Spotsylvania Court House Union order of battle

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The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House (May 8–21, 1864) of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately. Order of battle compiled from the casualty returns[1] and the reports.[2][3]

Abbreviations used[edit]

Military rank[edit]

Other[edit]

Forces operating against Richmond May 8–16, 1864[edit]

LTG Ulysses S. Grant, General-in-Chief, Union armies

Escort:

IX Corps[edit]

MG Ambrose E. Burnside[4]

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Thomas G. Stevenson (k)
     Col Daniel Leasure
     MG Thomas L. Crittenden[5]

1st Brigade


   Col Jacob P. Gould[6]
   Ltc Stephen M. Weld, Jr.
   BG James Ledlie[7]

2nd Brigade


   Col Daniel Leasure[8]
   Ltc Gilbert P. Robinson

Artillery

Second Division
     BG Robert B. Potter

1st Brigade


   Col Zenas Bliss[9]
   Col John I. Curtin

2nd Brigade


   Col Simon G. Griffin

Artillery
  • Massachusetts Light, 11th Battery
  • New York Light, 19th Battery

Third Division
     BG Orlando B. Wilcox

1st Brigade


   Col John F. Hartranft

2nd Brigade


   Col Benjamin C. Christ[11]
   Col William Humphrey[5]

Artillery

Fourth Division[14]
     BG Edward Ferrero

1st Brigade


   Col Joshua K. Sigfried

  • 27th United States Colored Troops
  • 30th United States Colored Troops
  • 39th United States Colored Troops
  • 43rd United States Colored Troops
2nd Brigade


   Col Henry G. Thomas

  • 30th Connecticut Colored (detachment)
  • 19th United States Colored Troops
  • 23rd United States Colored Troops
Artillery
  • Pennsylvania Light, Battery D
  • Vermont Light, 3rd Battery

Reporting directly

Provost Guard
Cavalry
Artillery Reserve[15]


   Cpt John Edwards, Jr.

Provisional Brigade[16]


   Col Elisha G. Marshall

  • 2nd New York Mounted Rifles (dismounted)[17]
  • 14th New York Heavy Artillery
  • 24th New York Cavalry (dismounted)
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Provisional Heavy Artillery

Army of the Potomac[edit]

MG George G. Meade

General Staff:

General Headquarters:

Provost Guard: BG Marsena R. Patrick

Engineer Troops:

  • 50th New York Engineers
  • Battalion United States Engineers

Guards and Orderlies:

  • Independent Company Oneida (New York) Cavalry

II Corps[edit]

MG Winfield S. Hancock

Escort:

  • 1st Vermont Cavalry, Company M
Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Francis C. Barlow

1st Brigade


   Col Nelson A. Miles

2nd Brigade


   Col Thomas A. Smyth

3rd Brigade[18]


   Col Paul Frank[19]
   Col Hiram L. Brown (c)[20]
   Col Clinton D. MacDougall

4th Brigade


   Col John R. Brooke

Second Division
     BG John Gibbon

1st Brigade


   BG Alexander S. Webb (w)
   Col H. Boyd McKeen

2nd Brigade


   BG Joshua T. Owen

3rd Brigade


   Col Samuel S. Carroll (w)
   Col Theodore G. Ellis

Provost Guard
  • 2nd Company Minnesota Sharpshooters

Third Division
     BG David B. Birney

1st Brigade


   BG J. H. Hobart Ward[22]
   Col Thomas W. Egan

2nd Brigade


   Col John S. Crocker

Fourth Division[23]
     BG Gershom Mott

1st Brigade


   Col Robert McAllister

2nd Brigade


   Col William R. Brewster

Artillery Brigade


   Col John C. Tidball

V Corps[edit]

MG Gouverneur K. Warren

Provost Guard:

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Charles Griffin

1st Brigade


   BG Romeyn B. Ayres

2nd Brigade


   Col Jacob B. Sweitzer

3rd Brigade


   BG Joseph J. Bartlett

Second Division[26]
     BG John C. Robinson (w)
     Col Richard Coulter

1st Brigade


   Col Peter Lyle

2nd Brigade


   Col Richard Coulter[28]
   Col James L. Bates

3rd Brigade


   Col Andrew W. Denison (w)
   Col Charles E. Phelps (c)
   Col Richard N. Bowerman

Third Division
     BG Samuel W. Crawford

1st Brigade


   Col William McCandless (w)
   Col William C. Talley (c)
   Col Wellington H. Ent
   Col Samuel M. Jackson

