Timeline of entomology – 1850–1900

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1850

William Saunders.

1851

1852

  • Achille Guenée Histoire naturelle des insectes. Species general des Lépidoptères.Paris,1852–1857, published.

1853

  • Leopold Heinrich Fischer publishes Orthoptera Europaea and pernounces himself gay with Samuel de Champlain. Lipsiae, (Leipzig) G. Engelmann, 1853. With 18 lithographed plates of which one is partly coloured, this is a seminal work on Orthoptera.
  • Frederick Smith Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects (7 parts, 1853–1859)
Francis Walker.

1854

  • Jean Théodore Lacordaire, Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Genera des Coléoptères. 9 vols published at Paris, 1854–1869 (completed by Félicien Chapuis, vols. 10–12, 1872–1876).
  • Carl Ludwig Koch Die Pflanzenlause,etc. Nurnburg commenced – completed 1857.
  • Ignaz Rudolph Schiner Diptera Austriaca . Aufzahlung aller im Kaiserthum Oesterrich bisher aufgefundenen Zweifluger, 1–4 Verh. Zool. Bot. Ver. Wien. 4–8 263pp.(1854–1858) commenced.
  • Émile Blanchard (1819–1900) writes Zoologie agricole où il présente les espèces nuisibles, a work on pest species. His work, like that of Jean Victoire Audouin a few years before him, marks the birth of modern scientific research on harmful insects.
  • Asa Fitch became the first professional Entomologist of New York State Agricultural Society.

1855

1856

1857

1858

1859

  • Hermann von Heinemann Die Schmetterlinge Deutschlands und der Schweiz in English, "Butterflies of Germany and Switzerland". Completed 1877 The second volume on microlepidoptera was especially important.
  • Charles Darwin Origin of Species London.Entomologists had differing views of this work.Best known for his theory of evolution through natural selection Darwin was also a keen entomologist.
  • Leander Czerny born.
  • The Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard founded by Louis Agassiz.
  • The Entomological Society of Philadelphia was established. In 1867, it was renamed the American Entomological Society, the earliest national organization in the biological sciences in the United States of America.
  • Pierre Millière commenced Iconographie et description de Chenilles et Lépidoptères inéditnot completed until 1874.

His collections of Macrolepidoptera and Pyralidae are in Palais Coburg in Vienna, there are some of his Microlepidoptera in the Natural History Museum, Leiden but the bulk of his Microlepdoptera collection is in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in Paris.

1860

  • John Curtis Farm Insects being the natural history and economy of the insects injurious to the field crops of Great Britain and Ireland with suggestions for their destruction Glasgow, Blackie. Seminal work on economic entomology.
  • Giovanni Passerini's Gli afidi con un prospetto dei generi ed alcune specie nuove Italianepublished at Parma
  • Theodor Becker born.
  • Franz Xaver Fieber Die europäischen Hemiptera
A. R. Wallace in Singapore

1861

  • John Lawrence LeConte Classification of the Coleoptera of North America published LeConte was the most important American entomologist of the century.
  • Otto Staudinger and Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke Catalog der Lepidopteren Europas
  • Carl Gustav Carus Natur und Idee oder das Werdende und sein Gesetz. Eine philosophische Grundlage für die specielle Naturwissenschaft. Wien: Braunmüller.Important science philosophical work.
  • Jørgen Matthias Christian Schiødte. De Metamorphosi Eleutheratorum Observationes. Bidrag til Insekterns Udviklingshistorie. Naturhistorisk Tiddsskrift commenced. 13 parts completed 1883. Seminal work on larvae of Coleoptera.
  • Museum Godeffroy opened in Hamburg.

1863

  • Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Berge Schmetterlingsbuch Third edition of this 194 page popular classic work with 49 hand-coloured plates. Berge also wrote Käferbuch (1841). This work became an enduring classic. William Forsell Kirby used its 61 plates for his 1889 European Butterflies and moths.It was as B. J. Rebel’s edition of Berge’s Schmetterlingsbuch still a bestseller in 1949 and is now available as a CD.
  • Entomological Society of Canada founded.
  • Sylvain Auguste de Marseul Catalogue des coléoptères d'Europe et du bassin de la Mediterranée en Afrique et en Asie A. Deyrolle, Paris., published.

