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In professional wrestling, kayfabe /ˈkfb/ is the portrayal of staged events within the industry as "real" or "true," specifically the portrayal of competition, rivalries, and relationships between participants as being genuine and not of a staged or pre-determined nature of any kind. Kayfabe has also evolved to become a code word of sorts for maintaining this "reality" within the direct or indirect presence of the general public.[1] Though the staged nature of professional wrestling had been a frequent topic of conversation among the media and public since at least the latter years of the early 20th century,[2] the professional wrestling industry did not formally acknowledge this until changes in the business during the 1980s professional wrestling boom prompted attitudes within the business to change. In 1989, World Wrestling Federation owner Vince McMahon testified before the New Jersey state senate that wrestling was staged. Long sanctioned by New Jersey and other states as an athletic exhibition for regulation and taxation purposes, McMahon sought to eliminate oversight, and hence taxation, on the WWF's house shows and pay-per-view events held within the state.[3]

Kayfabe is often seen as the suspension of disbelief that is used to create the non-wrestling aspects of promotions, such as feuds, angles, and gimmicks, in a manner similar to other forms of fictional entertainment. In relative terms, a wrestler breaking kayfabe during a show would be likened to breaking character by an actor on-camera. Also, since wrestling is performed in front of a live audience, whose interaction with the show is crucial to its success, kayfabe can be compared to the fourth wall in acting, since there is hardly any conventional fourth wall to begin with.

In years past, one tool that promoters and wrestlers had in preserving kayfabe was in their ability to attract a loyal paying audience in spite of limited or nearly nonexistent exposure. Professional wrestling had long been shunned by mainstream media due to lingering doubts over its legitimacy, and its presentation on television was largely limited to self-produced programming, not unlike infomercials of the present day. Scrutiny was largely limited to certain U.S. states with activist athletic commissioners, whose influence finally waned by the late 20th century, with mixed martial arts events taking the attention boxing and wrestling once held throughout the United States. It was commonplace for wrestlers to adhere to kayfabe in public, even when outside the ring and off-camera, in order to preserve the illusion that the competition in pro wrestling was not staged. This was due in no small part to feuds between wrestlers sometimes lasting for years, and which could be utterly destroyed in seconds if they were shown associating as friends in public, and thus potentially affect ticket revenue.

With the advent of the Internet wrestling community, as well as the sports entertainment movement, the pro wrestling industry has become less concerned with protecting so-called backstage secrets and typically maintains kayfabe only during performances. However, kayfabe is occasionally broken, including during performances, in order to achieve a number of goals, among them advancing the storylines, explaining prolonged absences (often due to legitimate injury), paying tribute to other wrestlers and sometimes for comedic effect or that of driving insider humor.

Faces and heels[edit]

The characters assumed by wrestlers can be distinguished into two alignments: faces and heels.

Faces, short for babyfaces, are hero-type characters whose personalities are crafted to elicit the support of the audience through traits such as humility, a hard working nature, determination and reciprocal love of the crowd. Faces usually win their matches on the basis of their technical skills and are sometimes portrayed as underdogs to enhance the story.

Heels are villainous or antagonistic characters, whose personalities are crafted to elicit a negative response from the audience. They often embrace traditionally negative traits such as narcissism, egomania, unprompted rage, sadism and general bitterness. Though not as prevalent today, xenophobic ethnic and racial stereotypes, in particular those inspired by the Axis powers of World War II, were commonly utilized in North American wrestling as heel-defining traits. Heels typically inspire boos from the audience and often employ underhanded tactics, such as cheating and exploiting technicalities, in their fighting strategies, or use overly aggressive styles to cause excess pain or injury to their opponents.

A wrestler may change from face to heel (or vice versa) in an event known as a turn, or gradually transition from one to the other over the course of a long storyline.

Matches are usually organized between a heel and a face, but the distinction between the two types may be blurred as a given character's storyline reaches a peak or becomes more complicated. Indeed, in recent years, several wrestlers became characters that were neither faces nor heels, but somewhere in between—or alternating between both—earning them the term "'tweener."

Perhaps the best-known "'tweener" was the WWE's "Stone Cold" Steve Austin. His personality was heel-ish, but he became a WWF (now WWE) fan favorite for his kayfabe feud with his boss, WWF chairman and CEO Vince McMahon's in-ring alter-ego, the evil billionaire owner, "Mr. McMahon." Another example would be fellow WWF attitude era star The Rock, who would insult interviewers, interrupt other superstars, and disobey WWE orders, all while being one of the top Fan Favorites within the late 1990s and early 2000s.


I remember the guy who would bring our jackets back to the dressing room. Every time he did, someone would yell "Kayfabe."...Then one night, the guy decided to stand up for himself and told the whole dressing room: "I don't mind the yelling, but I want to let you know that my name is not Kayfabe. It's Mark."...What he didn't know is that wrestlers called people outside of the business "marks" — that's why we were yelling kayfabe in the first place.

— Pat Patterson, describing his interaction with a ring attendant in the Pacific Northwest Wrestling territory during the early 1960s[4]


Many storylines make use of kayfabe romantic relationships between two performers. Very often, both participants have other real-life relationships, and the "relationship" between the two is simply a storyline. However, more than once, kayfabe romantic relationships have resulted either from a real-life relationship, such as between Matt Hardy and Lita, or ultimately developed into a real-life marriage (e.g., Triple H and Stephanie McMahon, who married in 2003, more than a year after their kayfabe marriage ended).[5] During the early 21st century, this "kayfabe" practice has given way to reality in the WWE, largely due to the creation of the reality television program Total Divas where four "legit" (legally binding) weddings have occurred: Natalya and Tyson Kidd, Brie Bella and Daniel Bryan, Naomi and Jimmy Uso, and Eva Marie and her fiancé Jonathan.

