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Superpower is a popular culture term for a fictional superhuman ability. When a character possesses multiple such abilities, the terms super powers or simply powers are used. It is most frequently used in pulp magazines, comic books, science fiction, television programs and film as the key attribute of a superhero.
There is no rigid definition of a "superpower". In popular culture, it may be used to describe anything from minimal exaggeration of normal human traits, magic, to near-godlike abilities including flight, superstrength, projection of destructive energy beams and force fields, invulnerability, telepathy, telekinesis, teleportation, super-speed or control of the weather.
Generally speaking, exceptional-but-not-superhuman fictional characters like Batman, Iron Man, Green Arrow and The Punisher may be classified as superheroes although they do not have any actual superpowers.
Similarly, characters who derive their abilities from artificial, external sources—the Six Million Dollar Man and his bionic limbs, Green Lantern and his power ring, and Tony Stark and his Iron Man armor may be fairly described as having superpowers, but are not necessarily superhuman.
Explanations in fiction
In fiction, seemingly impossible superpowers of superheroes are sometimes given scientific, quasi-scientific, pseudo-scientific or outright supernatural explanations by writers. Most, however, are impossible with current technology and physical laws.
Superpowers based on possible current or future technology, such as machine suits, rockets, bionics and genetic manipulation for example, have their roots in science and science fiction. Superpowers based on Psychic and paranormal powers, for example have their roots in pseudo-science. Other superpowers may be explained using mythology.
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The 1970s brought the development of role-playing games. These games allowed hero characters to development far beyond their initial levels of ability. Superhero themed games soon followed but within the game mechanics of role-playing game systems issues such as the name or visible effects of a form of attack didn't mean very much. The Champions role-playing game took to describing powers by their effects rather than their causes; for example a laser and a lightning bolt were both considered to be forms of Ranged Attack. Another fact they realized is that some powers were simply more useful than others in game terms; to represent this, each power was given a "value" in a point system, with the more powerful abilities costing more to "buy". In addition, players were given options to modify their powers so each character's abilities would be unique. This system has since then influenced many other similar games.
In the 1980s, Marvel Comics began publishing their Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe series, in which the powers of their characters were explained in great detail, often using scientific and pseudo-scientific terms.
Issues of persecution in relation to the possession of superpowers have also been expanded upon. An example of this is the persecution of mutants in the X-Men series.
Superpowers are a commonly used concept in anime. It is often used in popular anime series such as Attack on Titan, One Piece and Code Geass. The type of superpowers may vary from anime to anime. Some may use the same type of superpower more than once or with very little variation between them. Others may use a wide rage of superpowers each of them being unique to only one character.
- Superpower List - A growing list of user-submitted superpowers.
- Superhero Database: Superpowers
- 8 Super Powers, an online Wired Magazine article on how certain superpowers might work
- The Physics of Superheroes, by James Kakalios- a book examining how the powers of several comic book characters would work if they were real.