Sulukule (literally: "Water tower") is a historic settlement in the Fatih district of Istanbul, Turkey. It is within the area of Istanbul’s historic peninsula, adjacent to the western part of the city walls. The area has historically been occupied by Romani communities. Roma presence in this part of Istanbul dates back to Byzantine times, while it is in the 15th century, upon Ottoman conquest, that the quarter became (reportedly) the first district in the world permanently settled by sedentary Roma.
Sulukule was notable for its entertainment houses, where the Romani performed music and dance to the visitors from in and outside Istanbul. The closure of these entertainment houses in 1992 precipitated serious socio-economic decline in the area.
Today, the quartier of Sulukule is under threat of demolitions due to the ‘urgent’ urban transformation proposals developed by the Fatih and Greater Istanbul municipalities. The proposals go beyond the specific area of Sulukule affecting the whole historic peninsula of Istanbul due to urban transformation process and gentrification driven by private sector and governmental agencies, which is currently threatening Sulukule's centuries-old cultural heritage. This redevelopment is to take place in what is part of the UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. The problematic project is harshly criticized by civil society institutions.