1975 Pacific typhoon season

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1975 Pacific typhoon season
1975 Pacific typhoon season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed January 21, 1975
Last system dissipated December 30, 1975
Strongest storm
Name June
 • Maximum winds 295 km/h (185 mph)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 875 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions 25
Total storms 20
Typhoons 14
Super typhoons 3
Total fatalities >229,160
Total damage > $1.2 billion (1975 USD)
Related articles
Pacific typhoon seasons
1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977

The 1975 Pacific typhoon season was one of the deadliest tropical cyclone seasons on record, with nearly 230,000 fatalities occurring during the season. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1975, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Some of the notable storms here are Typhoon Nina, which caused the Banquiao Dam flood, which resulted in approximately 229,000 people dead, and Super Typhoon June, which was the strongest storm on record with a pressure of 875 mbar, until beaten by Typhoon Tip in 1979 with 870 mbar.

Systems[edit]

25 tropical depressions formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which 20 became tropical storms. 14 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 3 reached super typhoon strength.[1]

Typhoon Lola (Auring)[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Lola 1975 track.png 
Duration January 21 – January 28
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Lola (Auring) was a very early typhoon. It made landfall on Mindanao as a minimal typhoon on January 24 and transversed the southern Philippines as a tropical storm. Lola crossed the South China Sea before stalling in the open sea and dissipating on January 28. The typhoon caused 30 casualties from mudslides and heavy rain.

Tropical Depression 02W[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
2-W 1975 track.png 
Duration April 22 – April 28
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (1-min)  1005 hPa (mbar)

2W formed near the Philippines.

Tropical Storm Mamie[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Mamie 1975 track.png 
Duration July 26 – July 30
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

Mamie skirted Japan.

Super Typhoon Nina (Bebeng)[edit]

Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
NinaAugust21975.gif Nina 1975 track.png
Duration July 30 – August 6
Peak intensity 250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min)  900 hPa (mbar)

Nina was a short-lived but rapidly intensifying typhoon. After forming on July 30, it struck Taiwan at super typhoon intensity. It stayed a typhoon during its passage over the island, causing 25 fatalities and widespread damage. It emerged into the Formosa Strait and weakened to a tropical storm. Nina headed inland. Its moisture interacted with a cold front, causing a huge amount of rainfall. The rainfall contributed to the bursting of the Banqiao Dam, causing the deaths of around 200,000 people.

Tropical Depression 05W (Karing)[edit]

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
5-W 1975 track.png 
Duration August 5 – August 7
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

5W lasted two days.

Typhoon Ora (Diding)[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ora 1975 track.png 
Duration August 9 – August 15
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Ora hit China.

Typhoon Phyllis (Etang)[edit]

Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Phyllisaugust1319752320UTCDMSP.gif Phyllis 1975 track.png
Duration August 11 – August 18
Peak intensity 220 km/h (140 mph) (1-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

Phyllis struck the southern part of Japan on August 17 as a minimal typhoon, having weakened from a peak of 140 mph winds. Phyllis caused over 60 casualties, with landslides and flooding causing moderate to heavy damage.

Typhoon Rita[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Rita1975NOAA.gif Rita 1975 track.png
Duration August 17 – August 24
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

Rita formed August 17 and erratically headed north and affected the Ryūkyū Islands. Rita then made landfall on Shikoku as a moderately strong Category 1 typhoon. It moved along the entire length of Japan, weakening to a depression. Rita strengthened back into a tropical storm over the Kuril Islands— an unusually northerly location— before dissipating on August 24. At least 26 deaths can be attributed to this typhoon from the heavy flooding— the worst in 10 years.

Tropical Storm Susan[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Susan 1975 track.png 
Duration August 25 – September 3
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Susan moved generally north.

Typhoon Tess[edit]

Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
TessSeptember61975.gif Tess 1975 track.png
Duration September 1 – September 10
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (1-min)  945 hPa (mbar)

Tess followed Susan's footsteps.

Tropical Storm Viola (Gening)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
ViolaSeptember61975.gif Viola 1975 track.png
Duration September 4 – September 8
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  995 hPa (mbar)

Viola did not affect land.

Typhoon Winnie[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
WinnieSeptember919752151UTCDMSP.gif Winnie 1975 track.png
Duration September 8 – September 12
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

Winnie did not affect land either.