Tag teams of wrestlers, who may or may not look alike, are often presented as relatives, though they are not actually related. Examples include The Brothers of Destruction (The Undertaker and Kane), The Holly Cousins (Hardcore Holly, Crash Holly, and Molly Holly) and The Dudley Brothers. "Brother" tag teams were commonly utilized in years past as a means to develop young talent, by pairing them with a veteran wrestler and giving the younger wrestler a "rub" by virtue of the association. In the case of the Andersons, this was used multiple times over, first with Gene Anderson, followed by Lars Anderson, Ole Anderson, then years later with Arn Anderson. In this specific instance, this also greatly enhanced the shelf life and future legacy of the tag team and its associated gimmick ("The Minnesota Wrecking Crew"). Arn Anderson, as he gained experience as a wrestler, was introduced to Georgia Championship Wrestling audiences as Ole Anderson's nephew (and later cousin to Ric Flair). Although Minnesota roots were central to the Anderson gimmick, Arn clearly spoke with a southern accent. He had also previously appeared on the same program as a television jobber, working under his real name.


Sometimes wrestlers will "sell" a kayfabe injury by not appearing at the following show, in order to demonstrate the severity of what happened to them the week before. In the years when information on the happenings of the business was limited, this was a common tactic for promoters when a wrestler was scheduled to tour Japan, or in more limited circumstances was dealing with a family emergency.

In other instances, if a wrestler (typically a babyface) needs surgery, a storyline will sometimes develop in which a heel will commit a kayfabe, on-screen act to the face wrestler to "injure" the wrestler, in order to give the impression that it was the heel's action that caused the face to need surgery. In these instances, the heel will continually flaunt the notion of taking their opponent out of action, in order to keep the storyline fresh in fans' minds until the face is able to return and "settle the score".

Other times, a real injury is sometimes used later on as a storyline. One way is for the injured to come back and blame someone else for injuring them, even when the feud was not initially planned out at all, to give a sort of closure to the injury time out.

Lastly, when a major injury sidelines a wrestler in such a way that none of the above can be done (such as Brock Lesnar's neck injury and concussion in 2003), the company will plan a sort of return angle that can be used to celebrate a wrestler's return to action. This has been made especially popular in the WWE with the use of their "Desire" video vignettes of wrestlers who returned from a major injury, such as Triple H in 2001 or Kurt Angle, in order to show that the wrestler was able to overcome a major injury that could have ended their career indefinitely (which, in many cases, could truly, non-kayfabe, be career-threatening or worse). In many cases this is done for faces, though these also give a promotion a reason to turn a heel into a face (as in Triple H's and Kurt Angle's cases) if what the wrestler brought to the company was sorely missed during their absence. These returns are usually given a particular date in order to increase viewership and ticket sales, as the public are promised a star they have wanted to return. Even more often, a wrestler's return will not even be advertised. It will just suddenly happen in order to get a huge pop out of the crowd. For example, Edge returned at the 2010 Royal Rumble, where he was entrant 29, despite no prior public knowledge that he was even able to return to action. Marty Wright, known as The Boogeyman, came to the 2015 Royal Rumble in his first WWE appearance in almost 5 years. And John Cena, who had suffered an arm injury, entered the 2008 Royal Rumble at no. 30, months before he was expected to return, and won the match.

Contracts, employment status and suspensions[edit]

Through kayfabe, wrestlers often quit, get fired, or lose challenges with their job at stake (e.g., a "loser leaves town match") only to return at a future time. These types of matches are also used when a wrestler's contract is up or to give them some time off to recover from a legitimate injury (before expanding to national television, wrestlers often did leave town as they were booked on the next city or territory on the circuit, similar to the carnival days).

However, such "departures" may also be used to advance a feud between two wrestlers. A classic example is the "masked man", where the wrestler (usually a face) who has supposedly lost his job makes appearances at subsequent events while wearing a mask, and then interferes in his heel opponent's matches; eventually, the masked wrestler's identity is exposed by his foe and the feud intensifies. This storyline was used for the Dusty Rhodes/Kevin Sullivan feud during the 1980s and also for the feud between Vince McMahon and Hulk Hogan in 2003. Junkyard Dog was pinned in an October 1982 televised match (due to interference from Jim Duggan, dressed in a gorilla costume) where the loser of the fall left Mid-South Wrestling for ninety days. Soon after, JYD reappeared as the masked Stagger Lee. In an unusual twist, Junkyard Dog later appeared on television in street clothes alongside Stagger Lee, acting as his "spokesman". This Stagger Lee was soon unmasked as Porkchop Cash, but it was otherwise Junkyard Dog under the mask during the course of this angle.

