United States Senate elections, 1934

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from U.S. Senate election, 1934)
Jump to: navigation, search
United States Senate elections, 1934
United States
← 1932 / 1933 November 6, 1934[1] 1936 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Joseph t robinson.jpg Charles mcnary.jpg
Leader Joseph Robinson Charles McNary
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Arkansas Oregon
Seats before 60 35
Seats won 69 25
Seat change Increase 9 Decrease 10
Seats up 14 17
Races won 23 7

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Farmer–Labor Progressive
Seats before 1 0
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Steady Increase 1
Seats up 1 0
Races won 1 1

US 1934 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     Progressive gain      Progressive hold
     Farmer–Labor gain      Farmer–Labor hold

Majority Leader before election

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Joseph Robinson
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1934 occurred in the middle of Democratic President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's first term. In the middle of the Great Depression, voters strongly backed Roosevelt's New Deal and his allies in the Senate. The Democrats picked up a net of nine seats, giving them a supermajority (which required 64 seats, two-thirds of the total 96 seats in 1934).[2]

Milestones[edit]

This marked the first time since the Civil War where an incumbent president's party gained Senate seats during a midterm election, later being followed by John F. Kennedy in 1962, Richard Nixon in 1970, and George W. Bush in 2002.

Gains and losses[edit]

The Democrats took nine Republican seats, including an open seat in Maryland and the seats of eight incumbents.

Losing incumbents[edit]

  1. Connecticut: Frederic C. Walcott (R) lost to Francis T. Maloney (D)
  2. Indiana: Arthur Raymond Robinson (R) lost to Sherman Minton (D)
  3. Missouri: Roscoe C. Patterson (R) lost to Harry S. Truman (D)
  4. New Jersey: Hamilton F. Kean (R) lost to A. Harry Moore (D)
  5. Ohio: Simeon D. Fess (R) lost to Vic Donahey (D)
  6. Pennsylvania: David A. Reed (R) lost to Joseph F. Guffey (D)
  7. Rhode Island: Felix Hebert (R) lost to Peter G. Gerry (D)
  8. West Virginia: Henry D. Hatfield (R) lost to Rush D. Holt (D)

Retirement[edit]

  1. Maryland: George L. P. Radcliffe (D) picked up the seat when Phillips Lee Goldsborough (R) retired.

Party change[edit]

  1. Wisconsin: Republicans suffered an additional loss when Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (R) joined the Progressive Party.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

Going into the November 1934 elections.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D45 D47
Ran
D48
Ran
Majority → D49
Ran
D58
Ran
D57
Ran
D56
Ran
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
D51
Ran
D50
Ran
D59
Retired
D60
Retired
FL1
Ran
R35
Retired
R34
Ran
R33
Ran
R32
Ran
R31
Ran
R30
Ran
R29
Ran
R19
Ran
R20
Ran
R21
Ran
R22
Ran
R23
Ran
R24
Ran
R25
Ran
R26
Ran
R27
Ran
R28
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D45 D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
Majority → D49
Re-elected
D58
Hold
D57
Re-elected
D56
Re-elected
D55
Re-elected
D54
Re-elected
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
D51
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
D59
Hold
D60
Hold
D61
Gain
D62
Gain
D63
Gain
D64
Gain
D65
Gain
D66
Gain
D67
Gain
D68
Gain
R19
Re-elected
R20
Re-elected
R21
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
P1
Re-elected
new party
FL1
Re-elected
D69
Gain
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D45 D47 D48
Majority → D49
D58 D57 D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
D59 D60 D61 D62 D63 D64 D65 D66 D67 D68
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 P1 FL1 V1
D ineligible
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
FL# Farmer-Labor
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Elections during the 73rd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1934 or before January 3, 1935; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Vermont
(Class 3)
Ernest W. Gibson Republican 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 16, 1934. Ernest W. Gibson (Republican), 58.2%
Harry W. Witters (Democratic), 41.8%
Montana
(Class 2)
John E. Erickson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 6, 1934.
Democratic hold.
James E. Murray (Democratic) 59.6%
Scott Leavitt (Republican) 39.5%
Nebraska
(Class 1)
William H. Thompson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 6, 1934.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Richard C. Hunter (Democratic) 56.45%
J.H. Kemp (Republican) 43.55%
New Mexico
(Class 2)
Carl A. Hatch Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 6, 1934. Carl A. Hatch (Democratic) 54.5%
Richard C. Dillon (Republican) 45.0%
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Nathan L. Bachman Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 6, 1934. Nathan L. Bachman (Democratic) 80.1%
John R. Neal (Independent) 19.9%

