Timeline of Skanderbeg

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This timeline lists important events relevant to the life of George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), widely known as Skanderbeg.

1405

1409

  • Gjon Kastrioti sent his eldest son, Stanisha, to be the Sultan's hostage.

1423

  • Gjon Kastrioti sent George as a hostage to the sultan's court.[3]
  • Skanderbeg was circumcised.[4]
  • George soon won the Sultan's confidence and was treated by Murad like his own son and promoted him to the high ranks in the Ottoman Army.[5]

1423 – 1426

1426

  • The First act of Hilandar emerged as a document written on Serbian language and Cyrillic script which is the first written document that contains the name of George Kastriot.
  • In period between 1426 and 1431 Gjon Kastrioti and his three sons (Stanisha, Reposh and George) purchased four adelphates (rights to reside on monastic territory and receive subsidies from monastic resources) to the Saint George tower of Hilandar and to some property within the monastery as stated in the Second Act of Hilandar.

1428

  • Stefan Maramonte went to Ottoman court and met Skanderbeg there.[6][7]
  • Based on the Ottoman graduation system (Turkish: çıkma), the sultan granted Skanderbeg a timar. This timar was near to the territories controlled by his father Gjon Kastrioti (Turkish: Yuvan-eli).[8]
  • April — Gjon Kastrioti sent a letter to Venice in which he had explained his concerns that his son Skanderbeg would probably be ordered by the sultan to occupy his territory.[9]
  • Gjon Kastrioti had to seek forgiveness from the Venetian Senate because of Skanderbeg's participation in Ottoman military campaigns against Christians.[10]

1430

  • Gjon Kastrioti was defeated in a battle by the Ottoman governor of Skopje, Isa bey Evrenos and as a result, his territorial possessions were extremely reduced.
  • Skanderbeg gained the title of sipahi because of his merits in expeditions of Murad II.

1431

1432—1436

  • Although Skanderbeg was summoned home by his relatives when George Arianiti and Andrew Thopia with other chiefs from region between Vlorë and Shkodër organized rebellion against Ottoman Empire in period 1432—1436, he did nothing, remaining loyal to the sultan.[11]
  • Skanderbeg commanded Ottoman cavalry in many different battles in Europe and Asia bringing slaves and loot to Ottoman capitol Adrianople. According to Fan Noli, during one battle in Anatolia he first climbed to the wall, raised Ottoman flag and was first among the Ottoman forces to enter the besieged fortress.[12]

1437

  • 4 May – Gjon Kastrioti died and was buried in Serbian Orthodox monastery of Hilandar in Mount Athos.
  • Skanderbeg expected that he would succeed his father and became the lord of the Kastiotis's domain.[13]
  • Skanderbeg's expectations were not met. Ottomans annexed Gjon's former domain and appointed Skanderbeg as timariot of a timar composed of nine villages in high mountains which until Gjon's death belonged to his domain.
  • Skanderbeg became subaşi of the Krujë Subaşilik of the Sanjak of Albania in period 1437–1438.
  • November – Hizir bey was appointed as subaşi of the Krujë Subaşilik instead of Skanderbeg.

1438

  • Skanderbeg continued fighting within Ottoman forces.
  • May – Skanderbeg's timar (of the vilayet of Dhimitër Jonima) composed of nine villages in high mountains that once belonged to his father Gjon (this timar was listed in Ottoman registers as Gjon's land, Turkish: Yuvan-ili) was awarded to Andre Karlo.
  • The granting of these villages to André Karlo must have upset Skanderbeg[14] who requested to be granted with control over the zeamet in Misia consisting of his father's former domain.[15] Sanjakbey (probably of the Sanjak of Ohrid) objected Skanderbeg's request.[16]

1439

  • 7 July – A letter from Skanderbeg and widow of Gjon Kastrioti was presented by their procurator priest Petar to the Dubrovnik's city council. The letter was written in Slavic language and contained their request to inherit 123 ducats two merchants from Dubrovnik owed to Gjon Kastrioti for customs they did not pay on time. Their request was accepted.[17]

1440

1443

  • August 1443 – George Arianiti again rebelled against Ottomans, probably urged by pope Eugene IV or instigated by the news of defeat of Hadım Şehabeddin.[20]
  • Early November 1443 – Skanderbeg participated in the Battle of Niš fighting for Ottoman Empire under Kasim Pasha[21] against allied forces of John Hunyadi, Władysław III of Poland and Đurađ Branković.
  • Early November 1443 – After the Ottoman forces were defeated in the Battle of Niš, Skanderbeg forced an Ottoman scribe to forge a letter in which sultan Murad II appoints Skanderbeg as the Governor of Krujë. According to some earlier sources, Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army during the Battle of Kunovica on 2 January 1444.[22][23][24][25]
  • November 28 Together with his nephew Hamza Kastrioti and 300 Ottoman soldiers from Albania Skanderbeg arrived to Krujë and used the forged letter to gain the control of Krujë from Zabel Pasha.
  • Soon after Skanderbeg captured Krujë his rebels managed to capture many Ottoman fortresses including strategically very important Svetigrad (Kodžadžik) taken with support of Moisi Arianit Golemi and 3,000 rebels from Debar.[26]
  • According to some sources Skanderbeg impaled captured Ottoman soldiers who refused to be baptized into Christianity.[27][28]

1444

  • March 2 – A meeting of local regional noblemen from Albania was organized in the Venetian town Lezhë, Albania Veneta.[29] They agreed to establish an alliance (League of Lezhë) to fight under Skanderbeg's command against the Ottoman Empire.
  • June 29 – Skanderbeg was victorious against the Ottoman forces in the Battle of Torvioll.
  • Skanderbeg's forces stole cattle of the citizens of Lezhë and captured their women and children.[30]
  • November 10 – After winning the Battle of Varna against crusaders of John Hunyadi, sultan Murad II attempted to convince Skanderbeg to return under Ottoman suzerainty. Skanderbeg refused.
  • Nicholas Dukagjini, ambushed and killed another League member, Lekë Zaharia Altisferi.
  • Dukagjini's attempt to capture Zaharia's fortress Dagnum failed.
  • Zaharia's mother ceded to Venice fortress of Dagnum and all other possessions which belonged to her murdered son Zaharia (Drivast, Sati, Gladri and Dushmani).

1445

  • February – Venetian Republic senate confirmed to Skanderbeg and to his brother Staniša that Venice will have the same obligations toward two of them as they had toward their father, promising them Venetian citizenship and safe conduct in case their enemies drive them away.[31]
  • October 10 – Skanderbeg and his forces were victorious in the Battle of Mokra, fought on the mountain of Mokra in Macedonia.

1446

1447

  • Skanderbeg was seduced by Alfonso V into making a war against Venice.[34]
  • Skanderbeg's envoys visited Serbian Despot Đurađ Branković. Branković gave them cordial reception and informed them that he wish to see people from Albania to capture Dagnum from Venetians.[35] Branković, an Ottoman vassal and lord of Serbian Despotate, promised to help Skanderbeg to fight against the Venetian Republic.[36]
  • Skanderbeg proclaimed himself the heir of the Balšići and emphasized his intention of gaining control of their former domains.[37]
  • Skanderbeg claimed to Venice all their towns which were pronoia of murdered Lekë Zaharia Altisferi (Dagnum, Drivast, Sati, Gladri and Dushmani) and also Drivast because it belonged to Serbian Despotate before Venice captured it.
  • Venice refused Skanderbeg's claim and offered him 1,000 ducats to lay aside all claims.
  • Skanderbeg refused Venetian offer.
  • Skanderbeg attacked Durrës.[38]
  • Skanderbeg failed to capture Venetian towns Bar and Ulcinj after unsuccessful attacks he conducted on behalf of the Kingdom of Naples together with forces of Serbian Despotate led by Đurađ Branković and forces of Principality of Zeta led by Stefan Crnojević.[39]
  • December – Skanderbeg besieged Dagnum, but failed to capture it.
  • December – Skanderbeg's forces reconstructed Baleč fortress and established a garrison of 2,000 men in it with Marin Span as its commander
  • December – Venetian forces (led also by Andrija and Kojčin Humoj, together with Simeon Vulkata) drove away Skanderbeg's forces from Baleč garrison.[40][41]
  • December – Skanderbeg plundered area around Durrës.