Some more recent examples include William Regal losing a Loser Gets Fired match against Mr. Kennedy on the May 19, 2008 episode of Raw (Regal was actually suspended for sixty days due to violation of the WWE Wellness Policy), The Undertaker losing a Tables, Ladders, and Chairs match to Edge at WWE One Night Stand later that year, (where the winner would get the vacant WWE World Heavyweight Championship) and At Survivor Series, where John Cena officiated a match for the WWE Championship between Wade Barrett and Randy Orton. As a part of a pre-match stipulation, if Barrett did not win the championship, Cena would be fired from the WWE. Orton defeated Barrett to retain the title, thus "ending" Cena's career in the WWE.[6] The following day on Raw, Cena gave a farewell speech, before costing Wade Barrett the WWE Championship by interfering in his rematch with Randy Orton.[7] A week later, Cena invaded Raw first as a spectator but then attacked members of Nexus, explaining that he would still take down Nexus one by one, despite not having a job in WWE anymore. Cena was eventually "rehired" by Wade Barrett a few weeks later in an attempt to prevent a mutiny by members of the Nexus.

The "you're fired" gimmick has also successfully been used to repackage a wrestler with a new gimmick.

On the August 22, 2005 edition of Raw, WWE Champion John Cena successfully defended his title by defeating Chris Jericho in a "You're Fired!" match. Eric Bischoff promptly fired Jericho, and ordered that he be taken from the arena by security. Jericho was not truly fired, however, as his release was a mutual arrangement. The match had been conceived to cover for Jericho's departure from the company, and he eventually returned to the WWE on the November 19, 2007 edition of Raw after an absence of just over two years, remaining with the company until his contract expired in September 2010 and then returned once more in 2012.

On the December 6, 2007 episode of TNA Impact!, Christopher Daniels was fired in the Feast or Fired match and due to the stipulations it was revealed that Daniels' briefcase contained the pink slip, immediately causing him to be released from TNA. He reappeared on January 24, 2008 under the guise of Curry Man, a masked character he has used in New Japan Pro Wrestling. He was then fired under this name in another Feast or Fired Match. He then returned to TNA in 2009 reverting to Christopher Daniels, and was announced as just "Daniels" until his release in 2010.

In April 2001, Vince McMahon announced that The Rock was indefinitely suspended. This was a cover story to give The Rock time off to film The Scorpion King. The Rock returned on the July 30, 2001 episode of Raw to declare that he was taking the WWF's side in their feud with the WCW/ECW Alliance. In 2012, Chris Jericho was fired on Raw. This was used by Chris Jericho to tour with Fozzy, his band, for the remainder of the year.

Before Money In The Bank 2016, WWE knew of Roman Reigns' violation of wellness policy, so they have scripted Reigns to lose WWE Heavyweight Championship to Seth Rollins, who in turn loses the title to Dean Ambrose by cashing in the Money In The Bank briefcase he won earlier that night.[8]

Breaking kayfabe[edit]

There have been several examples of breaking kayfabe throughout wrestling history, although exactly what constitutes "breaking" is not clearly defined. It is rare for kayfabe to be dispensed with totally and the events acknowledged as scripted. Often the "break" may be implied or through an allusion (for example calling a wrestler by his/her real name) and standards tend to vary as to what is a break. In the WWF during and after the Attitude Era, the line between kayfabe and reality was often blurred.

With the growth of the industry and its exposure on the Internet and DVD and videos, kayfabe may be broken more regularly. Whereas in the past it was extremely rare for a wrestler or other involved person to recognize the scripted nature of events even in outside press or media, WWE DVDs and WWE.com routinely give news and acknowledge real life. In the case of the former, it has ostensible adversaries and allies talking about each other, and the angles and storylines they worked and their opinions on them. On WWE.com, real life news is often given which may contradict storylines.

Prior to the Attitude Era and the advent of the Internet, publications such as WWF Magazine, and television programs broke kayfabe only to acknowledge major real-life events involving current or retired wrestlers, such as a death (for instance, the death of Ernie Roth, who was billed as "The Grand Wizard of Wrestling"), divorce (e.g., Randy "Macho Man" Savage and Miss Elizabeth) or life-threatening accident (such as the 1990 parasailing accident that seriously injured Brutus "The Barber" Beefcake), especially if said event received mass mainstream coverage. In addition, when WWF top officials and employees were facing allegations of anabolic steroid abuse and sexual harassment during the early 1990s, Vince McMahon responded via a series of videotaped comments defending his company and employees, and several full-page advertisements rebutting the allegations appeared in WWF Magazine.

Kayfabe has been broken many times, though it may not always be apparent to fans as seen below. The following is a list of some of the more notable examples.

Andy Kaufman, Inter-Gender Wrestling Champion of the World[edit]

Main article: I'm from Hollywood

Actor and comedian Andy Kaufman has become known in the years following his death for his lifelong obsession with professional wrestling. In what would sound more familiar when several modern-day wrestlers spoke of being in the audience for the Don Muraco versus Jimmy Snuka cage match as a life-changing event, Kaufman claimed to have been in attendance at Madison Square Garden twenty years prior when Bruno Sammartino defeated Buddy Rogers for the WWWF championship (itself possibly kayfabe, as Kaufman was a teenager and wrestling events at the time were subject to a curfew). Too small to be a wrestler[9] and too successful in his career for any promoter to afford his services as a manager, Kaufman nonetheless spent years looking for a way to be involved in the business.