Typhoon Alice (Herming)[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
AliceSeptember191975.png Alice 1975 track.png
Duration September 15 – September 21
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Alice hit the Philippines.

Typhoon Betty (Ising)[edit]

Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
BettySeptember2119750315UTCDMSP.png Betty 1975 track.png
Duration September 17 – September 24
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (1-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Betty hit Taiwan.

Typhoon Cora (Luding)[edit]

Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
CoraOctober419750236UTCDMSP.png Cora 1975 track.png
Duration September 30 – October 9
Peak intensity 195 km/h (120 mph) (1-min)  945 hPa (mbar)

Cora re-curved east of Japan.

Tropical Storm Doris[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Doris Pacific 1975 track.png 
Duration October 2 – October 7
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Dorris hit Japan as a high-end tropical storm.

Super Typhoon Elsie (Mameng)[edit]

Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Elsie 12 Oct 1975 NOAA-4.png Elsie 1975 track.png
Duration October 8 – October 15
Peak intensity 250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min)  900 hPa (mbar)

This storm ultimately hit Hong Kong.

Tropical Depression 18W (Neneng)[edit]

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
18-W 1975 track.png 
Duration October 15 – October 17
Peak intensity 45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1002 hPa (mbar)

18W dissipated near the Philippines.

Typhoon Flossie[edit]

Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Flossie 1975 track.png 
Duration October 19 – October 23
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Flossie struck the extreme southern part of China at Category 1 intensity. 44 people were lost from 2 freighters sinking.

Tropical Storm Grace (Oniang)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Grace 1975 track.png 
Duration October 24 – November 4
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Grace moved northwest away from the Philippines.

Tropical Storm Helen (Pepang)[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Helen 1975 track.png 
Duration November 1 – November 4
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Helen hit Vietnam.

Typhoon Ida[edit]

Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ida 1975 track.png 
Duration November 5 – November 14
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (1-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Ida recurved out to sea.

Super Typhoon June (Rosing)[edit]

Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
JuneNovember1919752348UTC.gif June 1975 track.png
Duration November 15 – November 24
Peak intensity 295 km/h (185 mph) (1-min)  875 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon June was the strongest storm of the season, but it had no effect on land. At the time, June was the strongest typhoon on record, and tropical cyclone worldwide, with a minimum central pressure of 875 millibars. June was also the first recorded case of a typhoon with triple eyewalls.[2]

Tropical Depression 24W (Sisang)[edit]

Tropical depression (PAGASA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
24-W 1975 track.png 
Duration December 26 – December 30
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min) 

A late season tropical depression affected the Philippines before turning back toward the ocean and dissipated out at sea.

Tropical Depression 25W[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
25-W 1975 track.png 
Duration December 26 – December 30
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min) 

25W formed in the South China Sea.

Storm names[edit]

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1975 was named Lola and the final one was named June.

  • Agnes
  • Bonnie
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit
  • Lola 1W
  • Mamie 3W
  • Nina 4W
  • Ora 6W
  • Phyllis 7Ws
  • Rita 8W
  • Susan 9W
  • Tess 10W
  • Viola 11W
  • Winnie 12W
  • Alice 13W
  • Betty 14W
  • Cora 15W
  • Doris 16W
  • Elsie 17W
  • Flossie 19W
  • Grace 20W
  • Helen 21W
  • Ida 22W
  • June 23W
  • Kathy
  • Lorna
  • Marie
  • Nancy
  • Olga
  • Pamela
  • Ruby
  • Sally
  • Therese
  • Violet
  • Wilda
  • Anita
  • Billie
  • Clara
  • Dot
  • Ellen
  • Fran
  • Georgia
  • Hope
  • Iris
  • Joan
  • Kate
  • Louise
  • Marge
  • Nora
  • Opal
  • Patsy
  • Ruth
  • Sarah
  • Thelma
  • Vera
  • Wanda
  • Amy
  • Babe
  • Carla
  • Dinah
  • Emma
  • Freda
  • Gilda
  • Harriet
  • Ivy
  • Jean
  • Kim
  • Lucy
  • Mary
  • Nadine
  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1975 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS
  2. ^ Shanmin, Chen (1987). "Preliminary analysis on the structure and intensity of concentric double-eye typhoons". Advances in Atmospheric Sciences. 4 (1): 113–118. Bibcode:1987AdAtS...4..113C. doi:10.1007/BF02656667. 

External links[edit]