1448

  • March 4 – The Venetian Empire offered a life pension of 100 golden ducats annually for the person who would kill Skanderbeg.[42][43]
  • Skanderbeg sent a detachment of his troops to the rural areas of the Kingdom of Naples to suppress a rebellion against Alfonso V. Many of them settled there.
  • April – Skanderbeg's forces besieged Durrës and he requested from its citizens annual provision of 400 ducats and two clothing. Citizens of Durrës were willing to accept his request but Senate later rejected such idea because they believed separate peaces would divide weak Venetian forces in area between Durrës and Kotor.[44]
  • May – The Venetian Senate accepted offers of some people who promised to kill Skanderbeg for a life pension of 100 ducats annually.[45]
  • Venetian Senate sent a messenger to the Ottoman sultan and requested that Skanderbeg should be punished "because Skanderbeg is Ottoman citizen and we have solid peace with Ottoman Empire".[46]
  • Ottoman forces under command of Sultan Murad II struggled against Skanderbeg with limited results recapturing only a part of the Skanderbeg's territory.[47][48][49]
  • Murad mobilized two armies to attack Skanderbeg. One army of 10,000 cavalry led by Ali Feriz Pasha who was supreme commander of the European Ottoman forces and another of 15,000 cavalry and infantry under command of Mustapha Pasha.[50]
  • June – In action coordinated with Skanderbeg, the lord of Serbian Despotate attacked Venetian towns in the region of Kotor, Budva and Bar.
  • Because Ottoman forces attacked Skanderbeg Venetians were not concerned about him anymore. They decided not to make peace with him but to destroy him and noblemen allied with him. Therefore, Venetians decided not to allow them to find refugee in their towns. In the same time Venetians opened gates of their cities for peasants to flee from Ottomans leaving Skanderbeg and noblemen allied with him without supplies provided by those peasants.[51]
  • July 23 – Skanderbeg was victorious near Shkodër, against Venetian force of 15,000 men under the command of Daniele Iurichi, governor of Scutari.
  • July 31 – Skanderbeg lost Svetigrad to Ottoman Empire after the siege (May 14 – July 31).
  • Skanderbeg's forces under command of Hamza Kastrioti were defeated after they attacked the Venetian fortress near Dagnum.
  • Murad II abandoned his campaign after receiving the news about preparation for the new Crusade.[52]
  • August 14 – Skanderbeg was victorious in the Battle of Oranik (near modern-day Debar, Macedonia).
  • September 19 – The fire devastated Scutari, damaged city walls and killed around 500 people. This reduced defense potential of the city and increased danger of Skanderbeg's attacks.
  • When Venetian Senate received news that Serbian Despot prepares another attack on their positions in Zeta. On October 19 Senate issued instructions to Scutari governor to sign a peace treaty with Skanderbeg or to destroy his forces if he refuses the peace. This instructions were late because the governor of Scutari already signed a treaty with Skanderbeg 15 days earlier.[53]
  • October 4 – Skanderbeg signed the capitulation to the Venice in Shkodër (disguised as peace treaty).[54] Venice was obliged to pay 1,400 dukats annually to Skanderbeg, but never paid it. Skanderbeg was also obliged to join an anti-Ottoman coalition led by John Hunyadi.
  • Skanderbeg asked Republic of Ragusa for a loan to be able to fight against Ottomans. He gave hawks to the Ragusan senate as his gift.
  • Ragusan Senate rejected Skanderbeg's request and granted him 200 ducats.
  • Hunyadi was defeated in the battle on Kosovo on 17–20 October while Skanderbeg failed to collect enough supplies to finance his forces to join Hunyadi's campaign.[55] It was believed that he was delayed by Đurađ Branković, then allied with Sultan Murad II, whose land Skanderbeg and his forces ravaged as punishment for desertion of Christian cause.[56][57] Later research has shown this belief to be untrue.[58]
  • On a session held on November 14 Senate decided what to do with hawks presented by Skanderbeg.

1449

  • By 1449 Gjergj Arianiti left his alliance with Skanderbeg.[33]
  • Skanderbeg tried to regain Svetigrad but failed.
  • Skanderbeg and Arianiti approached to Venetians requesting their protection. Venetians opted for neutral approach, not to jeopardize peace with Ottomans, and refused their request.[59]
  • April – Skanderbeg offered 6,000 ducats to gain the status of protectorate of the Republic of Venice. The same amount he was obliged to pay to the Ottoman Empire as its vassal after he was forced to submit to Ottoman suzerainty.[60] Venetians refused Skanderbeg's offers and informed him that they "don't want property that belongs to somebody else" while emphasizing their willingness to help Skanderbeg to negotiate peace with Ottomans.* Skanderbeg supported Venetian appointment of Ivan Crnojević as Duke.[61]
  • Skanderbeg asked Venice to allow him to graze his cattle on Venetian territory (villages Medoa and Vilipoje). Venice allowed him to do so.[62]
  • Skanderbeg sent another detachment of troops to Italy, to garrison Sicily against a rebellion and invasion. This time the troops were led by brothers Giorgio and Basilio Reres, sons of Demetrios.[63]

1450

  • Skanderbeg sends a letter written on Serbian language to Ragusa to inform its nobility that Ottoman sultan was going to attack him.[64]
  • Skanderbeg organized a beginning of the construction of Rodoni Castle.
  • League of Lezhë collapsed when Ottoman forces approached.[65]
  • Skanderbeg left Krujë before it was besieged.
  • May 14 – The Ottoman siege of Krujë began.
  • Arianiti begged Venetians to work on peace between Sultan and Skanderbeg if Ottomans would not capture Krujë.[66]
  • October 14 – Skanderbeg offered Krujë to the Venetians, threatening to capitulate the fortress to the Ottomans if they did not accept it.
  • October 26 – Murad lifted the siege of Krujë.
  • The Venetians replied to Skanderbeg's offer rejecting it and offered to help Skanderbeg to harmonize his relationship with Ottomans[67]
  • The peace was agreed between Ottomans and Skanderbeg who again obliged himself to pay tribute to the sultan.[68]
  • Skanderbeg was at the end of his resources. He lost all of his possessions except Krujë. Other Albanian nobles allied with Murad like he saved them from the oppression. After the Ottoman withdrawal they continued to struggle against Skanderbeg's efforts to enforce his authority.[69]
  • Skanderbeg travelled to Ragusa to urge for and to collect Ragusans' and pope's financial support.

1451

  • January – Skanderbeg was appointed as "captain general of the king of Aragon"[70]
  • 3 February – Sultan Murad II dies and Mehmed the Conqueror began his reign. He had in mind much bigger plans than capture of Kruje. He planned to capture Byzantine held Constantinople. After the dissolution of the League of Lezhe, not being aware of new Ottoman plans, Skanderbeg believed he was forced to seeks external assistance.[71][72]
  • 26 March – Skanderbeg got external assistance by signing the Treaty of Gaeta and recognizing suzerainty of the Kingdom of Naples.
  • End of May – Napolitan military officer Bernat Vaquer, sent by Alphonso v with one hundred infantry soldiers, took over Kruje on behalf of the Kingdom of Naples and put its garrison under his command.[73]
  • Pal Dukagjini and Peter Spani remained aligned with Venice and established friendly relations with the Sultan.
  • April 21 – Skanderbeg married Donika Kastrioti, daughter of Gjergj Arianiti in an Eastern Orthodox Ardenica Monastery.[74][75]
  • Venice continued its efforts to turn Skanderbeg's allies against Kingdom of Naples and Skanderbeg. George Arianiti cut himself off from Albanian politics while Paul Dukagjini, member of Dukagjini Family and father of Lekë Dukagjini, however, prepared for war against Skanderbeg.