Kaufman developed a bit for his standup routine of being the "Inter-Gender Wrestling Champion of the World," challenging females from the audience. It has been reported multiple times over the years that Kaufman created this bit with the intention of shopping it to wrestling promoters as a storyline, and that he was turned down by numerous promoters, most famously by Vincent J. McMahon. He finally found a willing promoter in Jerry Jarrett, whose flagship arena the Mid-South Coliseum was considerably larger than most other venues in the United States which ran weekly wrestling shows, and therefore had a need to create enough interest to sell tickets. Kaufman appeared briefly in the promotion in the spring of 1982 to challenge Jerry Lawler, followed by a famous joint appearance with Lawler on Late Night with David Letterman and other appearances throughout the following year.

During this same time period, Kaufman also worked with Freddie Blassie, whose ability to maintain kayfabe in public was so strong, it more resembled an obliviousness to reality at times. Kaufman and Blassie filmed the movie My Breakfast with Blassie, in which both men performed in character. Kaufman and Blassie appeared together on the February 23, 1983 episode of Letterman's show to promote the movie. This appearance, which was also performed in character, culminated with Blassie proclaiming that he was now Kaufman's (kayfabe) manager and physically pushing Kaufman towards the band stage to perform "Jambalaya". Letterman, in the early years of Late Night, featured both professional wrestlers and ordinary people as guests, which in both cases was rare on network television. At one point during the appearance, Letterman and Blassie were discussing the latter's wrestling career, and Letterman frequently goaded his other guest (the ordinary person) to denounce Blassie's claims, albeit with the hint that it was being done tongue-in-cheek. The studio audience erupted in laughter when Blassie, in discussing being Kaufman's manager, stated that Kaufman was a talent of the caliber of Big John Studd and Crippler Stevens.

A decade and a half after Kaufman's death, Lawler starred as himself in Man on the Moon, a film that, in part, portrays the kayfabe feud between the pair. The movie shows highlights from the work and then reveals that Kaufman and Lawler were friends. Kaufman was only an amateur wrestler, and his initial attempts to enter the pro wrestling business were met with scorn by promoters, many of whom viewed Kaufman as someone who was eager to use his celebrity to expose the business once he was given an entry. His work with wrestlers demonstrated that he was a quick study of kayfabe. His devotion to the kayfabe would last his whole life, eventually affecting his reputation with fans of his acting and comic careers.[10]

1996 MSG Incident: "The Curtain Call"[edit]

In the 1996 MSG Incident, real-life friends Shawn Michaels, Hunter Hearst Helmsley, Diesel (Kevin Nash), and Razor Ramon (Scott Hall) broke kayfabe by embracing in the ring at the end of a match between Michaels and Nash. Nash and Hall were on their way to rival promotion World Championship Wrestling, and the embrace was a farewell gesture from Michaels and Triple H. Because of Nash and Hall's departure, and the fact that Michaels was champion at the time, Triple H was the only one reprimanded for the incident. He was relegated to working lower card matches and was booked to lose to Jake "The Snake" Roberts in the King of the Ring 1996 tournament, having previously been booked to win it. The event had a profound impact on the company overall in later years, as Stone Cold Steve Austin was booked in Triple H's place to win the tournament overall, thus setting the stage for Austin's rise to prominence in the late 1990s. Triple H was not punished for very long, as his push was only delayed a year and Triple H proceeded to win the next year's King of the Ring. By 2016, all but Triple H are in the WWE Hall of Fame.[11]

Montreal Screwjob[edit]

Main article: Montreal Screwjob

The most widely discussed example is the Montreal Screwjob, centered around a match in which then-WWF World Heavyweight Champion Bret Hart wrestled challenger Shawn Michaels for the championship at the Survivor Series in Montreal on November 9, 1997. Hart had previously signed a contract with rival World Championship Wrestling and still had three weeks after this match before his first appearance on WCW Monday Nitro. The agreed-upon finish was to have Hart retain the title that night and appear on Raw the following night to give up the championship. WWF head Vince McMahon had, months before, informed Hart that he could not financially guarantee the terms of his contract with Hart, encouraging him to make another deal if he was able to. As events transpired leading up to Survivor Series with Hart still champion and booked to remain champion following the event, McMahon feared that his championship would appear on his rival's television program.

During the match, Michaels put Hart in the sharpshooter, Hart's finisher. Referee Earl Hebner signaled that Hart submitted, even though he had not. At the same time, McMahon came to the ringside area and directed the ring crew to ring the bell and announce that Michaels had won the match. Hart, very upset, spat on McMahon and began trashing equipment around the ring, later punching McMahon in the dressing room. The incident was recreated over the years in various angles and storylines. Examples include a "screwing" of Mankind at the following year's Survivor Series and on the March 18, 2006 edition of Saturday Night's Main Event, where McMahon "screwed" Michaels in a match where Michaels faced his son Shane.

On the January 4, 2010 edition of Raw, Hart was the guest host for the episode. Hart and Michaels had made previous claims that they were ready to "bury the hatchet". The two met in the ring, admitted their faults and embraced in the ring. Despite Hart and McMahon mending their differences much earlier, a kayfabe feud began between the two when McMahon attacked Hart to end the program. This began the storyline that led to their match at WrestleMania XXVI.

Owen Hart's death[edit]

The accident that killed Owen Hart occurred on May 23, 1999 during the Over the Edge pay per view broadcast, but was not shown on screen (a pre-recorded video featuring Hart in character as the "Blue Blazer" was playing at the time of the accident) and, after Jim Ross indicated that something was amiss in the ring, the broadcast immediately cut to a pre-recorded interview with Hart. Afterward, Ross acknowledged to viewers that an accident had occurred and that Hart was being attended to, at one point assuring viewers "this was not a wrestling angle".

