# Talk:Loudspeaker/Archive 1

This is an archive of older "talk" from the Loudspeaker article up to and including April, 2006.

For the most recent discussion, see Talk:Loudspeaker.

## Line versus point sources?

Would this be the place to have an entry for a line array and point source? or should those be entirely different articles?

You could put them here to begin with. If the article gets too big, someone will move them to their own articles later. --Heron 07:56, 9 Sep 2004 (UTC)

## Split Enclosures section to Loudspeaker enclosure

I believe that it would be a good idea to split the article because although enclosures are part of a loudspeaker, they also are a componant of their own, and it diserves its own article. I have already setup a Subwoofer enclosure Loudspeaker enclosure article and linked about 10 articles there, and then redirected it to Loudspeaker for now. Please comment:

Well, IMHO all enclosures except the band-pass, PR, and dipole are used in non-subwoofer applications also. So if it is split, it would be better to include all enclosures in the article and name it "Loudspeaker enclosures" instead of "Subwoofer enclosure", indicating in the article the common application of each enclosure (i.e. general purpose/bookshelf/subwoofer/etc). Rohitbd 09:53, 10 March 2006 (UTC)
Ok, Thats a good idea, Loudspeaker enclosure would be a better name. So do you agree that it should be split if it goes to Loudspeak enclosure? Fosnez 10:28, 10 March 2006 (UTC)
Well apart from a small change to the name to "Loudspeaker enclosures", I have no issues. However, you may want to get a few more opinions before proceeding. Rohitbd 10:46, 10 March 2006 (UTC)
Indeed I will Fosnez 14:53, 10 March 2006 (UTC)

## Speaker Casing Design

I am currently a media production student studying 3D design as part of my solid modelling module. I am trying to design a futuristic (25 year gap) speaker. Having hunted there appears to be little about the future design of speaker casing most searches have led to dead ends............... can anyone please offer a resultant target?

Hehe, I think in 25 year's time, loudspeakers won't resemble anything we know today and will most likely not require enclosures as we know them. Speculations on future LS design hint at excitation of air molecules without physical diaphrams, much like plasma modulators. Who knows, maybe when we get a grip on the invisible forces surrounding us, we can coax the air molecules to mirror the exact recorded perfomance without our current relatively crude actuators!
Model a small orb with a slight indentation on the top and call it "The Acoustic Exciter" ;)
Visor57 10:38, 9 December 2005 (UTC)

## first picture

Not to nitpick, but the first photo is a single woofer driver, not an entire speaker.

Actually, it IS a loudspeaker; it simply has no enclosure.
Atlant 23:29, 20 Apr 2005 (UTC)

Actually, it is a loudspeaker driver of indeterminate frequency range. Could be woofer, mid-bass, or "full-range."

To be technically correct, a loudspeaker is a complete unit encompassing one or more drive units contained, together with any electronic components (active or passive), within a suitable enclosure.
The system functions as a whole.
Unfortunately the word loudspeaker is easily employed to describe the drive units themselves, and this should be corrected wherever possible.
Visor57 09:22, 9 December 2005 (UTC)
The major problem with this part of the article (picture AND caption) is that this is not a "loudspeaker driver", or at least it should not be referred to as such. This is a cheap, stamped frame, 25 cent piece of junk. It could be used in almost any type of speaker, including "full range with decorative assist". It's a bad example.
AMSTEREO 3:10pm, 16 Jan 2006 (EST)

## what's with the enclosure sketches?

Is it just me, or do those two sketches in the enclosure section tend to come and go randomly on random days? today i can see the first one and not the second one, which is a new phenomenon. Gzuckier 03:18, 9 May 2005 (UTC)

## LFE vs. bass management

I added a little note at the end of subwoofers re: the LFE channel on modern decoders since there is often confusion about its purpose. I'll edit the LFE page later to be more informative instead of blathering about it where its not relevant. MtB

Thanks for that improvement!
Don't forget to sign your notes on "talk" pages (I've done it for you). You can easily include your signature and a timestamp simply by ending your note with ~~~~ (four tildes); that will be replaced by a hyperlink to your Wiki username and the current timestamp.
Atlant 15:49, 20 May 2005 (UTC)

## Charged flames

I removed this aside from the text, as it didn't help to explain how plasma speakers work.

(the electron, which carries the charge in an electrical current, is defined as a negative charge only because the repulsion of positively charged candle flames from a positively charged electrode and towards a negative charge was misunderstood as the flame being blown by a flow of charge carriers from one electrode, which was therefore labeled as positive, needlessly complicating the life of beginning engineering students).