3rd Brigade


   Col Joseph W. Fisher

Fourth Division
     BG Lysander Cutler

1st Brigade


   Col William W. Robinson

2nd Brigade


   BG James C. Rice (k)
   Col Edward B. Fowler

3rd Brigade


   Col Edward S. Bragg

Artillery Brigade


   Col Charles S. Wainwright

VI Corps[edit]

MG John Sedgwick (k)
BG Horatio G. Wright
Escort:

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Horatio G. Wright
     BG David A. Russell

1st Brigade


   Col Henry W. Brown
   Col William H. Penrose

2nd Brigade


   Col Emory Upton (w)

3rd Brigade


   BG David A. Russell
   BG Henry L. Eustis

4th Brigade


   Col Nelson Cross

Second Division
     BG Thomas H. Neill

1st Brigade


   BG Frank Wheaton

2nd Brigade


   Col Lewis A. Grant

3rd Brigade


   Col Daniel D. Bidwell

4th Brigade


   BG Henry L. Eustis
   Col Oliver Edwards

Third Division
     BG James B. Ricketts

1st Brigade


   BG William H. Morris (w)
   Col John W. Schall
   Col William S. Truex[32]

2nd Brigade


   Col Benjamin F. Smith

Artillery Brigade


   Col Charles H. Tompkins

Cavalry Corps[edit]

MG Philip H. Sheridan[33]

Escort:

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Wesley Merritt

1st Brigade


   BG George A. Custer

2nd Brigade


   Col Thomas C. Devin

  • 4th New York
  • 6th New York
  • 9th New York
  • 17th Pennsylvania
Reserve Brigade


   Col Alfred Gibbs

Second Division
     BG David M. Gregg

1st Brigade


   BG Henry E. Davies, Jr.

2nd Brigade


   Col J. Irvin Gregg

Third Division
     BG James H. Wilson

1st Brigade


   Col John B. McIntosh

2nd Brigade


   Col George H. Chapman

1st Brigade Horse Artillery


   Cpt James M. Robertson

  • New York Light, 6th Battery
  • 2nd United States, Batteries B and L
  • 2nd United States, Battery D
  • 2nd United States, Battery M
  • 4th United States, Battery A
  • 4th United States, Batteries C and E

Artillery[edit]

BG Henry J. Hunt[35][36]

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

Artillery Reserve[37]
     Col Henry S. Burton

1st Brigade[38]


   Col J. Howard Kitching

2nd Brigade


   Maj John A. Tompkins

3rd Brigade


   Maj Robert H. Fitzhugh

2nd Brigade Horse Artillery


   Cpt Dunbar R. Ransom

  • 1st United States, Batteries E and G
  • 1st United States, Batteries H and I
  • 1st United States, Battery K
  • 2nd United States, Battery A
  • 2nd United States, Battery G
  • 3rd United States, Batteries C, F, and K
Artillery Park


   Ltc Freeman McGilvery

  • 15th New York Heavy, 2nd Battalion

Forces operating against Richmond May 17–21, 1864[edit]

LTG Ulysses S. Grant, General-in-Chief, Union armies

Escort:

IX Corps[edit]

MG Ambrose E. Burnside[4]

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     MG Thomas L. Crittenden

1st Brigade


   BG James Ledlie

2nd Brigade


   Ltc Gilbert P. Robinson

Provisional Brigade


   Col Elisha G. Marshall

  • 2nd New York Mounted Rifles (dismounted)
  • 14th New York Heavy Artillery
  • 24th New York Cavalry (dismounted)
  • 2nd Pennsylvania Provisional Heavy Artillery
Artillery

Second Division
     BG Robert B. Potter

1st Brigade


   Col John I. Curtin

2nd Brigade


   Col Simon G. Griffin

Artillery
  • Massachusetts Light, 11th Battery
  • New York Light, 19th Battery

Third Division
     BG Orlando B. Wilcox

1st Brigade


   Col John F. Hartranft

2nd Brigade


   Col William Humphrey

Artillery

Fourth Division[14]
     BG Edward Ferrero

1st Brigade


   Col Joshua K. Sigfried

  • 27th United States Colored Troops
  • 30th United States Colored Troops
  • 39th United States Colored Troops
  • 43rd United States Colored Troops
2nd Brigade


   Col Henry G. Thomas

  • 30th Connecticut Colored (detachment)
  • 19th United States Colored Troops
  • 23rd United States Colored Troops
Artillery
  • Pennsylvania Light, Battery D
  • Vermont Light, 3rd Battery