Special and tribute shows[edit]

See also: Ten-bell salute

In specials and tribute shows, kayfabe is often broken. In the tribute shows for Brian Pillman, Owen Hart, Eddie Guerrero, and Chris Benoit, many wrestlers and officials, including those who had kayfabe feuds with them, spoke in their honor. In Owen's case, the show has garnered a reputation as one of the most memorable Raw episodes in history, and has even been labeled "Raw is Owen" by several wrestling fans.

Kayfabe and real life came into serious conflict on June 25, 2007, when the actual death of Chris Benoit necessitated an appearance by WWE chairman Vince McMahon on his Raw program which aired that same day, even though the character of Mr. McMahon had been "killed" in an automobile explosion on a previous episode. The death angle was scrapped, as was the regularly scheduled Raw program. Instead, a tribute to Benoit was broadcast. However, the circumstances surrounding the deaths of Benoit and his family - not known at the time the June 25 Raw tribute was broadcast - led McMahon to also appear in person on the ECW broadcast the following night as well, acknowledging the change in Benoit's "status" and making the last mention of Benoit's name on WWE television. (WWE would take a step away from this policy when it launched the streaming WWE Network in 2014; Benoit matches air uncut on that outlet, but are preceded with a disclaimer.[12]) In his remarks on Raw, McMahon directly refers to "Mr. McMahon" as "my character" and refers in both Raw and ECW to the WWE wrestlers as "performers".

The ending of the Raw fifteenth anniversary special featured both heels and faces enjoying a beer together with many WWE alumni. When Ric Flair retired the night following WrestleMania XXIV on Raw, the entire roster of all three brands honored him, as did former wrestlers such as the Four Horsemen and Ricky Steamboat. Most notably, however, this included The Undertaker and Vince McMahon (who, as part of the storyline for Flair's retirement, made the stipulation in which if Flair lost a single match, he would be forced to retire).[13]

On the April 11, 2011, edition of Raw, after Edge announced his retirement due to a legitimate spinal condition, Edge, being a face superstar was seen shaking many heel superstars' hands, most notably Dolph Ziggler, whom Edge had recently been in a relatively long feud with. On the following edition of Smackdown he also announced that he and Kane were best of friends despite the two also recently being involved in a relatively long feud which included Edge causing Kane to push his father Paul Bearer off of a balcony to his (kayfabe) death.

On the September 16, 2011, edition of SmackDown, Edge returned to host the "Cutting Edge". Christian and Edge had formerly feuded about whether or not Edge cost Christian the World Heavyweight Championship at Summerslam and they appeared to reconcile backstage. Still, both appeared slightly uncomfortable to see each other. The feud started again after Christian got angry at Edge for not helping him to convince Teddy Long that he deserves one more match for the title. After the taping of the show, they hosted Edge Appreciation Night where Christian told Edge that he loves him and that whether or not he is in the WWE he will always be his biggest fan, breaking kayfabe. They embraced as lifelong friends.

Jerry Lawler's heart attack[edit]

On the September 10, 2012, edition of Raw, after competing in a tag team match with Randy Orton against CM Punk and Dolph Ziggler, Jerry Lawler collapsed (legitimately) at the announce table while Kane and Daniel Bryan competed against The Prime Time Players.[14][15] Updates were provided during the live broadcast by commentator Michael Cole, who broke kayfabe to make clear to viewers that Lawler's collapse and hospitalization was not a planned part of the show. As of the end of the broadcast at 23:15 EDT, it was announced that he had received CPR, but was breathing independently and reacting to stimulus. It was later confirmed on Dutch Mantell's Facebook page that Lawler had suffered a heart attack.[16]

Breaks that are apparent but unacknowledged[edit]

In the wrestling ring, as in theater, scripted events can easily go wrong. This can be due to wrestler error, equipment malfunction, or moves that result in unexpected injury. As in theater, these events are often covered up and not apparent to fans. On other occasions, mishaps have been brought into sharp relief due to the circumstances or actions of individuals, making the mistakes obvious.

