They Were Expendable
|They Were Expendable|
original theatrical poster
|Directed by||John Ford|
|Produced by||John Ford|
|Screenplay by||Frank Wead
Jan Lustig (uncredited)
|Based on||William L. White (book)|
|Music by||Herbert Stothart|
|Cinematography||Joseph H. August|
|Edited by||Douglass Biggs
Frank E. Hull
|December 19, 1945 (US)|
They Were Expendable is a 1945 American war film directed by John Ford and starring Robert Montgomery and John Wayne and featuring Donna Reed. The film is based on the book by William L. White, relating the story of the exploits of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three, a PT boat unit defending the Philippines against Japanese invasion during the Battle of the Philippines (1941–42) in World War II.
While a work of fiction, the book was based on actual events and people. The characters of John Brickley (Montgomery) and Rusty Ryan (Wayne) are fictionalizations of the actual subjects, John D. Bulkeley (Medal of Honor recipient) and Robert Kelly, respectively. Both the film and the book – which was a best seller and which was excerpted in Reader's Digest and Life – depict actions which did not occur, but were believed to be real during the war; the film is noted for its verisimilitude.
In December, 1941, a squadron of PT Boats under the command of Lt. John "Brick" Brickley (Robert Montgomery) is sent to Manila to help defend the Philippines against a potential Japanese invasion. However, upon their arrival, instead of a welcome, they are ridiculed by the local military commanders. One of Brick's men, Lt., J.G. "Rusty" Ryan (John Wayne) becomes disgusted when his superiors refuse to see the small boats as viable naval craft and is in the process of writing his request for a transfer to destroyers when news arrives of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which makes transfer at that time impossible.
Ryan's and Brickley's demands for combat assignments for their squadron are frustrated for a time as they are assigned to messenger duty, but when the Japanese launch a surprise attack with warplanes, they are hastily pressed into combat duty. They are again subjected to messenger duty, infuriating Ryan who continually requests transfer to a destroyer. Eventually, the local command recognizes the effectiveness of the small boats and use them for intercepting and sinking larger Japanese boats. As they are about to leave on a mission to sink a Japanese cruiser, Brick orders Rusty to the hospital, where it is discovered that he has blood poisoning. While in the hospital, Rusty begins a romance with Army nurse Sandy Davyss (Donna Reed). Brick's boats sink the cruiser, after which the squadron meets with more and more success, even as they suffer the loss of both boats and men. However, the American forces are vastly outgunned and outnumbered by the Japanese forces, and it is only a matter of time before the islands are lost.
With the mounting Japanese onslaught against the doomed American garrisons at Bataan and Corregidor, the squadron is sent to evacuate General Douglas MacArthur, his family, and a party of VIPs. This done, they resume their attacks against the Japanese, who gradually whittle down the squadron. As boats are lost, their crews are sent to fight as infantry. Finally, the last boat is turned over to the Army for messenger duty. Brickley, Ryan and two ensigns are airlifted out on one of the last planes because the PT boats have proved their worth and they are needed stateside to train replacement PT boat officers and crews. The remaining enlisted men, led by Chief Mulcahey, are left behind to continue the fight with remnants of the U.S. Army and Filipino guerillas.
According to Turner Classic Movies host Ben Mankiewicz, during filming, director John Ford, a well-known taskmaster, was especially hard on Wayne, who did not serve in the armed forces. During production, Ford fell from a scaffolding and broke his leg. He turned to Montgomery – who had actually commanded a PT boat – to temporarily take over for him as director. Montgomery did so well that within a few years he began directing films.
The film received extensive support from the Navy Department and it was shot on location on Key Biscayne, Florida, and the Florida Keys, since this region most closely approximated the South West Pacific Theater. Actual U.S. Navy 80-foot Elco PT Boats were used throughout the filming, albeit remarked with false hull numbers that would have been in use in late 1941 and early 1942. Additional U.S. naval aircraft from nearby naval air stations in Miami, Fort Lauderdale and Key West were temporarily remarked and were used to simulate Japanese aircraft in the film.
John Ford's onscreen directing credit reads, "Directed by John Ford, Captain U.S.N.R."; Frank Wead's onscreen credit reads and "Screenplay by Frank Wead Comdr. U.S.N., Ret"; Robert Montgomery's onscreen credit reads: "Robert Montgomery Comdr. U.S.N.R."
Awards and honors
The film earned two Academy Award nominations, for Best Sound Recording, for Douglas Shearer, and for Best Visual Effects. It was also named to the "10 Best Films of 1945" list by the New York Times.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2012)|
- Blank, Joan Gill. Key Biscayne. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1996. ISBN 1-56164-096-4.
- At Close Quarters – PT Boats in the United States Navy by Captain Robert J. Bulkley, Jr., USNR (Retired)
- They Were Expendable at the Internet Movie Database
- They Were Expendable at AllMovie
- They Were Expendable at Rotten Tomatoes
- They Were Expendable at the TCM Movie Database
- They Were Expendable: A Critique of John Ford's 1945 War Film