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WikiProject Geography (Rated Start-class, High-importance)
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WikiProject Geology (Rated Start-class, Mid-importance)
WikiProject icon Reef is part of WikiProject Geology, an attempt at creating a standardized, informative, comprehensive and easy-to-use geology resource. If you would like to participate, you can choose to edit this article, or visit the project page for more information.
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Problem with definition?[edit]

The definition of a reef is "[any] feature lying beneath the surface of the water yet shallow enough to be a hazard to ships." Further the article defines that "[seldomly] an artificial obstruction would be created that is a hazard to shipping" so that the term "artificial reef" is a "misnomer".

However such artificial and also quite flimsy constructions designed to obstruct shipping do exist and are quite common. For example, at the entrance of the Portsmouth harbour in the south of England two small submerged balls stand between forts and the coastline and deny passage of ships (only very small vessels can pass over them). I can't find an online reference to these walls but they are clearly marked on navigational maps of the area. The forts are: St Helens Fort, Spitbank Fort, Horse Sand Fort and No Mans Land Fort.

This is a map of the Solent that shows the forts and the walls (although not in great detail):

Actually I did find a reference to this submerged wall here: (search for "submerged barrier")
I found another reference here to a submerged wall build with the intention to obstruct shipping. Does this mean the definition of an "artificial reef" in the article is incorrect? Abstract follows:
"The Knights of St. John fortified Ramla l-Hamra against enemy intrusion. They constructed Vendome battery, which today is inconspicuous and in 1715, even went so far as to construct a submerged wall to deter marauding pirates from landing on the beach." (from

Definition of "articifial reef"[edit]

The definition of "artificial reef" is this article does not match with the definition in the Artificial reef article which says it's a generic "man-made, underwater structure". The definition of the term belongs in that article and any criticism should be moved there.