Elections leading to the 74th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1935; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona Henry F. Ashurst Democratic 1912
1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Henry F. Ashurst (Democratic) 72.0%
J. E. Thompson (Republican) 25.6%
California Hiram W. Johnson Republican 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Hiram W. Johnson (Republican) 94.5%
George R. Kirkpatrick (Socialist) 5.3%
Connecticut Frederic C. Walcott Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Francis T. Maloney (Democratic) 51.8%
Frederic C. Walcott (Republican) 48.3%
Delaware John G. Townsend, Jr. Republican 1928 Incumbent re-elected. John G. Townsend, Jr. (Republican) 53.3%
Wilbur L. Adams (Democratic) 46.2%
Florida Park Trammell Democratic 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Park Trammell (Democratic)
Unopposed
Indiana Arthur Raymond Robinson Republican 1925 (Appointed)
1926 (Special)
1928
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Sherman Minton (Democratic) 51.5%
Arthur Raymond Robinson (Republican) 47.5%
Maine Frederick Hale Republican 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Frederick Hale (Republican) 50.1%
Frederick Harold Dubord (Democratic) 49.7%
Maryland Phillips Lee Goldsborough Republican 1928 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
George L. P. Radcliffe (Democratic) 56.1%
Joseph I. France (Republican) 42.0%
Massachusetts David I. Walsh Democratic 1926 (Special)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. David I. Walsh (Democratic) 59.4%
Robert M. Washburn (Republican) 37.4%
Michigan Arthur H. Vandenberg Republican 1928 (Appointed)
1928 (Special)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Arthur H. Vandenberg (Republican) 51.3%
Frank A. Picard (Democratic) 47.0%
John Monarch (Socialist)[3] 1.7%
Minnesota Henrik Shipstead Farmer–Labor 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Henrik Shipstead (Farmer–Labor) 49.9%
Einar Hoidale (Democratic) 29.2%
N. J. Holmberg (Republican) 19.8%
Mississippi Hubert D. Stephens Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Theodore G. Bilbo (Democratic)
Unopposed
Missouri Roscoe C. Patterson Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Harry S. Truman (Democratic) 59.5%
Roscoe C. Patterson (Republican) 39.7%
W. C. Meyer (Socialist) 0.7%
Montana Burton K. Wheeler Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Burton K. Wheeler (Democratic) 70.1%
George M. Bourquin (Republican) 28.7%
Nebraska William H. Thompson Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the current term, see above.
Edward R. Burke (Democratic) 55.3%
Robert G. Simmons (Republican) 42.9%
Nevada Key Pittman Democratic 1913 (Special)
1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Key Pittman (Democratic) 64.5%
George W. Malone (Republican) 33.4%
New Jersey Hamilton F. Kean Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
A. Harry Moore (Democratic) 57.9%
Hamilton F. Kean (Republican) 40.9%
New Mexico Bronson M. Cutting Republican 1927 (Appointed)
1928 (Retired)
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Bronson M. Cutting (Republican) 50.2%
Dennis Chavez (Democratic) 49.4%
New York Royal S. Copeland Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Royal S. Copeland (Democratic) 55.3%
E. Harold Cluett (Republican) 36.9%
Norman Thomas (Socialist) 5.3%
North Dakota Lynn J. Frazier Republican 1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Lynn J. Frazier (Republican) 58.2%
Henry Holt (Democratic) 40.2%
Ohio Simeon D. Fess Republican 1922
1928
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Vic Donahey (Democratic) 60.0%
Simeon D. Fess (Republican) 39.4%
Pennsylvania David A. Reed Republican 1922 (Appointed)
1922 (Special)
1922
1928
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Joseph F. Guffey (Democratic) 50.8%
David A. Reed (Republican) 46.5%
Rhode Island Felix Hebert Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Peter G. Gerry (Democratic) 57.1%
Felix Hebert (Republican) 42.9%
Tennessee Kenneth D. McKellar Democratic 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. Kenneth D. McKellar (Democratic) 63.4%
Ben W. Hooper (Republican) 35.8%
Texas Tom Connally Democratic 1928 Incumbent re-elected. Tom Connally (Democratic) 96.7%
Utah William H. King Democratic 1916
1922
1928
Incumbent re-elected. William H. King (Democratic) 53.1%
Don B. Colton (Republican) 45.4%
Vermont Warren R. Austin Republican 1931 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Warren R. Austin (Republican) 51.0%
Fred C. Martin (Democratic) 48.4%
Virginia Harry F. Byrd Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1933 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Harry F. Byrd (Democratic) 76.0%
Lawrence C. Page (Republican) 20.9%
Washington Clarence C. Dill Democratic 1922
1928
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Lewis B. Schwellenbach (Democratic) 60.9%
Reno Odlin (Republican) 34.0%
West Virginia Henry D. Hatfield Republican 1928 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Rush D. Holt (Democratic) 55.1%
Henry D. Hatfield (Republican) 44.4%
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Republican 1925 (Special)
1928
Incumbent re-elected in new party
Progressive gain.
Robert M. La Follette, Jr. (Progressive) 47.8%
John M. Callahan (Democratic) 24.2%
John B. Chapple (Republican) 22.8%
Wyoming Joseph C. O'Mahoney Democratic 1933 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected. Joseph C. O'Mahoney (Democratic) 56.6%
Vincent Carter (Republican) 43.0%