1452

  • 23 — 25 April – Alphonso V appointed Ramon d'Ortafa as governor of Kruje and Albania. He also informed Johan de Castro, a castellan of Kruje at that time, about this appointment and ordered him to hand over Kruje to d'Ortafa. Alphonso V sent letters to Skanderbeg, George Arianiti and other tribal leaders in Albania to inform them about appointment of d'Ortafa and to instruct them to accept his governance.[76]
  • Rodoni Castle has been constructed.[77]
  • Spring – Giammaria Biemmi claims that Dukagjini attempted to kill Skanderbeg in the spring of 1452. It is not possible to confirm this claim which is supported by some scholars as well as information that Skanderbeg and Dukagjini made peace on 25 September 1452.[78]
  • July 21 – Skanderbeg was victorious in Battle of Modrica[79] and Battle of Meçad where his forces killed Tahip Pasha and captured Hamza Pasha who was ransomed for 13,000 dukats.
  • July – Dukagjini opted for a reconciliation with Skanderbeg.
  • Autumn – Skanderbeg sent his troops to aid the Venetians thwart the attack of Serbian Despotate on the Venetian city of Cattaro.

1453

  • March 5 – Alfonso sent a letter censuring Venice for not paying its dues to Skanderbeg and also for supporting Skanderbeg's enemies. He thus urged for a peremptory measure to all Albanian – Venetian conflicts.
  • April 22 – Skanderbeg was victorious in the Battle of Pollog fought near modern-day Tetovo in Macedonia.
  • Alfonso promised to send men and an annual pension of 1,500 ducats to Skanderbeg, whereas Pope Nicholas V sent 5,000 florins.
  • September 18 – Venetians sent a letter to Skanderbeg expressing their grattitude for his willingness to help them to negotiate peace with Serbian despot.[80]
  • September 25 – Ragusa has decided to give deposits of Stefan Branković to Skanderbeg's envoys.[81]
  • 9 October – Venetian Senate informs Skanderbeg that his request to be accompanied by the Venetian governor of Alessio during his trip to Rome and Naples has been accepted.[82]
  • 6 December – Alphonso V assured Pedro Skuder, castellan of Kruje, that Kruje will be delivered necessary supplies.[82]

1454

1455

1456

  • end of March – Skanderbeg was victorious in the Battle of Oranik where he defeated his former companion, Golemi; the latter allied himself with the Ottomans.
  • April – Golemi returned to Skanderbeg and joined his forces
  • By May – Gjergj Arianiti allied with Venice.[33]
  • Venice appointed Gjergj Arianiti on the position of captain of the Venetian Albania, which additionally weakened Skanderbeg's cause.[89]
  • According to Fan Noli, Gjergj Stress Balsha, sold the fortress of Modrič to the Ottomans for 30,000 silver ducats. He tried to cover up the act; however, his treason was discovered and he was sent to prison in Naples.
  • November 4 – According to the reports sent to Duchy of Milan, Skanderbeg helped Leke Dukagjini to capture Venetian held Dagnum.[90]
  • November 9 – According to one report Venetians had intention to attack Skanderbeg because he was a supporter of Alfonso V of Aragon to whom he granted Kruje, so Skanderbeg's men have to go all the way to Venetian held Durazo or Scutari if they want to fight against Ottomans.[91]
  • Skanderbeg's son Gjon was born.[92]
  • Hamza Kastrioti, Skanderbeg's own nephew and his close collaborator, defected to the Ottomans.[93]

1457

  • June – Pelinović brought to Venice Skanderbeg's letter in which he complained because Venetians were not regularly paying him the agreed provisions.
  • In the name of Skanderbeg, Pelinović went in a diplomatic mission to Pope Callixtus III and convinced him to continue with the payments of his allowances to Skanderbeg.[94]
  • July – Skanderbeg requested from Venetians to allow his forces to cross Venetian territory because they wanted to attack Ottoman positions in Upper Zeta. Senate refused his request.[95]
  • August – Venetians recaptured Dagnum from Leke Dukagjini after fierce battle and significant casualties.[96] Venetian forces led by Andrea Venier were supported by Skanderbeg.[97]
  • September 2 – Skanderbeg was victorious in the Battle of Albulena. He captured Hamza Kastrioti and sent him to prison to the Kingdom of Naples in whiche eventually died.[98]

1458

  • June 27 – Alfonso V died.
  • Skanderbeg accepted Ottoman suzerainty.[99]
  • July 27 – According to some reports, Ottoman Empire captured Albanian mountains and Skanderbeg came to Kruje with 200 soldiers awarded to him by Ferdinand I of Naples. Venetian commander of Kruje garrison was supposedly afraid that Skanderbeg would surrender Kruje to the Ottomans and did not allow him to enter the castle. Skanderbeg returned to Alessio and some rumors say that he intend to approach to Hungarian king for help.[100]

1459

  • 2 April – Skanedrbeg wrote receipt on Serbian language in which he confirms that he collected 500 ducats from his deposit in Ragusa.[101]
  • 7 June – Skanderbeg sends to Ragusans another letter written on Serbian language in which he informed them that they should receive his envoy Ninac Vukoslavić who was sent to seek their help.[101]
  • 13 June – Skanderbeg sends Serbian language letter to Ragusans informing them that he collected 900—1,000 ducats out of his deposit[102][103]
  • June – Skanderbeg ceded the fortress Sati to Venice in order to establish cordial relation with Venice before sending his forces to Italy to help Ferrante I of Naples who had been suffering a dynastic dispute after the death of Alfonso V. Before Venetians took over the control over Sati, Skanderbeg captured it and surrounding area driving Lekë Dukagjini and his forces away, because he opposed to Skanderbeg and destroyed Sati before Venetian takeover.[104]
  • Although Skanderbeg had intention to accept the Ottoman proposal for the three year armistice, the pope did not allow him and he had to refuse it. To show his discontent Skanderbeg refused to participate in the Council of Mantua held to plan the future crusade.[105]

1460

1461

  • At the beginning of 1461 Stefan Branković went to Italy with Skanderbeg's written recommendation.[110][111] According to some sources Stefan stayed in Albania until 1466.[112] Stefan stayed with Skanderbeg and supported his anti-Ottoman struggle forging plans to recapture Serbia and Smederevo from Ottomans.[113]
  • April - Ragusan Senate promised Skanderbeg safe haven from Ottomans in case he would need one.[114]
  • Mid June – Skanderbeg agreed to a ceasefire with Mehmed[115] which was agreed to last for three years.[116] This ceasefire was more favorable to the Ottomans than to Skanderbeg's forces.[117]
  • Skanderbeg went to Italy to join his nephew in struggle for Ferrante I.

1462

  • Venice stopped paying provisions to Skanderbeg and this brought Venice near armed conflict with Skanderbeg.[118]
  • April – Venetian Senate wrote to Scutari governor to calm Skanderbeg using Pelinović as mediator. Pelinović was successful and Venetian Senate continued with the payments (600 ducats totally per year) to Skanderbeg and agreed to pay him all retained provisions.[119]
  • July 7 – Skanderbeg was victorious in the Battle of Mokra against the Ottoman forces led by Sinan bey.
  • August – Skanderbeg was victorious in three battles against the Ottomans during his Macedonian campaign in only one month:
    • in Mokra against the forces led by Hasan bey.
    • in Pollog against the forces led by Isuf bey.
    • in Livad against the forces led by Karaza bey.

1463

  • April 26 – Venetians allowed Skanderbeg and his forces to cross the territory of Venetian domains to support Stjepan Vukčić Kosača.[120] but Skanderbeg failed to carry out his promises for help.[121]
  • April 27 – Skanderbeg signed the Peace of Ushkub, a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire. This peace treaty was more favorable to the Ottomans than to Skanderbeg's forces.[117]
  • Skanderbeg's envoy Andrija Snaticho, an abbot of Ratac Abbey came to Venice to offer an alliance on behalf of Skanderbeg.[122]
  • August 1 – Venetian Senate decided to send an envoy ("unus nobilis orator") to make peace between Stjepan Kosača and his son Vladislav and between Skanderbeg and neighboring noblemen.[123]
  • August 20 – Skanderbeg signed a treaty of alliance with Republic of Venice and based on this treaty he fought as ally of Venice during the Ottoman–Venetian War until his death.[124]
  • September 25 – Venetian Senate accepts Skanderbeg's son Gjon Kastrioti II as Venetian nobleman, a member of the Great Council of Venice.[125]
  • October 15 – Paladin Gundulić concluded a contract on behalf of Skanderbeg with a couple of craftsmen to build a ship for Skanderbeg on the territory of Albania. They were paid in advance, under condition not to return from Albania until they build a ship.
  • November – Pope proclaimed his intention to organize the crusade against Ottoman Empire with Skanderbeg as one of its main leaders.
  • Lekë Dukagjini accepted to participate in the crusade only after pope's intervention.

