|Sahyadri commander (M. p. undifragus) from Mangaon, Maharashtra, India|
Not evaluated (IUCN 2.3)
Limenitis procris (Cramer, 1777)
Moduza procris, the commander, sometimes included in the genus Limenitis, is a medium-sized, strikingly coloured brush-footed butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is notable for the mode of concealment employed by its caterpillar and the cryptic camouflage of its pupa.
The commander has a wingspan of about 6 to 7.5 cm (2.4 to 3.0 in). The upperside of its wings are a bright reddish brown. Towards the centre of the wing are broad white spots. In flight, one can see a bright red brown butterfly with a white band forming a V shape. There are also a few white spots scattered on the wings. Its hindwings have crenulated margins. The undersides of the wings are a whitish grey toward the base and have a row of dull reddish brown and a row of black spots along the margins.
The male and female are similar in appearance.
- M. p. procris Central India, Sikkim to South China, Thailand, South Burma, Indo-China
- M. p. calidosa (Moore, 1858) Ceylon
- M. p. anarta (Moore, 1877) Andaman Islands
- M. p. arnoldi (Fruhstorfer, 1898) Bawean, Kangean Islands
- M. p. undifragus (Fruhstorfer, 1906) South India
- M. p. milonia (Fruhstorfer, 1906) Peninsular Malaya, Thailand
- M. p. minoe (Fruhstorfer, 1906) Sumatra
- M. p. batuna (Fruhstorfer, 1906) Batu Islands
- M. p. aemonia (Weymer, 1883) Nias
- M. p. agnata (Fruhstorfer, 1897) Borneo
- M. p. neutra (Fruhstorfer, 1897) Java, Bali, Lombok
- M. p. laubenheimeri (Hagen, 1898) Mentawai Islands
- M. p. sumbawana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) Sumbawa
- M. p. sumbana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) Sumba
- M. p. floresiana (Fruhstorfer, 1906) Flores
- M. p. bankana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) Bangka Island
- M. p. florensis (Fruhstorfer, 1913) Flores
- M. p. tioma Eliot, 1978 Pulau Tioman
Range within India
Sri Lanka, Peninsular India, the Himalayas east of the Dun valley, through Kumaon, Nepal, Sikkim to Assam, Arunachal, and onto Myanmar. Locally abundant, it is common from Sri Lanka to Maharashtra. It is rare in Gujarat and far more common in the Himalayas.
The commander is generally found in forested regions having moderate to heavy rainfall. It usually keeps to low elevations, that is, up to 900 metres (3,000 ft) into the hills.
It is fond of open glades, roadsides and clearings in forests. It is abundant along watercourses in dry and moist deciduous forests. It is also found close to villages or wherever its larval host plant Mussaenda frondosa is found. It is most common in the post-monsoon months and winter.
The commander can often be spotted basking with its wings pressed flat on exposed stones in streambeds. Individuals settle down on an exposed perch high up in the trees during the heat of the day. At this time it can be seen defending its territory and driving intruding butterflies away.
This butterfly has a swift flight with rapid wingbeats and alternate spurts of smooth gliding. A powerful flier, it nevertheless flies for short distances at a time. Being wary, it maintains its distance and is best caught when engrossed in mud-puddling or feeding from flowers. It regularly visits flowers from low-lying herbs to high up in the trees. Though this is a mud-puddling species, in Borneo and probably elsewhere, adults do not visit carrion or old fruit to drink liquids.
Most of the larval host plants belong to the family Rubiaceae.
- Neolamarckia cadamba (kadam)
- Mussaenda erythrophylla
- Mussaenda frondosa
- Wendlandia thyrsoidea
- Wendlandia exserta
- Cinchona species (quinine trees)
- Cadaba fruitcosa
- Mitragyna parvifolia
- Hedyotis orixense
- Ochreinauclea missionis
The female commander lays a single egg on the underside of the tip of a leaf of the food plant. The egg is hairy and greenish and looks like a green strawberry. The egg hatches in 3 to 4 days.
The caterpillar is dirty brown with a chestnut tinge and dark brown splotches all over. The body also bears numerous processes which help to break up its outline. The behaviour of this caterpillar is very interesting in that it is one of the species of butterfly that makes long chains of frass. It eats up part of the leaf it is on and uses bits of leaves which are strung up with silk along with droppings. The caterpillar rests on the exposed mid-rib of a leaf after removing the leafy portions on the sides. This behaviour may be to dissuade ants from crossing over the chain of frass behind which the caterpillar rests.
Before pupating, the caterpillar wanders around, often far away from the plant it fed on. It pupates among dried leaves and twigs. The pupa is brownish and rough in texture. It is angular with prominent wing expansions and bears flat processes on the head which curl together making a hole between them. It also has numerous lines and markings that make it look like a rolled up dried leaf.
From Frederic Moore's The Lepidoptera of Ceylon
- Hamer et al. (2006)
- Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian Butterflies (2nd ed.). Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society.
- Gaonkar, Harish (1996). Butterflies of the Western Ghats, India (including Sri Lanka) - A Biodiversity Assessment of a Threatened Mountain System. Bangalore, India: Centre for Ecological Sciences.
- Gay, Thomas; Kehimkar, Isaac David; Punetha, Jagdish Chandra (1992). Common Butterflies of India. Nature Guides. Bombay, India: World Wide Fund for Nature-India by Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195631647.
- Hamer, K.C.; Hill, J.K.; Benedick, S.; Mustaffa, N.; Chey, V.K. & Maryati, M. (2006): Diversity and ecology of carrion- and fruit-feeding butterflies in Bornean rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 25–33. doi:10.1017/S0266467405002750 (HTML abstract)
- Kunte, Krushnamegh (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India. India, A Lifescape. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press. ISBN 978-8173713545.
- Robinson, Gaden, S.; Ackery, Phillip R.; Kitching, Ian J.; Beccaloni, George W. & Hernández, Luis M. (2007): HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants. Accessed July 2007.
- Wynter-Blyth, Mark Alexander (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. ISBN 978-8170192329.
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