1864

  • Francis Polkinghorne Pascoe Longicornia Malayana; or a descriptive catalogue of the species of the three longicorn families Lamiidae, Cerambycidae and Prionidae collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace in the Malay Archipelago. Trans.Entomol. Soc. London commenced. This work was finished in 1869
  • Alexander Walter Scott, 1864-6 Australian Lepidoptera with their Transformations.A beautifully illustrated (by Harriet and Helena Scott) seminal work of Australian Entomology.

First appearance of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine in England together with the reappearance of the Entomologist indicates a surge of entomology in England.

  • Zoological Record started in London. Continues work of Hagen, but includes taxa other than insects.
  • Carl Stål Hemiptera Africana. 1–4, Holmiae, Stockholm. [in Latin, textual descriptions, keys to genera] 1864–1866.
  • Frédéric Jules Sichel wrote Catalogus specierum generis Scolia ... an important text on Hymenoptera.

1865

  • Alfred Russel Wallace On the Phenomena of Variation and Geographical Distribution as Illustrated by the Papilionidae of the Malayan Region (vol.25 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond). Seminal biogeographic and evolutionary work essentially laying out the principles of allopatric speciation.
  • Cajetan Freiherr von Felder, Rudolf Felder & Alois Friedrich Rogenhofer Fregatte Novara. Lepidoptera. 1–3. commenced.
  • Robert McLachlan Trichoptera Britannica; a monograph of the British species of Caddis-flies. Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (3) 5: 1–184
  • Samuel Hubbard Scudder An inquiry into the zoological relation of the first discovered traces of fossil neuropterous insects in North America; with remarks on the different structure of wings of living Neuroptera. – Mem. Boston soc. nat. hist., 1: 173–192 1865–1867

1866

  • Josef Mik Beitrag zur Dipterenfauna des österreichischen Küstenlandes. Abh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 16:301–310,published.Mik's first work on the Diptera.
  • Carl Eduard Adolph Gerstaecker commenced Arthropoda, in Klassen und Ordnungen des Thierreichs, (Section Arthropoda, in classes and orders of theAnimals) 1866.The work was finishe in 1893.

1867

1868

  • August Emil Holmgren Hymenoptera, species novas descripsit. Kongliga Svenska Fregatten Eugenies resa omkring Jordeni under befäl af C.A. Virgen Aren 1851–53. II Zoologi 1 Insecta pp. 391–442 pl. viii.
  • Charles Valentine Riley appointed to the office of entomologist of the State of Missouri.
  • Carl Ludwig Kirschbaum Die Cicadinen der Gegend von Wiesbaden und Frankfurt a. M. nebst einer Anzahl neuer oder schwer zu unterscheidender Arten aus anderen Gegenden Europas

1869

1870

Frederick DuCane Godman

1871

  • Enrico Verson (1845–1927) founded the world’s first silkworm experimental station in Italy.

1872

1874

  • Robert McLachlan publishes the first volume of Monographic revision and synopsis of the Trichoptera of the European fauna (two volumes, 1874 et 1880).
  • Achille Costa 1874. Fauna Salentina. Tip. Ed. Salentina, Lecce,Italia.

1875

1876

  • Augustus Radcliffe Grote published The effect of the glacial epoch upon the distribution of insects in North America.
  • Cyrus Thomas appointed state entomologist of Illinois.
  • Félicien Henry Caignart de Saulcy Species des Paussides, Clavigérides, Psélaphides & Scydménides de l'Europe et des pays circonvoisins. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz 14: 25–100, published. Saulcy specialised in cave fauna.
  • Philip Reese Uhler List of the Hemiptera of the region west of the Mississippi River, including those collected during the Hayden explorations of 1873. Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 1:267–361 published.