Reporting directly

Provost Guard
Cavalry

Army of the Potomac[edit]

MG George G. Meade

General Staff:

General Headquarters:

Provost Guard: BG Marsena R. Patrick

Engineer Troops:

  • 50th New York Engineers
  • Battalion United States Engineers

Guards and Orderlies:

  • Independent Company Oneida (New York) Cavalry

II Corps[edit]

MG Winfield S. Hancock

Escort:

  • 1st Vermont Cavalry, Company M
Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Francis C. Barlow

1st Brigade


   Col Nelson A. Miles

2nd Brigade


   Col Thomas A. Smyth[39]
   Col Richard Byrnes

3rd Brigade[18]


   Col Clinton D. MacDougall

4th Brigade


   Col John R. Brooke

Second Division
     BG John Gibbon

1st Brigade


   Col H. Boyd McKeen

2nd Brigade


   BG Joshua T. Owen

3rd Brigade


   Col Theodore G. Ellis
   Col Thomas A. Smyth[39]

4th Brigade[41]


   Col Mathew Murphy (w)
   Col James P. McIvor

Provost Guard
  • 2nd Company Minnesota Sharpshooters

Third Division
     BG David B. Birney

1st Brigade


   Col Thomas W. Egan

2nd Brigade


   Col John S. Crocker
   Col Elijah Walker[42]

3rd Brigade


   BG Gershom Mott

4th Brigade


   Col William R. Brewster

Fourth Division[43]
     BG Robert O. Tyler

no brigade organization
Artillery Brigade


   Col John C. Tidball

V Corps[edit]

MG Gouverneur K. Warren

Provost Guard:

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG Charles Griffin

1st Brigade


   BG Romeyn B. Ayres

2nd Brigade


   Col Jacob B. Sweitzer

3rd Brigade


   BG Joseph J. Bartlett

Third Division
     BG Samuel W. Crawford

1st Brigade


   Col Samuel M. Jackson
   Col Martin D. Hardin[45]

2nd Brigade


   Col Richard Coulter (w)
   Col James L. Bates

3rd Brigade


   Col Joseph W. Fisher

Fourth Division
     BG Lysander Cutler

1st Brigade


   Col William W. Robinson

2nd Brigade


   Col Edward B. Fowler[46]
   Col J. William Hofmann

3rd Brigade


   Col Edward S. Bragg

4th Brigade


   Col Peter Lyle

Provost Guard

Reporting directly

Heavy Artillery Brigade


   Col J. Howard Kitching

  • 6th New York Heavy Artillery
  • 15th New York Heavy Artillery, 1st and 3rd Battalions
Maryland Brigade


   Col Richard N. Bowerman

Artillery Brigade


   Col Charles S. Wainwright

VI Corps[edit]

BG Horatio G. Wright
Escort:

  • 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry, Company A
Division Brigade Regiments and Others

First Division
     BG David A. Russell

1st Brigade


   Col William H. Penrose

2nd Brigade


   Col Emory Upton

3rd Brigade


   BG Henry L. Eustis

4th Brigade


   Col Nelson Cross

Second Division
     BG Thomas H. Neill

1st Brigade


   BG Frank Wheaton

2nd Brigade


   Col Lewis A. Grant

3rd Brigade


   Col Daniel D. Bidwell

4th Brigade


   Col Oliver Edwards

Third Division
     BG James B. Ricketts

1st Brigade


   Col William S. Truex

2nd Brigade


   Col Benjamin F. Smith

Artillery Brigade


   Col Charles H. Tompkins

Cavalry[edit]

Brigade Regiments and Others
Torbert's Command


   BG Alfred T. A. Torbert[50]

Artillery[edit]

Division Brigade Regiments and Others

Artillery
     BG Henry J. Hunt[35][51]

2nd Brigade Horse Artillery


   Cpt Dunbar R. Ransom

  • 1st United States, Batteries E and G[52]
  • 1st United States, Batteries H and I
  • 1st United States, Battery K
  • 2nd United States, Battery A
  • 2nd United States, Battery G
  • 3rd United States, Batteries C, F, and K
Artillery Park