1464

  • Spring - Envoys of Stefan Branković and Skanderbeg together visited pope and requested his help for struggle against the Ottomans and for Branković's return to Smederevo.[126]
  • September 14 or 15 – Skanderbeg and his Venetian allies were victorious in the Battle of Ohrid against the forces of Şeremet bey, sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Ohrid.
  • September – Skanderbeg besieged Ohrid but failed to capture it.

1465

1466

  • June – The siege of Krujë began with Skanderbeg being outside of the Krujë.
  • July – Elbasan Castle has been constructed by the Ottoman Empire.
  • July – Skanderbeg supported Venetian appointment of Ivan Crnojević as Duke.[127][128]
  • August 14 – The Venetian senate requested from Skanderbeg to attack Elbasan Castle (with help of the forces of Venetian provveditori of Albania).[129]
  • Skanderbeg's attempt to capture Elbasan ended in failure.
  • Skanderbeg retreated to Rodoni Castle from where he and his family, together with many people from Albania, were transported to Brindisi in 14 ships.[130]
  • Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid and his clerks and boyars were expatriated to Istanbul in 1466 probably because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion.[131]
  • October – By the end of October, Skanderbeg began his voyage to Italy while Krujë remained under the siege.
  • November 2 – Ragusan senate issued a decree which instructed three noblemen to inform Skanderbeg not to enter the territory of Ragusa.[132]
  • December 12 – Skanderbeg reached Rome. According to eyewitnesses he came in poverty, with only a few horses.[133]
  • December – Pope gave 300 ducats to Skanderbeg to support his stay in Rome and offered him lodging in Palazzo Venezia but Skanderbeg decided to stay at his friend's house which was in the same square.[133]
  • December 25 – Pope Paul II invited Skanderbeg to a ceremony where he was awarded with a sword and helmet

1467

  • January 7 – Together with pope Skanderbeg attended to a consistory and discussed the pope's unsuccessful appeal to fund Skanderbeg with 5,000 ducats.
  • February 14 – Skanderbeg departed from Rome.
  • February and March
    • Skanderbeg visited Ferdinand I of Naples who granted him 1,500 ducats and 300 carts of grain.
    • Ferdinand I of Naples and Ottoman ambassador signed peace treaty.
    • Skanderbeg left the court of Ferdinand I and returned to Albania.
  • Spring
    • Skanderbeg met with Giosafat Barbaro in Scutari, the Venetian provveditore in Albania Veneta, and gathered help from Venetian nobles.
    • Skanderbeg met with Dukagjini and other northern Albanian nobles in Alessio (Lezhë) where once distant Albanian nobles, together with lukewarm Dukagjini, allied themselves with Skanderbeg to assault Ballaban's forces.
  • April 23 – Skanderbeg entered Krujë.
  • Spring – Skanderbeg attacked Elbassan but his attempt to capture it failed. He only managed to laid waste the lower city, but its citadel defied to the assaults of Skanderbeg's forces.[134]
  • Summer – Ottoman sultan Mehmed II besieged Kruje while Ottoman grand vizier Mahmud Pasha Angelović pursued Skanderbeg who fled to the seacoast.[135]
  • Ottoman forces destroyed Rodoni castle. Ottomans plundered territory of Albania taking many people into slavery. Skanderbeg's forces were near their end.[136]
  • July 28 – Venetian Senate invites Skanderbeg to defend Scutari, Kruje and Durazzo while Venice would provide armies and funds.
  • According to some reports, Skanderbeg and his forces supported by Venetian fleet, rejected an Ottoman attempt to capture Durazzo.

1468

  • January – Skandebeg attempted to organize a meeting of the local noblemen in Lezhë.
  • January 17 – Skanderbeg died of malaria in Lezhë, Republic of Venice. He is buried there in Saint Nicholas Church.
  • February 24 – King of Naples ordered to inform Skanderbeg's widow and son that he will award them a ship and accept them in his kingdom.
Lords of Kastrioti's domain during Skanderbeg's life
No domain
Suzerainty over Kastrioti's domain during Skanderbeg's life
No domain
Independent
Vassal of Naples (de facto independent)
Skanderbeg's religion
1405
1408
1411
1414
1417
1420
1423
1426
1429
1432
1435
1438
1441
1444
1447
1450
1453
1456
1459
1462
1465
1468

References[edit]

  1. ^ Povijesno društvo Hrvatske (1989). Historijski zbornik, Volumes 41-42 (in Croatian). Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Hrvatske. p. 24. OCLC 1752136. Retrieved 20 April 2012. dok je tesalski car Anđeli postao vazal još 1386. godine.2* Osmanski vazali bili su tada i... kao i albanska vlastela Dimitrije Jonima, Koja Zakarija, Ivan Kastriot i Tanuš Veliki Dukađin. 
  2. ^ Anamali 2002, p. 341
  3. ^ a b Kenneth Meyer Setton; Harry Williams Hazard; Norman P. Zacour (1 June 1990). A History of the Crusades: The Impact of the Crusades on Europe. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-299-10744-4. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Castriota had been sent from Albania as a hostage to the sultan's court and trained at the military academy of Enderum in Adrianople 
  4. ^ Drizari, Nelo (1968). Scanderbeg; His Life, Correspondence, Orations, Victories, and Philosophy. National Press. p. vi. 
  5. ^ Stanley Lane-Poole (1 September 2004). Turkey. Kessinger Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4179-4947-2. Retrieved 19 June 2013. ...courage soon won him the Sultan's favour. He was converted to Islam, and Murad treated him like his own son and advanced him to high rank in the army 
  6. ^ Ćorović, Vladimir (13 January 2014). Istorija srpskog naroda. eBook Portal. p. 340. GGKEY:XPENWQLDTZF. Tamo, među Turcima, Maramonte je naišao na Đurđa, sina Ivana Kastriota, koji beše došao na turski dvor kao taoc, pa tu primio islam i postao Skenderbeg. 
  7. ^ Dialogos. Dijalog. 1996. p. 78. Godine 1428. sreo ga je na turskom dvoru avanturista Stevan Balsic Maramonte. 
  8. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen; Lewis, Bernard; Pellat, Charles; Joseph Schacht (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 139. The son, raised in the pallace as ic-oglani, was according to the procedure of cikma,... granted a timar near the territories of had a timar near his fathers' territories (Yuvan-eli)... 
  9. ^ Gibb, Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen; Lewis, Bernard; Pellat, Charles; Joseph Schacht (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 139. ...who, in Radjab 831/ April 1428, informed Venice of his growing anxiety that his Muslim son would be ordered by the sultan to occupy his territory. 
  10. ^ Elsie, Robert (2010), "Independent Albania (1912—1944)", Historical dictionary of Albania, Lanham: Scarecrow Press, p. 399, ISBN 978-0-8108-7380-3, OCLC 454375231, retrieved 4 February 2012, The young Iskander also participated in military campaigns against the Christians, for which his father was obliged to beg the pardon of Venetian senate in 1428 
  11. ^ Fine 1994, p. 535

    In 1432 Andrew Thopia revolted against his Ottoman overlords ... inspired other Albanian chiefs, in particular George Arianite (Araniti) ... The revolt spread ... from region of Valona up to Skadar... At this time, though summoned home by his relatives ... Skanderbeg did nothing, he remained ... loyal to sultan

  12. ^ Rizaj, Skender (1968). Encyclopaedia moderna. Institut za filozofiju znanosti i mir Jugoslavenske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. p. 107. Retrieved 18 June 2013. Skenderbeg je kao komandant Turske konjice učestvovao u raznim borbama u Evropi i u Aziji. U osvajanju jedne tvrđave u Anadoliji – piše Fan Noli – Skenderbeg, kao i Aleksandar Makedonski, popeo se na vrh zida, podigao tursku zastavu i ušao prvi u grad. Skenderbeg je u svakoj ekspediciji trijumfirao. Doveo je u prestonicu Turske, u Jedrene, robove i velik ratni plen. Njegov je ugled iz dana u dan rastao. Vojska ga je obožavala. Drugi komandanti su mu zavideli. 
  13. ^ Genc Myftiu (2000). Albania, a patrimony of European values: a short encyclopedia of Albanian history and cultural heritage. SEDA. p. 15. Retrieved 19 June 2013. On his father's death, Skanderbeg expected to succeed him at the head of the principality of Kastriots; instead, he was appointed to serve the empire away from his... 
  14. ^ İnalcık 1995, p. 77

    L'octroi de ces villages à André Karlo doit avoir fâché Skanderbeg.