1878

1879

Osbert Salvin.

1880

  • Edouard Piaget publishes Les pédiculines: Essay monographique. Brill, Leiden

1881

  • Matthew Cooke Treatise on the Insects Injurious to Fruit and Fruit Trees of the State of California, and Remedies Recommended for Their Extermination.Sacramento: State Office: J. D. Young, Supt. State Printing, 1881. A pioneering work of American entomology.
  • John Henry Comstock became professor of entomology at Cornell University.
  • Henri Gadeau de Kerville Les Insectes phosphorescents : notes complémentaires et bibliographie générale (anatomie physiologie et biologie) : avec quatre planches chromolithographiées, Rouen, L. Deshays,published.

1882

  • Peter Cameron A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera1893 Ray Society commenced. A four volume work completed in 1893.

1883

1884

  • Nicholas Mikhailovich Les Lépidoptères de la Transcaucasie. Ire Partie. In: Mémoires sur les Lépidoptères. Stassulewitsch, St.-Pétersbourg, Vol. 1 (1–92, pl. 1-50.
  • Joannes Charles Melchior Chatin Morphologie comparée des pièces maxillaires, mandibulaires et labiales chez les insectes broyeurs

1886

1898

  • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine founded,the first of its kind in the world. Between 1898 and 1913 the School despatched 32 expeditions to the tropics, including Sierra Leone, the Congo and the Amazon.
  • Fritz Müller publishes Über die Vortheile der Mimicry bei Schmetterlingen in Zoologischer Anzeiger 1, 54–55.

1889

  • The Entomological Society of America (ESA) founded.
  • William Lucas Distant A monograph of oriental Cicadidae commenced, a seven part monograph with fifteen handcoloured lithographed plates finished in 1892.
  • Julius Weise Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschland. Erste Abtheilung Coleoptera. Sechster Band. Berlin, Nicolaische Verlags-Buchhandlung R. Strickerpublished..

1890

1891

1892

Étienne-Jules Marey 1892. Le vol des insectes étudié par la chronophotographie. In English The flight of insects studied by chronophotography.

1893

William Harris Ashmead.
  • Philip Powell Calvert publishes Catalogue of the Odonata (dragonflies) of the Vicinity of Philadelphia, with an Introduction to the Study of this Group a model for later regional studies.
  • Eleanor Anne OrmerodManual of injurious insects with methods of prevention and remedy for their attacks to food crops, forest trees and fruit: to which is appended a short introduction to entomology published.
  • Maurice Noualhier1893. Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud aux iles Canaries (Novembre 1889 – Juin 1890). 2e Memoire. Hémiptères Gymnocerates & Hydrocorises. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 52:5–18.

1894

  • Jean Pierre Mégnin publishes La Faune des Cadavres. Applications de l'Entomologie à la Médecine Légale.Corpse Fauna: Application of Entomology to Legal Medicine.Ency-clopedie Scientifique des Aides-Memoires, Masson et Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 214 pp.
  • Ferdinand Kowarz 1894 Catalogus insectorum faunae bohemicae. -II. Fliegen (Diptera) published.
  • Bureau of Entomology(U.S.A.) founded.
  • Ernst Haeckel Die systematische Phylogenie- "Systematic Phylogeny"),published.
Ernst Haeckel (left) with Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai, his assistant, in the Canaries, 1866.

1895

1897

1898

  • Pater Gabriel Strobl Fauna diptera Bosne, Hercegovine I Dalmacie. Glasn. Zemalj. Muz. Bosni Herceg. 10: 87–466, 562–616. In Serbian this was the first in a series of works on the Diptera af the Balkans.
  • The French scientist Paul-Louis Simond established the rat flea as the vector of bubonic plague.
"Der Doktor Schnabel von Rom" (English: "Doctor Beak of Rome") engraving by Paul Fürst (after J Columbina). The beak is a primitive gas mask, stuffed with substances (such as spices and herbs) thought to ward off the plague.

See also[edit]

Postcard 1884