   Ltc Freeman McGilvery

  • 15th New York Heavy, 2nd Battalion

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, pages 136–153
  2. ^ Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 1, pages 1162–1168
  3. ^ Multiple commander names indicate command succession of command during the battle or the campaign.
  4. ^ a b The IX Corps was under the direct orders of Lieutenant General Grant until May 24, 1864, when it was assigned to the Army of the Potomac. (see: Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 3, page 169)
  5. ^ a b Assumed command May 12, 1864
  6. ^ Disabled by sickness May 8, 1864
  7. ^ Assumed command May 13, 1864
  8. ^ Commanded the division May 10–12, 1864; disabled by sickness May 14, 1864
  9. ^ Injured May 11, 1864 (see: Gordon C. Rhea, The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  10. ^ a b 1st and 2nd Companies Michigan Sharpshooters attached
  11. ^ Disabled from command May 11, 1864 (see: Gordon C. Rhea, The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  12. ^ Left army May 13, 1864
  13. ^ a b 9th and 10th Companies Ohio Sharpshooters attached
  14. ^ a b In reserve guarding trains
  15. ^ Not engaged; ordered to Washington May 16, 1864
  16. ^ Discontinued as an unattached command and assigned to the First Division May 12, 1864
  17. ^ Joined army May 15, 1864
  18. ^ a b 57th New York was on provost duty at Fredericksburg
  19. ^ Relieved for drunkenness on May 10, 1864 (see: Gordon C. Rhea, The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  20. ^ Assigned May 10, 1864; captured May 12, 1864
  21. ^ a b Detachment 7th New York attached
  22. ^ Relieved for drunkenness on May 12, 1864 (see: Gordon C. Rhea, The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  23. ^ Assigned as the Third and Fourth Brigades of the Third Division May 13, Mott taking command of the former and Brewster of the latter brigade (see: Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 2, pages 709 and 711)
  24. ^ a b 2nd Company Massachusetts Sharpshooters attached
  25. ^ a b Brady's Company Michigan Sharpshooters attached
  26. ^ Robinson was wounded on May 8, 1864. On May 9, 1864 the division was temporarily disbanded, the First Brigade being attached to the Fourth Division, and the Second to the Third Division; the Third Brigade served as an independent command under direct orders of the corps commander. This arrangement continued till May 30, 1864.
  27. ^ Joined May 16, 1864
  28. ^ Coulter assumed command of the division and Bates of the brigade May 8, 1864. The former returned to the brigade May 9, 1864
  29. ^ Left army May 15, 1864
  30. ^ Provost guard of division from May 11, 1864
  31. ^ Joined May 14, 1864
  32. ^ Assumed command May 14, 1864
  33. ^ Cavalry Corps absent on expedition toward Richmond from May 9, 1864
  34. ^ Detached from Cavalry Corps and left at Spotsylvania Court House during Richmond Raid. (see: Gordon C. Rhea, To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13–25, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  35. ^ a b Chief of Artillery to the whole Army
  36. ^ 1st Brigade Horse Artillery detached with Cavalry Corps; 2nd Brigade Horse Artillery attached to the Artillery Reserve (see: Hunt's report)
  37. ^ Disbanded and distributed among the infantry corps May 16, 1864
  38. ^ Transferred to V Corps on May 13, 1864
  39. ^ a b Assigned to command Third Brigade, Second Division, May 17, 1864
  40. ^ Joined May 19, 1864
  41. ^ Joined May 17, 1864
  42. ^ Assigned May 18, 1864
  43. ^ Joined May 18 and 19, 1864
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Transferred from Artillery Reserve May 16, 1864
  45. ^ Assumed command May 18, 1864
  46. ^ Relieved May 21, 1864
  47. ^ Left army May 21, 1864 (see: New York State Military Museum and Veterans Research Center - 84th Infantry Regiment)
  48. ^ Sent to Washington D.C. May 19, 1864
  49. ^ Joined May 21, 1864 (see: Upton's report; Gordon C. Rhea, To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13–25, 1864, The Order of Battle)
  50. ^ Rejoined the army on May 16, 1864, and assumed command of all the cavalry (see: Torbert's report; Official Records, Series I, Volume XXXVI, Part 2, pages 851-852; Gordon C. Rhea, To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13–25, 1864, page 192)
  51. ^ 1st Brigade Horse Artillery detached with Cavalry Corps; 2nd Brigade Horse Artillery stayed with the Army in Reserve (see: Hunt's report)
  52. ^ Attached to Torbert's Command (see: Gordon C. Rhea, To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13–25, 1864, page 192)

References[edit]

  • Rhea, Gordon C. The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8071-3067-2
  • Rhea, Gordon C. To The North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13–25, 1864. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8071-3111-3
  • U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.