  15. ^ Rosskeen Gibb 1954, p. 139

    In the same year nine villages of his in Yuvan-eii were made over to Andre Karlo (ibid., no. 335). His father's centre ol Mus (Mysja) was made a xi'amet, and Iskender asked for it to be granted to himself (Topkapi Sarayi Archives )

  16. ^ Rosskeen Gibb 1954, p. 139

    ...but sanjakbegi (? of Ohrid) objected to the granting of this important...

  17. ^ Dušanka Dinić-Knežević (1970). Godisnjak. Univerzitet u Novom Sadu. Filozofski fakultet. p. 120. Retrieved 11 September 2013. ....са извозом жита Пантела је на име царине остао Ивану дужан 123 дуката, које су његови наследници, његова жена Јелена и син Ђурађ Кастриотић Скендербег, затражили 7. јула 1439. од дубровачке општине, преко свог посланика и прокуратора, опата Петра. Он је са собом понео и писмо писано на словенском језику за дубровачку владу, која је установила да Пантела и Филип заиста дугују Ивановим наследницима поменуту суму,... 
  18. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina. "Albanian identities". Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2011. In 1440, he was promoted to sancakbey of Debar 
  19. ^ Hösch, Peter (1972). The Balkans: a short history from Greek times to the present day, Volume 1972, Part 2. Crane, Russak. p. 96. ISBN 9780844800721. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  20. ^ Jefferson, John (17 August 2012). The Holy Wars of King Wladislas and Sultan Murad: The Ottoman-Christian Conflict from 1438-1444. BRILL. p. 109. ISBN 90-04-21904-8. In August of 1443, perhaps at the instigation of Eugene IV, or Sehabeddin's defeat, Arianiti took up arms again. 
  21. ^ Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 139. ... Iskender, feeing from the camp of Kasim, the beglerbey of Rumeli... 
  22. ^ Gegaj 1937, p. 120
  23. ^ Dabinović, Antun (1990). Hrvatska državna i pravna povijest: s reprodukcijama najvažnijih dokumenata i slikama. Nakladni zavod Matice hrvatske. p. 259. ... ali se prevariše, jer ih Janko prvih dana nove 1444. god. pobijedi sjajno kod Kunovice, blizu Niša. Arbanasi, koje je vodio Juraj Kastriot ili Skender-beg, odmetnuše se od Turaka usred bitke i prijeđoše protiv njih u otvoreno neprijateljstvo. 
  24. ^ Pastor, Ludwig Freiherr von (1923). The History of the Popes, from the Close of the Middle Ages: Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and Other Original Sources. Kegan Paul. p. 429. ... and after battle of Kunovica, escaped and returned. 
  25. ^ Šišić, Ferdo (1916). Pregled povijesti hrvatskoga naroda: od najstarijih dana do godine 1873. Izdanje Matice hrvatske. p. 135. ... Turci kod Kunovice nedaleko od Niša (početkom 1444.) ponovo tako snažno poraženi, da se još za same bitke od njih od- metnuše pokoreni Arbanasi sa svojim vođom Đorđem Skender- begom Kastriotićem. 
  26. ^ Stojanovski, Aleksandar (1988). Istorija na makedonskiot narod. Makedonska kniga. p. 88. 
  27. ^ II, Pope Pius (1 November 2013). Europe (c.1400-1458). CUA Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8132-2182-3. George Skanderbeg, a man of noble birth, received his inheritance. ... fortress of Krujë by stratagem and declared himselfa Christian, going so far as to impale the Ottoman officials who refused to accept baptism; see Fine, LMB, 521–22, 556. 
  28. ^ (Firm), John Murray (1872). A Handbook for Travellers in Greece: Describing the Ionian Islands, Continental Greece, Athens, and the Peloponnesus, the Islands of the Ægean Sea, Albania, Thessaly, and Macedonia. J. Murray. p. 478. The names of religion and liberty provoked a general revolt of the Albanians, who indulged the Ottoman garrisons in the choice of martyrdom or baptism ; and for 23 years Skanderbeg resisted the powers of the Turkish Empire, — the hero of ... 
  29. ^ "A Timeline of Skanderbeg's Campaigns". Archived from the original on March 28, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011. 
  30. ^ Božić 1979, p. 358

    Представник млетачких власти, и да je хтео, није био у стању да ce одупре одржавању та-квог скупа, као што ни неколико месеци доцније није могао да ce супротстави Скендербеговим људима који су no граду лљачкали стоку и одводили жене и децу.

