air Force Kicks Off Search for 6th-Gen Fighter, Defense Tech, 2010-11-05 .
  11. ^ "6th Gen Engines – Pratt In, Rolls Out, GE Stays On", Aviation week, 17 September 2012 .
  12. ^ "ACC chief hints at 6th gen fighter", Air force Times, Nov 2012 .
  13. ^ Air Force Seeks Laser Weapons for Next Generation Fighters, USNI, 20 November 2013 .
  14. ^ The Department of Defense Should Avoid a Joint Acquisition Approach to the Sixth-Generation Fighter (PDF), Rand .
  15. ^ Next Generation Engine Work Points to Future U.S. Fighter Designs, USNI, 23 June 2014 .
  16. ^ USAF debates future fighter requirement, Flight global, 31 July 2014 .
  17. ^ Navy’s Next Fighter Likely to Feature Artificial Intelligence, USNI, 28 August 2014 .
  18. ^ ACC Chief: Stealth ‘Incredibly Important’ For Next USAF Fighter - Aviationweek.com, 12 February 2015
  19. ^ Navy and Air Force Planning Joint Exploration of Next Generation Fighter Follow Ons to F-22 and F/A-18E/F - News.USNI.org, 27 March 2015
  20. ^ Should Future Fighter Be Like A Bomber? Groundbreaking CSBA Study - Breakingdefense.com, 8 April 2015
  21. ^ "Boeing's Sixth-Gen Fighter", Defense tech, 20 September 2011 .
  22. ^ Trimble, Stephen (4 January 2012), "Lockheed reveals bold technology plans with 6th-gen fighter concept", Flight International, Flight global, Russian, Chinese and Indian designs are predicted to follow on from their fifth generation fighters to provide competition to American jets. These are expected to enter service between the 2030–2050 timeframe as well. 
  23. ^ Northrop Developing 6th Gen Fighter Plans - Defensenews.com, 22 January 2015
  24. ^ The research and development vision of a future fighter (Japanese) (PDF), JP: MoD, 25 August 2010 .
  25. ^ Simpson, James (2 February 2016). "Japan's new stealth fighter is a futuristic marvel". theweek.com. War Is Boring. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  26. ^ "Russia Developing Unmanned Next-Generation Fighter", Ria, RU, 26 August 2013 .
  27. ^ "6th-gen Chinese fighter before 2030 highly unlikely says Russian analyst", Want China times, 17 December 2012 .
  28. ^ "UK sets out post 2030 combat aviation force structure", Jane’s, IHS .