They Were Expendable
|They Were Expendable|
|Directed by||John Ford|
|Screenplay by||Frank Wead|
Jan Lustig (uncredited)
|Based on||They Were Expendable|
by William Lindsay White
|Produced by||John Ford|
|Cinematography||Joseph H. August|
|Edited by||Douglass Biggs|
Frank E. Hull
|Music by||Herbert Stothart|
|Distributed by||Loew's Inc.|
|Box office||$3,250,000 (US rentals)|
They Were Expendable is a 1945 American war film directed by John Ford, starring Robert Montgomery and John Wayne, and featuring Donna Reed. The film is based on the 1942 book by William Lindsay White, relating the story of the exploits of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three, a PT boat unit defending the Philippines against Japanese invasion during the Battle of the Philippines (1941–42) in World War II.
While a work of fiction, the book was based on actual events and people. The characters John Brickley (Montgomery) and Rusty Ryan (Wayne) are fictionalizations of the actual subjects, John D. Bulkeley (Medal of Honor recipient) and Robert Kelly, respectively. Both the film and the book, which was a best-seller and excerpted in Reader's Digest and Life, depict events that did not occur, but were believed to be real during the war; nonetheless, the film is noted for its verisimilitude in its depiction of naval combat.
In December 1941, Lt. John "Brick" Brickley (Robert Montgomery) commands a squadron of U.S. Navy PT boats, based at Cavite in the Philippines, in a demonstration of its capabilities, but the admiral in charge is unimpressed. Lt. J.G. "Rusty" Ryan (John Wayne), Brick's executive officer and friend, becomes disgusted and is writing his request for a transfer when news arrives of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Brick, Ryan and the rest of the squadron are frustrated for a time, as they are assigned non-combat duties, mostly messenger runs. Eventually, their superior has no choice but to order them to attack a large Japanese cruiser. But Brick orders Rusty to the hospital before they sortie when it is discovered that he has blood poisoning. There, Rusty begins a romance with Army nurse Sandy Davyss (Donna Reed). Another patient, "Ohio" (Louis Jean Heydt) is also attracted to Sandy. Brick's boats sink the cruiser, after which the squadron is unleashed, achieving increasing success, though at the cost both of boats and men. But it is only a matter of time before the Philippines fall. Sandy attends a dinner in her honor at the PT Base which makes it clear she is interested in Rusty.
With the mounting Japanese onslaught against the doomed American defenders at Bataan and on Corregidor, the squadron is assigned to evacuate General Douglas MacArthur, his family, and others to Mindanao, where an airplane will take them to Australia. Rusty manages to make a last phone call to Sandy, now on Bataan, to explain he will not be able to see her but before they can say goodbye, the connection is cut off. The boats successfully take MacArthur to his destination where he and his family are flown to Australia. This done, they resume their attacks against the Japanese, who gradually whittle down the squadron. Crews without boats are sent to fight as infantry. The final two boats pull into a small ship yard for repairs which is run by "Dad" Knowland (Russell Simpson). The Japanese troops are approaching but Dad says they will have to fight to get him. He is last seen sitting on the steps to his house with a rifle, pistol, and jug, waiting for the Japanese troops. The last two PT boats make another attack, after which Rusty's boat is sunk. Finally, the last boat is turned over to the Army for messenger duty. Brick, Ryan and two ensigns are ordered to be airlifted out on the last airplane because the PT boats have proved their worth, and the officers are needed stateside as trainers. While waiting for the plane, Rusty meets Ohio. Neither knows what happened to Sandy who was trapped on Bataan. They speculate that she might have escaped to the hills but are not optimistic. The surviving enlisted men, led by Chief Mulcahey, are left behind to continue the fight with the remnants of the U.S. Army and Filipino guerrillas.
- Robert Montgomery as Lieutenant John Brickley (as Robert Montgomery Comdr. U.S.N.R.)