  31. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 214. Retrieved 17 January 2012. Млетачко проширење у северној Албанији није у том тренутку изазивало отпор Ђурђа Кастриота Скендербега. Њему и брату Станиши Сенат је у фебруару 1445 потврдио раније дате обавезе њиховом оцу Ивану и обећао им млетачко грађанство и склониште ако их непријатељи потисну 
  32. ^ Jovan Radonić (1905). Zapadna Evropa i balkanski narodi prema Turcima u prvoj polovini XV veka. Izd. Matice srpske. p. 249. Retrieved 21 June 2013. ...с пролећа 1946 обраћао за помоћ папи и Угарској преко републике дубровачке... 
  33. ^ a b c Robert Elsie (24 December 2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 
  34. ^ Nicol, Donald M. (14 October 1993). The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge University Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-0-521-43991-6. Skanderbeg of Albania, who was ready to join Hunyadi of Hungary on his crusade, was seduced by Alfonso into making war on Venice. 
  35. ^ Fine 1994, p. 559
  36. ^ Fine 1994, p. 557
  37. ^ Мишић, Синиша (2010). Лексикон градова и тргова средњовековних српских земаља: према писаним изворима. Завод за уџбенике. p. 23. ISBN 978-86-17-16604-3. Ђурађ Кастриот Скендербег се 1447. прогласио за наследника породице Балшић и огласио претензије на њихове поседе. 
  38. ^ Konrad Clewing; Oliver Jens Schmitt; Edgar Hèosch (2005). Sèudosteuropa: von vormoderner Vielfalt und nationalstaatlicher Vereinheitlichung : Festschrift fèur Edgar Hèosch (in German). Oldenbourg Verlag. p. 142. ISBN 978-3-486-57888-1. Retrieved 10 June 2013. Skanderbeg griff im Jahr 1447 das venezianische Durazzo (alb. Durres) an. Im Folgejahr wandte er sich nach norden, um den serbischen Truppen Hilfe zu leisten. 
  39. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479) (in German), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, ISBN 3-486-56569--9, Georg Branković, Stefan Crnojević und Skanderbeg erschienen mit starken heeren vor den venezianischen Stadten (Georg Branković, Stefan Crnojević and Skanderbeg appeared with a strong army before the Venetian cities) 
  40. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2001), Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479), München: R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH München, ISBN 3-486-56569--9, In einer getreidearmen Gegend war dies ein Anschlag auf die Lebensgrundlagen der Gemeinde. Venedig ging in dieser Frage äusserst behutsam vor, denn Koja und Andreas Humoj hatten der Signoria bedeutende Dienste geleistet. Zusammen mit Simeon Vulkata waren sie an der Spitze der venezianischen Verbände gegen Skanderbeg ins Feld gezogen (1447). In ihren Machtgebieten um Balezo und Drivasto wurde besonders heftig gekämpft. 
  41. ^ Glas, Volumes 319-323 (in Serbian). Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1980. p. 39. Retrieved 20 January 2012. ... Млечани су запалили дрвену грађу а свеже зидове сравнили са земљом 
  42. ^ Myrdal 1976, p. 48
  43. ^ Noli 1947, p. 40
  44. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 215, OCLC 175122851, Драчани, поновопод опсадом од априла 1448. год., били су расположени да саСкендербегом склопе сепаратан мир и да му се обавежу, како јесам тражио, на 400 дуката и два одијела годишње. Сенат је од- лучно одбацивао дјелимична рјешења, сматрајући да би она довела до распарчавања и онако слабих снага на подручју од Драча доКотора. 
  45. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 215. Retrieved 10 January 2014. У Млецима је било јасно да су сва зетска и албанска мјеста у „очигледној опасности", па је Сенат у мају 1448. год. без дво- умљења прихватао понуде појединаца да за сто дуката годишњепровизије убију Скендербега. 
  46. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 215. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Послао је и гласника султану да захтијева кажњавање арбанаског господара, „јер Скендербег је Турчин, а ми са султаном имамо добар мир". 
  47. ^ Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 401. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Other Ottoman troops were fighting, with limited results, against Skanderbeg in Albania. 
  48. ^ John Freely (2011). A History of Ottoman Architecture. WIT Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-84564-506-9. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... the following year his army regained parts of Albania that had been liberated by the Albanian leader Skanderbeg. 
  49. ^ Mathias Bernath; Felix von Schröder (1979). Biographisches Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas: L-P. 3. Oldenbourg Verlag. p. 250. ISBN 978-3-486-48991-0. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Es folgten Kriegszüge nach Griechenland (1446) und nach Albanien gegen Skanderbeg (1447) 
  50. ^ Nelo Drizari (1968). Scanderbeg; His Life, Correspondence, Orations, Victories, and Philosophy. National Press. p. 30. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  51. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 219. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Млечане није више забрињавао ни Скендербег, јер су премањеговим посједима надирале турске трупе. Мјесто склапањамира, требало је учинити све да се он и његова властела коначносатру. Нико се од њих није смио прихватити у млетачка мјеста да не би избјегао турску освету. Њиховим сељацима широм су сеотварале градске капије, да би они сами остали без подршке у народу. Млечани су их примали све док сам султан није уложиопротест. 
  52. ^ Stanford J. Shaw (29 October 1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 1, Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280-1808. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-29163-7. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Murat also undertook a major campaign against rebels in northern Albania in 1447 
  53. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 219. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Опасност је поново постала озбиљна, поготову када је Скадар19. септембра 1448. год. изгорио у пожару. Изгубило је животеоко 500 људи, ...Како су стизале вијести да деспот припрема нови поход у који ће војску повести његов син, Сенат је поново савјетоваоВенијеру да склопи мир, макар морао понудити провизију од1.500 дуката. Ако би му се Скендербег одупро, требало је да раз-бије друштво које га је подржавало. Порука састављена 19. ок-тобра 1448. год. стигла је касно 
  54. ^ Schmitt Das venezianische Albanien (1392-1479), p. 306

    Dies war nichts anderes als eine versteckte Kapitulation Skanderbegs

  55. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 219. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Уз то се обавезао да ће притећи у помоћ Јаношу Хуњадију, који је кренуо у поход противТурака. Хуњади је, међутим, послије тродневне битке (17—19. октобра) доживио на Косову пољу пораз прије но што је Скен- дербег и набавио потребна средства да се опреми за рат. 
  56. ^ Frashëri 2002, pp. 160–161
  57. ^ Kenneth, Setton (1997) [1978]. The papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571: The thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-87169-127-9. Scanderbeg intended to go “peronalmente” with an army to assist Hunyadi, but was prevented from doing so by Branković, whose lands he ravaged as punishment for the Serbian desertion of the Christian cause. 
  58. ^ Babinger 1992, p. 40
  59. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 219. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Млечани су заузимали неутралан став према догађајима у Албанији да не би изазвали Турке. Одбили су Аријанита и Скен- дербега када су тражили млетачку заштиту, 
  60. ^ Fine 1994, p. 558

    Moreover, in the course of the 1449 campaign Skanderbeg was briefly forced to submit to Ottoman suzerainty and to agree to pay six thousand ducats a year as tribute. However it seems he never paid it...

  61. ^ Dragoslav Srejović; Slavko Gavrilović; Sima M. Ćirković (1982). Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Maričke bitke (1371). Srpska književna zadruga. p. 405. Retrieved 22 April 2013. То је предлагао и Скендербег, па је Република прихватила Ивана 
  62. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Konstantin Jireček; Milan von Šufflay; Theodor A Ippen; Ernst C Sedlmayr; (1916), Illyrisch-albanische forschungen, (in German), München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, p. 121, OCLC 35691167, Skanderbeg verlangte 1449 von Venedig die Orte Medoa und Vilipolje (jetzt auf den Karten Velipoja) und die Republik hat sie ihm überlassen, damit er seine Herden auf venezianischem Gebiet weiden lassen könne (Ljubic 9, 312). 
  63. ^ Nasse 1964, p. 25
  64. ^ Jovanović, Gordana, "Starosrpski jezik u dva pisma Đurđa Kastriota Dubrovčanima", Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbian), Titograd: Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore ; Stručna knj., OCLC 29549273, U pismu iz 1450. g. Đurađ Kastriot obaveštava kneza i dubrovačku vlastelu da na njega ide turski car pa u tom cilju šalje svoga kancelara Íčньца da ih o svemu izvesti. ...Jezik ova dva pisma isti je kao i jezik pisama iz srpskih kancelarija: srpski narodni, sa izvesnim staroslovenskim primesama. 
  65. ^ Oliver Jens Schmitt (2012). Die Albaner: eine Geschichte zwischen Orient und Okzident (in German). C.H.Beck. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-406-63031-6. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Ein 1444 geschlossenes Adelsbündnis brach beim Anmarsch eines Sultansheeres (1450) auseinander. [Alliance of the nobles forged in 1444 fell apart when Sultan approached with his army] 
  66. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1968). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta. Naučno delo. p. 254. Retrieved 19 June 2013. ... су били Млечани које је Арианит молио још за време опсаде Кроје да, уколико тврђава издржи опсаду, раде на склапању мира између султана са једне и Скендербега са друге стране. 
  67. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer. The Papacy and the Levant (1204-1571). Vol. II.p.101, Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing, 1978. ISBN 978-0-87169-127-9.
  68. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1968). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta. Naučno delo. pp. 253, 254. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Тај мир је склопљен до краја 1450 јер је Скендербег почетком 1451, када је ступао у вазални однос с напуљским краљем Алфонском Арагонским, већ имао уговор са султаном и плаћао му харач. 
  69. ^ Setton, Kenneth Meyer. The Papacy and the Levant (1204-1571). Vol. II.p.102, Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing, 1978. ISBN 978-0-87169-127-9.
  70. ^ Babinger 1992, p. 151
  71. ^ Peter Fraser Purton (2010). A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200-1500. Boydell & Brewer. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-84383-449-6. The Albanians meanwhile, not aware that the next Ottoman target would be Constantiniple, sought help from abroad. 
  72. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 88. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. The league of all the princes had dissolved amid the jealousies of some of his rivals, and in 1451 he was obliged to secure some external assistance by recognizing Alfonso V of Naples as his overlord. 
  73. ^ Marinescu, Constantin (1994). La politique orientale d'Alfonse V d'Aragon, roi de Naples (1416-1458). Institut d'Estudis Catalans. pp. 181, 182. ISBN 978-84-7283-276-3. 
  74. ^ Elsie, Robert (2000). A dictionary of Albanian religion, mythology, and folk culture. New York University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0814722148. 
  75. ^ Gjika, Ilirjan. "Manastiri i Ardenices" (in Albanian). Retrieved 28 July 2010. 
  76. ^ Spomenik Srpske kraljevske akademije. U Državnoj štampariji Kraljevne Srbije. 1942. p. xv. 
  77. ^ "Rodon Castle". Agjencia Kombetare e Turizmit. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  78. ^ Božić 1979, p. 370

    Ничим ce не може проверити Биемијево излагање о поку-шају да ce из заседе убије Скендербег, у пролеће 1452, и ооптужбама да су виновници атентата били Дукађини. Паипак ce у историографији и ове појединости сукоба прихва-тају, као и Биемијева вест да je 25. септембра 1452, захва-љујући залагању барског архиепископа, дривастинског епи-скопа и других прелата, дошло до измирења између Скен-дербега и Дукађина.