  • Bret Hart once talked about a match against Dino Bravo he was meant to win; during the match, Bravo threw Hart into a barrier outside of the ring and broke Hart's sternum. Without letting Bravo know, Hart battled on and was in severe pain. When he was thrown back into the ring, he rolled himself back outside the ring and was counted out without giving away his injury.
  • In the 1995 Summerslam ladder match for the Intercontinental Championship, Shawn Michaels twice fumbled in his attempt to retrieve the belt, the second time very obviously, forcing his opponent Razor Ramon to lie down for a lengthy period of time, far greater than what is normally associated with the bump that he took. It is generally believed, however, that this mistake actually made the match better than what it would have been with the scripted ending. It is often ranked as one of the best WWE matches of all time.
  • At the headlining match of SummerSlam 1996, Shawn Michaels defended the WWF World Heavyweight Championship against Vader. At one point during the match, Vader did not roll away from an elbow drop off the top rope from Michaels, which Michaels responded to by adjusting his orientation in mid-air, simply landing on his feet next to Vader, then stomping on Vader's head while yelling "Move!" at him.
  • At SummerSlam 1997, in another Intercontinental Title Match, a botched reverse piledriver administered by Owen Hart to Steve Austin resulted in a (real life) serious injury for Austin. He was clearly unable to move for several minutes and eventually only did so with great difficulty. Austin was booked to win, and Owen taunted him and the crowd for a while until Austin rolled him up for a weak pin and the win. Despite valiantly continuing to perform for several years afterward, Austin's neck injury ultimately forced him to retire.
  • On March 12, 2000, New Jack (legitimately) suffered brain damage and was temporarily blinded in his right eye, when he and his opponent, Vic Grimes, fell off a balcony, missed the tables that were supposed to absorb the force of their fall and landed on the concrete floor (with Grimes landing on New Jack's head) at Living Dangerously 2000.
  • At No Way Out 2001, The Rock wrestled WWF Champion Kurt Angle. As noted in Angle's autobiography It's True! It's True! the finish to the match was supposed to be The Rock giving Angle a Rock Bottom to win the match and the title. He did so, but referee Earl Hebner stopped his count at two by mistake by almost counting three but stopping short, apparently forgetting the original finish. Ringside announcers Jim Ross and Tazz covered for Hebner's mistake by saying that Angle had kicked out despite the fact that Angle made no visible effort to do so. The Rock then gave Angle a second Rock Bottom and Hebner made a three count to finally end the match.
  • On May 21, 2001, Triple H tore his quadriceps during a tag team title match. The injury happened as Triple H was breaking up Chris Jericho's Walls of Jericho while Steve Austin was in the hold. Although he was visibly in pain, the fact that he was apparently injured was not mentioned by Jim Ross or Paul Heyman, and Triple H managed to continue the match, taking the Walls of Jericho on the announce table at one point. Following the match, which Jericho and Chris Benoit won, Triple H would be out of action until the 2002 Royal Rumble.
  • At WrestleMania XIX, Brock Lesnar botched a Shooting Star Press while delivering it to Kurt Angle, falling short and landing on his head. Fortunately, he did not suffer any serious injury as a result.


Real life information being mentioned on the show[edit]

