Apidae

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Apidae
Xylocopa micans.JPG
Xylocopa micans (a carpenter bee), on a Vitex species flower
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Apoidea
Clade: Anthophila
Family: Apidae
Type genus
Apis
Subfamilies

Honey bees, bumblebees, stingless bees, orchid bees and others

Cuckoo bees

Carpenter bees

Apidae is the largest family within the superfamily Apoidea, containing at least 5700 species of bees. The family includes some of the most commonly seen bees, including bumblebees and honey bees, but also includes stingless bees (also used for honey production), carpenter bees, orchid bees, cuckoo bees, and a number of other less widely-known groups.[1][2] Many are valuable pollinators in natural habitats and for agricultural crops.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

In addition to its historical classification (honey bees, bumble bees, stingless bees and orchid bees), the family Apidae presently includes all the genera formerly placed in the families Anthophoridae and Ctenoplectridae.[3] Although the most visible members of Apidae are social, the vast majority of apid bees are solitary, including a number of cleptoparasitic species. [4]

The old family Apidae contained four tribes (Apinae: Apini, Euglossini and Bombinae: Bombini, Meliponini) which have been reclassified as tribes of the subfamily Apinae, along with all of the former tribes of Anthophoridae (subfamily Athophorinae) and the former family Ctenoplectridae, which was demoted to tribe status. The trend to move groups down in taxonomic rank has been taken further by a 2005 Brazilian classification that places all existing bee families together under the name "Apidae",[5] but it has not been widely accepted in the literature since that time.

Subfamilies[edit]

Amegilla cingulata—a subfamily Apinae digger bee species, of Australian blue banded bees, approaching tomato flower

Apinae[edit]

The subfamily Apinae contains a diversity of 15 tribe lineages, the majority of which are solitary and whose nests are simple burrows in the soil.

However, honey bees, stingless bees, and bumblebees are eusocial or colonial. They are sometimes believed to have each developed this independently, and show notable differences in such characteristics as communication between workers and methods of nest construction.

Tribes include:[2]

Nomadinae[edit]

Subfamily Nomadinae cuckoo bee species, on flower.

The subfamily Nomadinae, or cuckoo bees, has 31 genera in 10 tribes which are all cleptoparasites in the nests of other bees.

Tribes include:[2]

Xylocopinae[edit]

Xylocopa violacea—a subfamily Xylocopinae carpenter bee, on flower.

The subfamily Xylocopinae, which includes carpenter bees, are mostly solitary, though they tend to be gregarious. Some tribe lineages, such as the Allodapini, contain eusocial species.

Most members of this subfamily make nests in plant stems or wood.

Tribes include:[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Danforth, Bryan N.; Cardinal, Sophie; Praz, Christophe; Almeida, Eduardo A.B.; Michez, Denis (2013). "The Impact of Molecular Data on Our Understanding of Bee Phylogeny and Evolution". Annual Review of Entomology. 58 (1): 57–78. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153633. ISSN 0066-4170. 
  2. ^ a b c d BugGuide.Net: the Family Apidae (of bees) . accessed 6.23.2013
  3. ^ a b [Michener, Charles D. (2007) The bees of the world. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Londres.]
  4. ^ [O'Toole, Christopher, Raw, Anthony (1999) Bees of the world. Cassell Illustrated. ISBN 0-8160-5712-5]
  5. ^ Gonçalves, Rodrigo B. (2005). "Higher-level bee classifications (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apidae sensu lato)". Melo, Gabriel AR, and"Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 22 (1): 153–159. 
  • Arnett, R. H. Jr. (2000) Segunda edición. American insects. CRC Press, Boca Ratón, Londres, New York, Washington, D. C. ISBN 0-8493-0212-9
  • Borror, D. J., DeLong, D. M., Triplehorn, C. A.(1976) cuarta edición. An introduction to the study of insects. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York, Chicago. ISBN 0-03-088406-3
  • Mitchell, T.B. (1962). Bees of the Eastern United States, Volumen II. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Tech. Bul. No.152, 557 p.

External links[edit]