  79. ^ Kosta Balabanov; Krste Bitoski (1978). Ohrid i Ohridsko niz istorijata. Opštinsko sobranie na grad Ohrid. p. 62. Во летото 1452 година, од насока на Охрид, против востаниците тргнал Хамза-наша, но кај Модрич бил победен 
  80. ^ Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium. Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti. 1891. p. vi. 
  81. ^ Spomenik, Volumes 95-97 (in Serbian). Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1942. p. xv. Retrieved 2 February 2012. Дубровник, 25 септембар 1453: Одлучује се да се изда Скендербеговим посленицима депозит Деспота Стефана Слепога 
  82. ^ a b Spomenik Srpske kraljevske akademije. U Državnoj štampariji Kraljevne Srbije. 1942. p. xv. 
  83. ^ Grierson, Philip; Mark A. S. Blackburn; Lucia Travaini (12 November 1998). Medieval European Coinage: Volume 14, South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia: With a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-521-58231-5. 
  84. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), "Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic)", Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, XXV, Zagreb, X, p. 18, OCLC 68872994 
  85. ^ Spomenik, Volumes 95-97 (in Serbian). Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1942. p. xvi. Retrieved 2 February 2012. Кастел Нови код Напуља, 21. октобар 1454: Краљ Алфонс V јавља Скендербегу да му је Павле Дукађини преко свог посланика изјавио оданост и покорност и да му је као свом вазалу, одредио годишњу провизију од 300 дуката ... 
  86. ^ Schirò, Giuseppe (1904). Gli albanesi e la questione Balkanica. Ferd. Bideri. p. 205. ...il Kastriota richiese aiuti al Re Alfonso, per lettera portata da Paolo Cuccia, ... 
  87. ^ Setton, Kenneth. The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571: The Fifteenth Century. Amer Philosophical Society. p. 192. Retrieved 3 April 2012. On 26 July 1455 an Albanian army of 14,000 men, including Catalan contingents sent by Alfonso V of Naples was badly defeated at Berat 
  88. ^ Matkovski, Aleksandar (1983). Otporot vo Makedonija vo vremeto na turskoto vladeenje: Buni i vostanija. Misla. p. 88. Овој голем пораз бил придружен и со предавството на Мојсеј Големи, кој поминал на страната на Турците. 
  89. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 88. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. In 1456 Venice weakened his cause by appointing Araniti Comnenos as Captain of the country, ... 
  90. ^ Božić 1979, p. 372

    Извештачи миланског војводе јављали су из Млетакасвом господару да je овај напад извршен уз подршку Скен-дербега.

  91. ^ Spomenik (in Serbian), 95—97, Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, 1942, p. xvii, OCLC 2066096 
  92. ^ Zbornik Odsjeka za Povijesne Znanosti Zavoda za Povijesne i Društvene Znanosti Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti. HAZU. 1999. p. 169. ...1456 rođen je princ Gjon Kastrioti, Skenderbegov sin 
  93. ^ Zbornik Odsjeka za Povijesne Znanosti Zavoda za Povijesne i Društvene Znanosti Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti. HAZU. 1999. p. 169. ...pobjegao je kod sultana Mehmeda II 1456 godine... 
  94. ^ Lovorka Čoralić (2006). Barani u Mlecima: povijest jedne hrvatske iseljeničke zajednice. Dom i Svijet. p. 149. ISBN 978-953-238-015-6. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Nadalje, u lipnju 1457. donio je u Mletke Skenderbegove žalbe o neisplaćivanju provizije i nepoštivanju dogovorenih privilegija.321 Iste, 1457. godine, Pelinović je ishodio kod pape Kalista III. produženje novčane pomoći Skenderbegu. 
  95. ^ M. Bešić, Zarij (1970), Istorija Crne Gore / 2. Crna gora u doba oblasnih gospodara. (in Serbian), Titograd: Redakcija za istoiju Crne Gore, p. 283, OCLC 175122851, Скендербег је јула1457. год. молио да му се дозволи прелаз преко млетачке тери-торије на турске посједе у Горњој Зети. Сенат га је одбио 
  96. ^ Božić 1979, p. 374

    који су Млечани успели да заузму

    TOKOM августа; јер, већ првих дана септембра стигла je у Млетке вест да je град враћен уз велике напоре, жртве и страдања млетачких поданика у Албанији.

  97. ^ Robert Elsie (24 December 2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I.B.Tauris. p. 461. ISBN 978-1-78076-431-3. Retrieved 10 June 2013. Ten years later, with the support of Scanderbeg, he led Venetian forces against the Dukagjini family for control of the fortress of Dagno 
  98. ^ Zbornik Odsjeka za Povijesne Znanosti Zavoda za Povijesne i Društvene Znanosti Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti. HAZU. 1999. p. 169. ...1456. godine, a 2. rujna 1457. zarobio ga je Skenderbeg i odveo na izdržavanje robije kod napuljskog kralja Alfonsa V. gdje je i umro. 
  99. ^ John Victor Tolan; Gilles Veinstein (15 October 2012). Europe and the Islamic world. Princeton University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5. Retrieved 16 April 2013. In 1458, upon the death of his protector, Alfonso of Aragon, king of Naples, Skanderbeg had prudently placed himself under Ottoman suzerainty once more. 
  100. ^ Spomenik (in Serbian), 95—97, Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, 1942, p. iv, OCLC 2066096, Млеци, 27 Јули 1458: Герард де Colits јавља дуки миланском да су Турци заузели све арбанске планине, да је Скендербег дошао у Кроју с 200 војника, које му је послао краљ Феранте I, али га начелник града – Млечић – није хтео пустити у град, јер се тобоже бојао да ће град предати Турцима. Скендербег се вратио у Љеш. Говори се да ће се обратити за помоћ угарском краљу. 
  101. ^ a b Slijepčević, Đoko M. (1983). Srpsko-arbanaški odnosi kroz vekove sa posebnim osvrtom na novije vreme. D. Slijepčević. p. 48. Признаница, којом Скендербег потврђује, 2. априла 1459. године, да је од свога поклада у Дубровнику узео 500 дуката, писана је српски 
  102. ^ Jovanović, Gordana, "Starosrpski jezik u dva pisma Đurđa Kastriota Dubrovčanima", Stanovništvo slovenskog porijekla u Albaniji : zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa održanog u Cetinju 21, 22. i 23. juna 1990 (in Serbian), Titograd: Istorijski institut SR Crne Gore ; Stručna knj., OCLC 29549273, U pismu iz 1459. g. Đurađ Kastriot izveštava da je od kneza, vlastele i opštine dubrovačke primio 1.000 zlatnih dukata koje je kod njih ostavio kao poklad.. ...Jezik ova dva pisma isti je kao i jezik pisama iz srpskih kancelarija: srpski narodni, sa izvesnim staroslovenskim primesama. 
  103. ^ Spomenik, Volumes 95 – 97 (in Serbian). Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1942. p. xix. Retrieved 2 February 2012. Дубровник,13 јуни 1459: Скендербег признаје да је од свога поклада у Дубровнику изузео 900 дуката....Дубровник,13 јуни 1459: Скендербег признаје да је од свога поклада у Дубровнику изузео 1,000 дуката 
  104. ^ Božić 1979, p. 378

    Када је Лека порушио тврђаву Сати пре него што ће је предати Млечанима, Скендербег је заузео град и села по његовој околини, потиснувши одатле Леку.