It might belong somewhere in Wikipedia, if it's true. --Heron 18:35, 11 July 2005 (UTC)

## series / parallel connections

This article should include a section on series vs parallel speaker connections. I am trying to figure out the difference, and how those connections are set up, and cannot seem to find a simple explanation.

Speakers can be connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel networks. When connected in series, their impedances are generally additive. When connected in parallel, their impedances are generally described by the formula
${\displaystyle {1 \over {{1 \over Z_{1}}+{1 \over Z_{2}}+\cdots +{1 \over Z_{n}}}}}$
(as with parallel resistors). This change in impedance with either a series or parallel connection may affect the performance of the speakers, the amplifier, or both. When connected in series, there may not be sufficient voltage from the amplifier to drive the speakers to produce an adequate volume. When connected in parallel, the speakers may impose too great a current load on the amplifier, leading to the amp overheating or simply shutting down. Because of this, the use of speakers in series or parallel circuits must be carefully evaluated.
A common solution to this problem in large installations is the use of Constant Voltage Circuits. (And I think these are described elsewhere in the article.)
Atlant 16:40, 18 August 2005 (UTC)

## Two terminals? Or more?

A recent edit to the article stated that "All speakers have two terminals...".

This is incorrect. Some multi-driver speakers allow for the possibility of bi-/tri-amplification by containing separate terminals for the tweeters, midranges, etc. Ordinarily, the multiple "hot" terminals are connected together by jumper wires, but these can be removed to allow separate operation of the separate drivers.

And then there were the off, multi-impedance speakers that contain multiple terminals that connect to multiple taps on the voice coil...

Atlant 14:00, 2 September 2005 (UTC)

In the industry, the terminals used to connect to a loudspeaker are referred to as binding posts, whereas the terminals are the connections of the drive units themselves (some may also have multiple terminals).
It is not uncommon for binding posts to be used as the terminals of expensive drive units.
For Bi-Amping, etc, Dual Binding Posts are required along with removable jumpers.
Binding posts typically facilitate the use of varied cable terminations such as bananna plugs, spade lugs and raw cable cores.
Visor57 09:36, 9 December 2005 (UTC)

## Power Ratings / Capacity

Would someone mind expounding on the various loudspeaker power capacity ratings? What is peak power, program power and continuous power?

Thanks!

Jeb6kids 14:55, 13 September 2005 (UTC)

I think some of those terms are more "markieting speak" than a formally-defined measure. Only "continuous power" strikes me as having a firm definition.
But let's consider what will destroy a speaker:
1. Too much RMS (heating) power. If you flow too much RMS power through the voice coil for too long a period, then the time-integral of the ${\displaystyle I^{2}R}$ heating will melt the voice coil or cause its support structure to catch fire. So too much "continuous power" is bad for a speaker.
2. Too big an instantaneous impulse. This will violently force the voice coil and cone to their mechanical limits and may well break something. For example, the voice coil may break free of the cone.
3. Too much power at a resonant frequency. As with big an instantaneous impulse, this can cause things to be forced against their mechanical limits or cause a fatigue-induced failure in some item.
4. And, of course, long-term fatigue-induced failures that can eventually occur even though you're operating well within the short-term limits described in 1, 2, and 3.
About the only one that's easy to quantify is the RMS power limit; all the others are very dependent on the waveshape and frequency distribution.
Atlant 16:26, 13 September 2005 (UTC)

Atlant is on the right track, but I'd like to add more if I may.

The continous power rating of a drive unit (or complete loudspeaker) is the rating to take note of. This should always be an RMS quantity and refers to the continous amount of [wideband] signal power the driver (or system) can cope with while exhibiting reliable operation considering thermal and mechanical limitations.

The peak power rating or peak music power rating refers to the unit's (or system's) ability to cope with [instantanious] short bursts of high levels of input. This is dependent on the capacity of the drive units in question to cope with the heat and mechanical extremes generated in these very short periods. This is why liquid cooling and extended pole pieces (bumped backplates) were first introduced to HF and LF units respectively. Music material is very dynamic and good quality loudspeakers easily cope with dynamic power levels twice that of the continious rating without risk of failure.

Unfortunately, as noted by Atlant, the marketing guys have jumped all over the P.M.P.O rating of loudspeakers and this is often given precedence over the real power handling capacity, continious RMS power handling.

Visor57 09:59, 9 December 2005 (UTC)