Talk:Allotropes of phosphorus

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Violet phosphorus[edit]

I've made some new images of the crystal structure of violet P, as I could never visualise the 3D structure (how chains link together) from looking at the structure as typically presented.

I'll put them here in case anyone feels like expanding the text on the structure of violet P.


Ben (talk) 20:10, 25 January 2009 (UTC)

Ben - these are fascinating. thanks for making them and putting them here. i don't know enough to do anything with them, but wanted to let you know i appreciate your efforts.Colbey84 (talk) 13:10, 3 March 2016 (UTC)

English version of the german image Phosphor Modifikationen.png[edit]

Placing this image was problematic in formatting.

White phosphorus and resulting allotropes

How come there is no octaphosphorus?[edit]

You'd think a cube-shaped P8 molecule would be more stable than a P4 tetrahedron, since unlike the tetrahedron, it would have no strain energy (the bond angles would be 90 degrees, which is exactly what one would expect for P-P single bonds in which there was no orbital hybridization).

Yet white phosphorus (which is one of the most easily obtainable forms), is unstable P4 rather than P8, and there is no mention of P8 in the article. Has anyone ever attempted to synthesize P8?

Maybe there is some other reason why the P8 molecule is unstable, but if so, I have no idea what that reason is. Stonemason89 (talk) 12:51, 29 June 2009 (UTC)

Lots of people have pondered this very question. And some alkylidyne-substituted derivatives have been reported, I think. Strain energy is a funny thing since interatomic vectors are not the same as bonds. --Smokefoot (talk) 13:35, 29 June 2009 (UTC)

A neutral P8 molecule has been synthesized using carbenes. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Brentonius (talkcontribs) 13:14, 11 July 2014 (UTC)

this was/is really interesting. maybe something more about this should be added to the page? the Non-existence of... section doesn't say very much. and i'm especially wondering if something about the neutral P8 being synthesized should be included? and, if so, perhaps something about why this is important/why it was done/what practical uses it might have, etc??Colbey84 (talk) 13:09, 3 March 2016 (UTC)

Yellow/White and light exposure[edit]

White phosphorus is a transparent waxy solid that quickly becomes yellow when exposed to light

The picture seems to run counter to that statement, where the block is white on the outside, except for the corner of newly-exposed inside, which is yellow. From the photo I would have concluded that P4 is normally yellow, but when exposed to light slowly turns white - or is there smoething else going on here? (You'll have a hard time convincing me that the inside of a block has been exposed to more light than the outside has.) Also, the white-to-yellow color change indicates that there is some structural/bonding change that's occurring - does anyone know what happens to cause the color change? -- (talk) 19:17, 29 April 2010 (UTC)

I don't know for sure but offer the following explanation: white phosphorus gradually converts to red phosphorus and thus appears yellow. The pictured sample is old and had this transformation (stimulated by heat and light) deep into the bulk, as revealed by the cut. Both white and red phosphorus do oxidize; the oxidation stops at the surface (because of extremely slow oxygen diffusion) and the oxide is white - this is what we see as a whitish tint in the picture. Materialscientist (talk) 03:59, 30 April 2010 (UTC)

Red phosphorus[edit]

"Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C" vs. "Red phosphorus can be converted to white phosphorus upon heating to 260 °C" aren't those statements kind of contradictory? Red converts to white by heating and white converts back to red by heating again? Something is missing or am I missing something? --Spmoura (talk) 16:55, 1 October 2012 (UTC)

I revised the second statement, although I assume that at some temperature the red allotrope would crack back into the white. --Smokefoot (talk) 12:47, 2 October 2012 (UTC)

In the article "Allotropes of phosphorus", the heading "Hittorf's violet phosphorus" should be on the left margin. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:03, 26 April 2013 (UTC)

Convert template[edit]

i put the WP convert template in the White Phosphorus - Production and applications and the Red Phosphorus sections. mostly, i looked it up because i was curious at what air temp the white would spontaneously ignite (and i'm used to F measurement). i thought others might be interested, so i put the convert template in. then i also put it in the Red Phosphorus section, but didn't do any more because 1) i thought maybe there was some strange, science-y reason why it hadn't been done before, but mostly because 2) the converter came up with a different figure than was in the original text. (the first temp in the Red Phos. section had F in parenthesis after the C measurement.) i double-checked the conversion, and the converter template was correct. but i wanted to make a note of it here, in case there's something else going on. i left the original text's F measurement in place, but hid it in the html. to make it easier:

  • original text - "300 °C (482 °F)"
  • convert template - "300 °C (572 °F)"

Colbey84 (talk) 13:06, 3 March 2016 (UTC)

