The Stars and Stripes Forever

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The Stars and Stripes Forever
Stars and Stripes Forever 1.jpg

National march of the  United States
Lyrics John Philip Sousa, May 1897 (1897-05)
Music John Philip Sousa, December 1896 (1896-12)
Adopted 1987; 31 years ago (1987)
Audio sample
"The Stars and Stripes Forever" (instrumental)

"The Stars and Stripes Forever" is a patriotic American march widely considered to be the magnum opus of composer John Philip Sousa. By a 1987 act of the U.S. Congress, it is the official National March of the United States of America.[1]

History[edit]

In his autobiography, Marching Along, Sousa wrote that he composed the march on Christmas Day, 1896. He was on an ocean liner on his way home from a vacation with his wife in Europe and had just learned of the recent death of David Blakely, the manager of the Sousa Band. He composed the march in his head and committed the notes to paper on arrival in the United States.[2] It was first performed at Willow Grove Park, just outside Philadelphia, on May 14, 1897, and was immediately greeted with enthusiasm.[3] Following an Act of Congress in 1987, it was officially adopted as the national march of the United States of America.[4]

Historically, in show business and particularly in theater and the circus, this piece is called "the Disaster March." In the early 20th century, when it was common for theaters and circuses to have house bands, this march was a traditional code signaling a life-threatening emergency. It subtly notified personnel of emergency situations and ideally allowed them to organize the audience's exit without causing the chaos and panic that an overt declaration might. Circus bands would never play the tune under circumstances other than impending disaster.[citation needed] One memorable, if heartbreaking, example of its use was during the Hartford circus fire of July 6, 1944. At least 168 people were killed, though some estimates are much higher. Numerous bodies burned so badly that they were either unrecognizable or completely incinerated.[5]

Music[edit]

"The Stars and Stripes Forever" follows the standard American military march form. The march begins with a four-bar introduction, which is followed by the first strain and the second strain, which are repeated, the famous trio which is repeated with the obbligato piccolos, the break strain, the final strain, and then the break strain is repeated again. In the final repeat of the trio (grandioso), the low brass joins the piccolo players with a prominent countermelody.[citation needed]

Sousa explained to the press that the three themes of the final trio were intended to represent the three regions of the United States. The broad melody, or main theme, represents the North. The South is represented by the famous piccolo obbligato, and the West by the bold countermelody of the trombones. The three come together in the climax, representing the Union itself.[6]

Lyrics[edit]

Sousa wrote lyrics to the piece, although they are not as familiar as the music itself.[7] The typical pairing of Sousa's lyrics with the various sections of the march is noted in the square brackets.[8]

Sousa's lyrics[edit]

[First strain]
Let martial note in triumph float
And liberty extend its mighty hand
A flag appears 'mid thunderous cheers,
The banner of the Western land.
The emblem of the brave and true
Its folds protect no tyrant crew;
The red and white and starry blue
Is freedom's shield and hope.

Let eagle shriek from lofty peak
The never-ending watchword of our land;
Let summer breeze waft through the trees
The echo of the chorus grand.
Sing out for liberty and light,
Sing out for freedom and the right.
Sing out for Union and its might,
O patriotic sons.

[Second strain]
Other nations may deem their flags the best
And cheer them with fervid elation
But the flag of the North and South and West
Is the flag of flags, the flag of Freedom's nation.

(repeats) Other nations may deem their flags the best
And cheer them with fervid elation,
But the flag of the North and South and West
Is the flag of flags, the flag of Freedom's nation.

[Trio]
Hurrah for the flag of the free!
May it wave as our standard forever,
The gem of the land and the sea,
The banner of the right.
Let despots remember the day
When our fathers with mighty endeavor
Proclaimed as they marched to the fray
That by their might and by their right
It waves forever.

[Grandioso]
Hurrah for the flag of the free.
May it wave as our standard forever
The gem of the land and the sea,
The banner of the right.
Let despots remember the day
When our fathers with mighty endeavor
Proclaimed as they marched to the fray,
That by their might and by their right
It waves forever.

Tidmarsh's additional lyrics[edit]

In 1942 the John Church Company published a four-part choral version of the march with a piano arrangement by Elmer Arthur Tidmarsh.[8] This arrangement has additional lyrics written by Tidmarsh for the Breakstrain section of the march.

Nonsense lyrics[edit]

In 1954, Charles Grean and Joan Javits composed "Crazy Mixed Up Song", using the theme from Stars and Stripes Forever, with lyrics beginning "Be kind to your web-footed friends". It was made somewhat popular by Peter Lind Hayes & Mary Healy in that year.[9] In the early 1960s, it reached a wider audience as a part of a nationally syndicated sing-along show, "Mitch Miller and the Gang".[10] This version has perhaps the best known lyrics,[11] which were used to end every show:[12][13]

 Be kind to your web-footed friends,
 For a duck may be somebody's mother.
 Be kind to your friends in the swamp,
 Where the weather is very, very damp,
 Now you may think that this is the end,
 Well it is!

Media[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "36 U.S. Code § 304 - National march". United States Code. United States: Cornell Law School. August 12, 1998. Retrieved November 2, 2006. The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled 'The Stars and Stripes Forever' is the national march. 
  2. ^ "The Story of "Stars and Stripes Forever"". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  3. ^ Van Outryve, Karen. "Appreciating An Old Favorite: Sousa's All-Time Hit." Music Educators Journal 92.3 (2006): 15. Academic Search Complete. Web. 19 April 2012.
  4. ^ "To designate "The Stars and Stripes Forever" as the national march of the United States of America" (PDF). United States Government Publishing Office. 11 December 1987. 
  5. ^ Michael Skidgell, The Hartford Circus Fire: Tragedy Under the Big Top (Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press, 2014) p. 43 ISBN 978-1-625-84522-1.
  6. ^ Paul E. Bierley, The Works of John Philip Sousa (Westerville, Ohio: Integrity Press, 1984), p. 43, as cited in “The Stars and Stripes Forever” (1896).
  7. ^ Bierley, Paul E., “The Works of John Philip Sousa” Integrity Press, Westerville, OH, 1984.
  8. ^ a b Sousa, John Philip, & Tidmarsh, Elmer A. (1942.) "The Stars and Stripes Forever." USA: The John Church Company.
  9. ^ "1954 HITS ARCHIVE: Crazy Mixed Up Song (Be Kind To Your Web-Footed Friends) - Peter and Mary". 1954. 
  10. ^ Jennifer Gavin (July 23, 2009). "Be Kind to Your Web-Posting Friends". United States Library of Congress. 
  11. ^ Scott Deveaux and Gary Giddins. Jazz. W. W. Norton & Company; Second edition (February 1, 2015). p. 70. ISBN 978-0393937060. 
  12. ^ Gale, Emily Margot (2014). Sounding Sentimental: American Popular Song From Nineteenth-Century Ballads to 1970s Soft Rock (PDF) (PhD). University of Virgina. 
  13. ^ "Be Kind to Your Web Footed Friends". Sony. 1958. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bierley, Paul E. John Philip Sousa: American Phenomenon. Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications, 2001.
  • Sousa, John Philip, & Tidmarsh, Elmer A. (1942.) "The Stars and Stripes Forever." USA: The John Church Company.
  • Skidgell, Michael. "The Hartford Circus Fire: Tragedy Under the Big Top." Stroud, U.K.: The History Press, 2014.

External links[edit]