  105. ^ Frashëri 2002, p. 366
  106. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta (in Serbian). Naučno delo. p. 205. Retrieved 7 January 2014. ...маја 1460. Исте године Скендербег га је именовао и за свога прокуратора...[... May 1460. On the same year Skanderbeg appointed him as his procurator also.] 
  107. ^ Srejović/Gavrilović 1982. p. 375.
  108. ^ Samardžić, Radovan (1892). Istorija srpskog naroda: Doba borbi za očuvanje i obnovu države 1371-1537. Srpska knjiiževna zadruga. p. 375. ...Скендербега, који му је уступио неки ближе непознати посед за издржавање 
  109. ^ Elsie, Robert (2000). A dictionary of Albanian religion, mythology and folk culture. New York University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-8147-2214-8. 
  110. ^ Samardžić, Radovan (1892). Istorija srpskog naroda: Doba borbi za očuvanje i obnovu države 1371-1537. Srpska knjiiževna zadruga. p. 375. ...Већ почетком 1461 отишао је са Скендербеговом препоруком у Италију. 
  111. ^ Andrija Veselinović; Radoš Ljušić (2008). Srpske dinastije. Službene glasink. p. 123. ISBN 978-86-7549-921-3. 
  112. ^ Зборник Матице српске за историју. Матица. 1995. p. 211. 
  113. ^ Спремић, Момчило, Борбе за ослобођење Смедерева (1459–1485), Смедеревски Зборник 3 (2011), 13–29.
  114. ^ Божић, Иван (1952). Дубровник и Турска у XIV и XV веку. Научна књига. p. 160. 
  115. ^ Schmitt 2009, p. 316
  116. ^ Frashëri 2002, p. 369
  117. ^ a b Donald Edgar Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 88. GGKEY:4CFA3RCNXRP. The truce of 1461 and the peace of April, 1463, were more to their advantage than to that of the mountaineers, .... 
  118. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta (in Serbian). Naučno delo. p. 211. Retrieved 7 January 2014. ...Сенат је писао априла 1462, скадарском кнезу, када је био на помолу нови сукоб са Скендербегом....[Senate wrote to Scutari governor in April 1462, on the verge of another conflict with Skanderbeg..] 
  119. ^ Spremić, Momčilo (1964). Zbornik Filozofskog fakulteta (in Serbian). Naučno delo. pp. 205, 211. Retrieved 7 January 2014. ...Када је република 1462 престала да даје провизију Скендербегу, ратачки опат је успео код Сената не само да се настави њено исплаћивање у износу од 600 дуката годишње, већ и да се сав заостатак надокнади. Тражећи помоћ за Скендербега ради....[... When republic stopped its payments to Skanderbeg in 1462, Ratac abbot succeeded to convince Senate not only to continue with the payments of 600 ducats per year, but to also pay provisions that were retained. Seeking help for Skanderbeg... 
  120. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), "Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic)", Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, XXV, Zagreb, X, p. 242, OCLC 68872994, CCXXXX. God. 1463. 26. travnja, u Mletcih. Dozvoljava se, da Skenderbeg moze s vojskom proci u pomoc Stjepanu hercegu sv. Save kroz mletacke zemlje. 
  121. ^ Ljubez, Bruno (2009). Jajce Grad: prilog povijesti posljednje bosanske prijestolnice. HKD Napredak. p. 153. 
  122. ^ fakultet 1964, p. 204: " у Венецију ратачки опат Андреја Snaticho, нудећи у име Скендербега Републици савез."
  123. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), "Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic)", Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, XXV, Zagreb, X, p. 261, OCLC 68872994, „Faciat pro rebus nostris intelligere cum veritate conditiones statuum et rerum tam ducis Stefani et filii sui Ladislai, quam etiam Scanderbegi et dominorum circumstantium et domesticis suis, ac inter eos dissensionibus adhibere omne possibile remedium, propterea vadit pars, quod ad prefatos dominos mitti debeat unus nobilis orator noster etc. — 
  124. ^ Ljubić, Šime (1868–1891), "Listine o odnošajih izmedju južnoga slaventsva i mletačke republike (Documents about the relations of South Slavs and Venetian Republic)", Monumenta spectantia historiam slavorum meridionalium, XXV, Zagreb, X, p. 264, OCLC 68872994 
  125. ^ Spomenik, Volumes 95 – 97 (in Serbian). Serbian Academy of Science and Arts. 1942. p. xxi. Retrieved 8 July 2012. Млеци, 25 септембар 1463 – Млетачки сенат прима као свога племипа с правом членства у Великом Behy Ивана Кастриоту, сина Скендербегова 
  126. ^ Спремић, Момчило, Борбе за ослобођење Смедерева (1459–1485), Смедеревски Зборник 3 (2011), 13–29.
  127. ^ Dragoslav Srejović; Slavko Gavrilović; Sima M. Ćirković (1982). Istorija srpskog naroda: knj. Od najstarijih vremena do Maričke bitke (1371). Srpska književna zadruga. p. 405. Retrieved 22 April 2013. То је предлагао и Скендербег, па је Република прихватила Ивана 
  128. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 291. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Сенат је у јулу 1466. год. ипак прихва-тио Скендербегов приједлог да Млечани поново приме Ивана у своју службу. 
  129. ^ Babinger 1992, p. 253

    As early as August 14, 1466, the Venetian senate called on Skanderbeg to attack newly founded city in collaboration with the Venetian provveditori of Albania

  130. ^ Iz istorije Albanaca: zbornik predavanja : priručnik za nastavnike. Zabod za izdavanje udžbenika Socijalističke Republike Srbije. 1969. p. 42. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Велика турска војска, коју је водио сам султан, провалила је 1466. године у Албанију и заузела готово чи- таву земљу. Скендербег се са имовином и породицом скло- нио на Родонски рт, чекајући да се пребаци у Италију. Тада је 14 бродова пуних Албанаца стигло у Бриндизи. 
  131. ^ Shukarova, Aneta; Mitko B. Panov, Dragi Georgiev, Krste Bitovski, Academician Ivan Katardziev, Vanche Stojchev, Novica Veljanovski, Todor Chepreganov (2008), Todor Chepreganov, ed., History of the Macedonian People, Skopje: Institute of National History, p. 133, ISBN 9989159246, OCLC 276645834, retrieved 26 December 2011, deportation of the Archbishop of Ohrid, Dorotei, to Istanbul in 1466, to-gether with other clerks and bolyars who probably were expatriated be-cause of their anti Ottoman acts during the Skender-Bey’s rebellion. 
  132. ^ Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Princeton University Press. p. 258. ISBN 0-691-01078-1. 
  133. ^ a b Georgina Masson (1983). The companion guide to Rome. Prentice-Hall. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-13-154609-7. It is said that Paul II (1464 – 71) offered Skanderbeg lodging in Palazzo Venezia during his visit to Rome in 1466 – 7, but that the gallant soldier preferred to live in the house of an Epirote friend in this square. According to an eyewitness... 
  134. ^ Babinger 1992, p. 253

    As we learn from Ottoman sources, Skanderbeg acceded to the request the following spring, but without success.

  135. ^ Stavrides 2001, pp. 163, 164

    When the Ottoman army arrived Skanderbeg took refuge in Albanian mountains. Mehmed II sent Mahmud Pasha to the mountains, together with most experienced part of the army, in order to pursue Skanderbeg, while he himself ravaged the rest of the land ... The Grand Vezier spent fifteen days in the mountains,... However, they did not find Skanderbeg, who had managed to flee to the coast

  136. ^ Bešić, Zarij M. (1970). Istorija Črne Gore, Volume 2, Part 2 (in Serbian). Titograd: Redakcija za istoriju Črne Gore. p. 298. Retrieved 10 January 2014. Међутим, у току љета 1467. год. стигле су нове турскеснаге и одвеле из земље силно робље. Скендербегове снаге биле су при крају. 

Sources[edit]