  • Several incidents over the years involved Roddy Piper. After appearing as the leading star in Don Owen's Pacific Northwest Wrestling during 1979 and 1980, Piper would return to the territory for special appearances, particularly after establishing permanent residence in Oregon. In one such instance, Piper appeared on the May 14, 1983 episode of Portland Wrestling to give an interview addressing Steve Duin, a columnist and reporter for The Oregonian, the major newspaper in Portland. Duin wrote an article entitled "Delineated morality play delights pro wrestling fans", published in The Oregonian on May 12. In the article, Duin described Owen's fan base as "a strange mix of people you never see shopping at (the upscale suburban mall) Washington Square". Duin also made an untoward insinuation when pointing out that Curt Hennig, who in real life had been married for several years, was not returning the affections shown by his female fans. Piper's promo on this occasion was essentially a shoot, though conducted in character. Portland Wrestling color commentator Dutch Savage, who conducted the interview, was visibly unable to maintain his composure and keep from laughing during the interview. Duin wrote many more pieces in The Oregonian during the 1980s which were critical of Owen and his wrestling promotion, but it was a piece by another Oregonian columnist, bringing attention to Art Barr's use of a youth-oriented gimmick on the PNW circuit while having been convicted of a sexual assault which occurred at a PNW event, which contributed to the demise of the promotion in 1992.
  • In a mid-1980s angle in Florida, Kevin Sullivan, whose heel stable was feuding with Dusty Rhodes at the time, hinted at having turned "The American Dream." When The Dream came out it was in fact Mike Davis doing a complete impersonation of Rhodes. The idea of the angle was that Sullivan thought he had a better idea of how the American Dream angle should be played, feeling that it worked better as a heel. In promos he would often refer to Rhodes as Virgil (his real name) and noted that Rhodes had begun in the territory as a heel.
  • When Ted DiBiase worked in the WWF as The Million Dollar Man he was assigned a valet/bodyguard named Virgil (played by Mike Jones). The name Virgil was Vince McMahon's idea and was intended as a dig at Dusty Rhodes (real name Virgil Runnels) who was booking the rival WCW at the time. Many years later Jones would appear in WCW under the name Vincent, an apparent payback reference to McMahon.
  • During a televised show run by Memphis, Tennessee, independent promotion Power Pro Wrestling on October 23, 1999, Doug Gilbert turned a scripted interview intended to further a feud with Brian Christopher into a shoot that soon led to the demise of the promotion. Gilbert blatantly broke kayfabe by publicly revealing the fact that Jerry Lawler, previously the owner of another significant Memphis-based promotion, was Brian's father. He also made disparaging remarks about both Lawlers, as well as the promotion's booker, Randy Hales.
  • On the episode of Smackdown before Survivor Series 2001, Paul Heyman talks about WCW and ECW going out of business. He mentions how the WWF incorporated a lot of its ideas from ECW creative standpoints, even adding, "While Doink the Clown had green hair and a rubber nose, Stone Cold Steve Austin was drinking his first beer in ECW".
  • During their feud, Paul Burchill revealed the mugshot of Gregory Helms, who had been arrested in Cleveland a few days prior to the event.
  • Vince McMahan began the September 13, 2001 edition of WWE Smackdown with an impassioned speech about the tragic events of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
  • On the May 5, 2008, edition of WWE Raw, Piper appeared on Carlito's Cabana and mentioned Santino Marella's recent DUI arrest.
  • On the November 22, 2010 edition of Raw, The Miz announced that Alex Riley would be taking his place in his match. Before the match started CM Punk, who was the new commentator, clearly said "Are you sure he's not under the influence". This was referring to Riley being arrested for DUI.
  • On May 1, 2011 after Extreme Rules went off the air, John Cena returned to the stage and informed the crowd of the announcement by President Barack Obama that a Navy SEAL commando team had "caught and compromised to a permanent end, Osama bin Laden".
  • During the CM Punk–John Cena rivalry in 2011, kayfabe was broken a number of times. The opening salvo occurred on the June 27, 2011 edition of Raw. Punk, after interfering in a match between R-Truth and Cena, talks about Vince McMahon, mentions that he is breaking the fourth wall, and claims that the WWE might be better off after McMahon is dead. During this time he also waves at the camera, paying tribute to his friend Colt Cobana, and also threatens to take the WWE Championship to Ring of Honor and New Japan Pro Wrestling. His microphone was cut off as he began to tell a "personal story" about McMahon and the involvement of the two in WWE's anti-bullying campaign.
  • At the TNA pay-per-view No Surrender, Jeremy Borash interviewed Thea Trinidad a.k.a. Rosita out of character about losing her father in the September 11 attacks.
  • On the October 11, 2012 edition of Impact Wrestling, Austin Aries cuts a promo on Jeff Hardy in which he mentions Hardy's "rap sheet" of several drug offenses.
  • Jeff Hardy's drug and alcohol problems also became a subject of CM Punk's ridicule of his Straight Edge Persona, because CM Punk is a teetotal in reality.
  • CM Punk's Straight Edge persona also rubbed off on Daniel Bryan early in his WWE career because Bryan was a vegan, a teetotal and doesn't take drugs, even when the attempt to recycle the gimmick didn't work well,[17] so, Bryan ended up explaining veganism to a CM Punk, who was speaking as a face.[18]
  • The in-ring relationship between wrestler Rusev and manager Summer Rae was immediately ended on the October 12, 2015 episode of Raw when it was announced on TMZ the previous day that Rusev had become engaged in real life to girlfriend (and previous manager) Lana. Also, Rusev was originally dubbed from Bulgaria (his true nationality), only during his Pro-Russian and Pro-Putin storyline where his origin changed to Moscow, Russia.
  • Sheamus is also referred to be from Ireland. William Regal is referred to be from England. Bret Hart is referred to as being Canadian. The same with Sami Zayn, Kevin Owens and Edge.
  • There are often references made about the Anoa'i family. From the family sharing The Samoan Drop, the traditional tattoos, to the relationship between them being mentioned during and after the matches.
  • The Miz often makes plugs for his movies.
  • Leading up to their match at Survivor Series (2015), WWE Divas Paige and Charlotte engaged in a contract signing segment, oddly placed at the very end of the broadcast. In the exchange, Charlotte mentions the real life drug death of her younger brother Reid Flair two years prior. Using it as fodder, Paige would respond stating that Reid, "didn't have much fight left in him." The allusion was heavily criticized by the media, being described as a "forced gesture".
  • When Shane McMahon returned to Raw, he criticized Vince, Stephanie McMahon and Triple H in terms of how they run the company, and how, under their management, the stock value went down, the ratings are down, and the many wrestlers who have died, are injured, or are forced to retire due to injuries.
  • Even after Shane McMahon lost to The Undertaker, The Miz still referred Shane as The Boss' (Vince's) son, despite threats being made for Vince to 'disown' him, which he never did.
  • By the time Maryse made her return to WWE in 2016, she is already married to The Miz (Mike Mizanin). Also, The Miz and Maryse already have established successful acting careers, and they both reside in Los Angeles, California, and The Miz owns an Audi R8. He also mentions the off-ring engagements and obligations, and the hectic touring schedule, and reminding people of his reality show background, given Maryse is starring in the 6th season of Total Divas.[19]
  • AJ Styles has been mentioned to fight in Japan with Luke Gallows and Karl Anderson.
  • The Miz and Dolph Ziggler participated in Battle of Cleveland match, where Dolph Ziggler (real name: Nick Nemeth) is actually from Cleveland, while The Miz is from Parma, Ohio, a large suburb of Cleveland.
  • CM Punk (Chicago), The Rock (Miami, Florida), John Cena (Boston area) often wears uniforms of their hometown teams, while The Miz gets ridiculed as a heel, given how poorly many Cleveland teams, especially Cleveland Browns has been performing.
  • Stephanie McMahon reminded Shane McMahon that she is from Hartford, Connecticut in her hometown show, but was escorted out of the ring by security as it was Shane's final night as RAW GM before WWE Payback. After the pay-per-view, however, Stephanie turned face and worked alongside Shane.
  • Rusev's storyline wedding to Lana came after they actually got married on July 30, 2016. When they got engaged, the storyline between Rusev and Summer Rae was scrapped by way of Summer Rae dumping him as they were reunited in the storyline.
  • While Kane walked into the ring on August 30, 2016 SmackDown episode, the right graphic screen showed that, instead of Parts Unknown, he is billed from Knoxville, Tennessee (whereas Kane's real-life name Glenn Jacobs's insurance company The Jacobs Agency, is also located at that said place).
  • On the October 18 episode of the SmackDown Live Pre-Show, during a flashback of the last week where it was shown during a match between AJ Styles and James Ellsworth with Dean Ambrose as special guest referee, Dean was taking a call. Back at the pre-show, Jerry Lawler said that call must be from Renee Young. This was a reference to Jonathan Good's (Dean Ambrose) and Renee Pacquette's (Renee Young) real-life relationship.