- John Wayne as Lieutenant (junior grade) "Rusty" Ryan
- Donna Reed as 2nd Lieutenant Sandy Davyss
- Jack Holt as General Martin
- Ward Bond as BMC "Boats" Mulcahey
- Marshall Thompson as Ensign "Snake" Gardner
- Paul Langton as Ensign "Andy" Andrews
- Leon Ames as Major James Morton
- Arthur Walsh as Seaman Jones
- Donald Curtis as Lieutenant (J.G.) "Shorty" Long/Radio Announcer
- Cameron Mitchell as Ensign George Cross
- Jeff York as Ensign Tony Aiken
- Murray Alper as TM1c "Slug" Mahan
- Harry Tenbrook as SC2c "Squarehead" Larsen
- Jack Pennick as "Doc"
- Alex Havier as ST3c "Benny" Lecoco
- Charles Trowbridge as Admiral Blackwell
- Robert Barrat as The General
- Bruce Kellogg as Elder Tompkins MoMM2c
- Tim Murdock as Ensign Brant
- Louis Jean Heydt as "Ohio"
- Russell Simpson as "Dad" Knowland
- Vernon Steele as Army Doctor
- Bad Luck as ship's cat.
Following the acquisition of the film rights to William L. White's They Were Expendable MGM asked Ford to direct a film based on the book; Ford repeatedly refused due to his serving in the Navy Field Photographic Unit. During this time Ford met Lieutenant John D. Bulkeley during the preparation of the Normandy Invasion and later sighted Bulkeley's former executive officer Robert Montgomery on D-Day.
According to Turner Classic Movies host Ben Mankiewicz, Ford, a notoriously hard taskmaster, was especially hard on Wayne, who did not serve in the armed forces. During production, Ford fell from scaffolding and broke his leg. He turned to Montgomery, who had actually commanded a PT boat, to temporarily take over for him as director. Montgomery did so well that within a few years he began directing films.
The film, which received extensive support from the Navy Department, was shot in Key Biscayne, Florida and the Florida Keys. This region closely approximated the South West Pacific Theater. Actual U.S. Navy 80-foot Elco PT boats (hull numbers PT-139 and 141), and four 78-foot Huckins PT boats, (hull numbers PT-98, 100, 101, 102),were used throughout filming, albeit re-marked with false hull numbers in use in late 1941 and early 1942. Additional U.S. naval aircraft from nearby naval air stations in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Key West were temporarily remarked and used to simulate Japanese aircraft in the film.
Ford's onscreen directing credit reads, "Directed by John Ford, Captain U.S.N.R."; Frank Wead's onscreen credit reads: "Screenplay by Frank Wead Comdr. U.S.N., Ret"; Montgomery's onscreen credit reads: "Robert Montgomery Comdr. U.S.N.R."
Awards and honors
Douglas Shearer was nominated for the Oscar for Best Sound Recording, while A. Arnold Gillespie, Donald Jahraus, R. A. MacDonald and Michael Steinore were nominated for Best Effects. It was also named in the "10 Best Films of 1945" list by The New York Times.
In his Movie and Video Guide film critic and historian Leonard Maltin awarded They Were Expendable a four-star rating, describing it as a "moving, exquisitely detailed production" that is "one of the finest (and most underrated) of all WW2 films."
- They Were Expendable at the TCM Movie Database
- "60 Top Grossers of 1946", Variety 8 January 1947 p8
- "Empire Magazine".
- White, W. L. (October 26, 1942). "They Were Expendable". Life. p. 114. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Hood, Nathanael (December 28, 2012). "They Were Expendable". Forgotten Classics of Yesteryear. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
- ""John Ford's Navy": A Filmmaker in the OSS". warfarehistorynetwork.com.
- p. 406 McBride, Joseph Searching for John Ford; Univ. Press of Mississippi, 11 Feb. 2011
- "They Were Expendable (1945) - Notes - TCM.com". Turner Classic Movies.
- MTB Squadron Four, War Diary, Month of March 1945, FC8-4/A12-1 Serial 12, Dated April 2, 1945, NARA Collection
- "The 18th Academy Awards (1946) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
- "Moviefone". Archived from the original on December 24, 2013.
- At Close Quarters – PT Boats in the United States Navy by Captain Robert J. Bulkley, Jr., USNR (Retired)
- They Were Expendable at IMDb
- They Were Expendable at AllMovie
- They Were Expendable at Rotten Tomatoes
- They Were Expendable at the TCM Movie Database
- They Were Expendable at the American Film Institute Catalog
- They Were Expendable: A Critique of John Ford's 1945 War Film