Melting, boiling (or sublimation) points of allotropes[edit]

What are melting and boiling (or sublimation) points of red, violet and black allotropes of phosphorus under standard pressure? What are Mohs hardnesses of these allotropes? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Krobon (talkcontribs) 18:32, 24 October 2016 (UTC)

Wikipedia is not ...[edit]

Here are the references on black phosphorus, It is a rare, some would say esoteric, allotope, yet the referencing is heaviest on this material. And most of that referencing is to primary articles, which is inappropriate. It is possibly a case of undue weight, per WP:UNDUE, WP:NOTNEWS, WP:NOTJOURNAL, WP:SECONDARY. [1]

--Smokefoot (talk) 13:54, 7 December 2016 (UTC)

  1. ^ Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Jia, Yichen (21 July 2014). "Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics". Nature Communications. 5. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4458X. arXiv:1402.0270Freely accessible. doi:10.1038/ncomms5458. 
  2. ^ Low, Tony; Rodin, A. S.; Carvalho, A.; Jiang, Yongjin; Wang, Han; Xia, Fengnian; Castro Neto, A. H. (27 August 2014). "Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films". Physical Review B. 90 (7). Bibcode:2014PhRvB..90g5434L. arXiv:1404.4030Freely accessible. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.90.075434. 
  3. ^ Tran, Vy; Soklaski, Ryan; Liang, Yufeng; Yang, Li (26 June 2014). "Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus". Physical Review B. 89 (23). Bibcode:2014PhRvB..89w5319T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.89.235319. 
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  5. ^ Buscema, Michele; Groenendijk, Dirk J.; Steele, Gary A.; van der Zant, Herre S.J.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres (28 August 2014). "Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating". Nature Communications. 5: 4651. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4651B. arXiv:1407.2863Freely accessible. doi:10.1038/ncomms5651. 
  6. ^ Lange, Stefan; Schmidt, Peer; Nilges, Tom (2007). "Au3SnP7@Black Phosphorus: An Easy Access to Black Phosphorus". Inorganic Chemistry. 46 (10): 4028–35. PMID 17439206. doi:10.1021/ic062192q. 
  7. ^ Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Jun Ye, Guo; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Yuanbo (2014). "Black Phosphorus Field Effect Transistors". Nature Nanotechnology. 9: 372–377. doi:10.1038/nnano.2014.35. 
  8. ^ Koenig, Steven P.; Doganov, Rostislav A.; Schmidt, Henrrik; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros (2014). "Electric Field Effect in Ultrathin Black Phosphorus". Applied Physics Letters. 104: 103106. doi:10.1063/1.4868132. 
  9. ^ Liu, Han; Neal, Adam T.; Zhu, Zhen; Luo, Zhe; Xu, Xianfan; Tománek, David; Ye, Peide D. (2014). "Phosphorene: An Unexplored 2D Semiconductor with a High Hole Mobility". ACS Nano. 8 (4): 4033–4041. PMID 24655084. doi:10.1021/nn501226z. 
  10. ^ Jang, Hyejin; Wood, Joshua D.; Ryder, Christopher R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Cahill, David G. (30 October 2015). "Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus". Advanced Materials. 27: 8017–8022. arXiv:1510.00051Freely accessible. doi:10.1002/adma.201503466. 
  11. ^ Liu, Xiaolong D.; Wood, Joshua D.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Hersam, Mark C. (9 February 2015). "In Situ Thermal Decomposition of Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus". Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 6: 773–778. doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00043. 
  12. ^ Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Jariwala, Deep; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Cho, EunKyung; Sangwan, Vinod K.; Liu, Xiaolong; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. (7 November 2014). "Effective Passivation of Exfoliated Black Phosphorus Transistors against Ambient Degradation". Nano Letters. 14 (12): 6964–6970. Bibcode:2014NanoL..14.6964W. PMID 25380142. arXiv:1411.2055Freely accessible. doi:10.1021/nl5032293. 
  13. ^ Yuan Huang, Jingsi Qiao, Kai He, Stoyan Bliznakov, Eli Sutter, Xianjue Chen, Da Luo, Fanke Meng, Dong Su, Jeremy Decker, Wei Ji, Rodney S. Ruoff, and Peter Sutter. Interaction of Black Phosphorus with Oxygen and Water. Chem. Mater., 2016, 28 (22), pp 8330–8339 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03592
  14. ^ Kang, Joohoon; Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Liu, Xiaolong; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Hersam, Mark C. (18 March 2015). "Solvent Exfoliation of Electronic-Grade, Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus". ACS Nano. 9: 3596–3604. doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b01143. 
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