Storylines becoming real life[edit]

Some efforts to promote kayfabe have resulted in real-life consequences.

While working as a booker for WCW, Kevin Sullivan conceived an angle where Woman (Nancy Daus Sullivan, Sullivan's wife both on-screen and off), would leave his character for Chris Benoit's. Sullivan insisted that the two should travel together to preserve kayfabe for the general public. This resulted in Sullivan's wife legitimately leaving him for Benoit when the two developed a real-life romantic relationship during their time together. Nancy ultimately married Benoit in 2000.

Brian Pillman developed the "Loose Cannon" persona for himself while in WCW in 1996, conspiring with Vice President Eric Bischoff and booker Kevin Sullivan. Pillman's gimmick was based entirely on straddling the fine line of kayfabe. He would engage in on-camera actions that seemed to be unscripted, even to the other performers, and even breached kayfabe protocol when he addressed Sullivan on air as "bookerman". In the ultimate act of turning fiction into fact, Pillman convinced Sullivan and Bischoff that their storyline "firing" of him would seem more legitimate with the physical evidence of a release form. They faxed an actual WCW contract termination notice to him, complete with his name and the proper signatures, in order to preserve kayfabe. This allowed Pillman to leave WCW for the ECW and WWF.

When Triple H and Stephanie McMahon entered into a kayfabe marriage in late 1999, Triple H and McMahon started dating in real life, and continued to do so after their kayfabe marriage ended in 2002; the two would eventually marry in real life in 2003. The Catholic priest at the wedding, not aware of the workings of the wrestling business, initially refused to marry the two when he found out about the kayfabe wedding from a choir boy who was also a wrestling fan. Linda McMahon later had to explain to the priest the difference between WWE programming and real life, allowing the marriage to go through. Afterwards, the real-life marriage became an open secret on television before being acknowledged by Triple H in 2009.[20]

Carmella is the former valet and manager for Enzo Amore and Colin Cassady, but is also the real-life girlfriend of Cassady.

Alexa Bliss is the former manager of Buddy Murphy and Blake, and she is the real-life girlfriend of Murphy. When Alexa was drafted to SmackDown from NXT during the 2016 WWE draft, they were seen embracing each other.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Washington, Tecoa T. (2009). Medieval Bedazzle. Mustang: Tate Publishing. ISBN 9781606046951. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ Marx, Groucho (host) (19 December 1957). "Ralph "Red" Berry". You Bet Your Life. Season 8. Episode 11. Bravo. 
  3. ^ Milner, John. "Vince McMahon". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  4. ^ Patterson, Pat; Hébert, Bertrand (2016). Accepted. Toronto: ECW Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-1-77041-293-4. 
  5. ^ Lilsboys (August 1, 2007). "Matt: I still will not die". The Sun. London. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  6. ^ Plummer, Dale; Tylwalk, Nick (November 22, 2010). "The fate of Cena is finally decided at so-so Survivor Series". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved November 22, 2010. 
  7. ^ Plummer, Dale (November 22, 2010). "RAW: The Miz cashes in as Nexus costs Orton WWE title". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  8. ^ Caldwell, James. "Roman Reigns suspended for Wellness Violation". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  9. ^ "Andy Kaufman : The Official Site". andykaufman.com. 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2016. Andykaufman.com states that he was 6 feet 0 inches (1.83 m) tall and weighed 165 lb (75 kg), while Jerry Lawler described him as 140 pounds during his pre-match interviews 
  10. ^ Alan Graham (producer) (February 21, 2008). The Passion of Andy Kaufman (Archive footage). Subterranean Cinema. Event occurs at 2:10:55–2:20:33. 
  11. ^ WWE (May 16, 2016). "Inside WWE's greatest controversy". Retrieved June 1, 2016 – via YouTube. 
  12. ^ "Photo - Chris Benoit Disclaimer On WWE Network". Wrestling News World. February 24, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2016. 
  13. ^ Adkins, Greg (March 31, 2008). "The Long Goodbye". WWE. Retrieved August 16, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Breaking news: Jerry "The King" Lawler collapses ringside at Raw in Montreal". WWE.com. September 17, 2012. Retrieved September 28, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Jerry "The King" Lawler collapses ringside at Raw in Montreal". WWE. September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 11, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Dutch Mantell's Facebook page". Facebook. Retrieved September 28, 2012. 
  17. ^ Cobbcorn, John (February 6, 2012). "Vegan and Straight Edge: The WWE's Learning Disability". Bleacher Report. Retrieved February 12, 2016. 
  18. ^ KesaKoMG (February 8, 2012). "WWE Superstar Daniel Bryan (Bryan Danielson) tells CM Punk what a vegan is (RAW - 01/30/12)". Retrieved June 1, 2016 – via YouTube. 
  19. ^ WWE (April 20, 2016). "The Miz and Maryse on their new career paths and their plans to start a family". Retrieved June 1, 2016 – via YouTube. 
  20. ^ Triple H - Thy Kingdom Come DVD

Further reading[edit]

  • Barrett, Grant (April 21, 2005). "Kayfabe". A Way with Words. Retrieved August 16, 2012.  (Information about the origin of the word.)