Complete list of races[edit]

Arizona[edit]

United States Senate election in Arizona, 1934[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 67,648 72.03%
Republican Joseph Edward Thompson 24,075 25.63%
Socialist Charles D. Pinkerton 1,591 1.69%
Communist Ramon Garcia 606 0.65%
Majority 43,573 46.40%
Turnout 93,920
Democratic gain from Republican Swing

Massachusetts[edit]

United States Senate election in Massachusetts, 1934[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic David I. Walsh 852,776 59.39
Republican Robert M. Washburn 536,692 37.38
Socialist Albert Sprague Coolidge 22,092 1.54
Prohibition Barnard Smith 10,363 0.72
Socialist Labor Albert L. Waterman 8,245 0.57
Communist Paul C. Wicks 5,757 0.40

Montana[edit]

United States Senate election in Montana, 1934[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Burton K. Wheeler (inc.) 142,823 70.14% +16.94%
Republican George M. Bourquin 58,519 28.74% -18.06%
Socialist William F. Held 1,381 0.68%
Communist Raymond F. Gray 903 0.44%
Majority 84,304 41.40% +35.00%
Turnout 203,626
Democratic hold Swing

Montana (Special)[edit]

United States Senate special election in Montana, 1934[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic James E. Murray 116,965 59.66% -0.67%
Republican Scott Leavitt 77,307 39.43% +1.56%
Socialist John F. Duffy 1,779 0.91% +0.34%
Majority 39,658 20.23% -2.22%
Turnout 196,051
Democratic hold Swing

New York[edit]

In New York, the whole Democratic ticket was elected in the third landslide in a row.

1934 state election results
Office Democratic ticket Republican ticket Socialist ticket Communist ticket Constitutional ticket Law Preservation ticket Socialist Labor ticket
U.S. Senator Royal S. Copeland 2,046,377 E. Harold Cluett 1,363,440 Norman Thomas 194,952 Max Bedacht 45,396 Henry Breckinridge 24,241 William Sheafe Chase 16,769 Olive M. Johnson 6,622

Pennsylvania[edit]

General election results[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Joseph F. Guffey 1,494,010 50.78% +16.78%
Republican David A. Reed (inc.) 1,366,872 46.46% -17.92%
Socialist James H. Maurer 50,444 0.39% -0.37%
Prohibition Edwin J. Fithian 19,985 0.68% +0.19%
Communist Harry M. Wicks 6,170 0.21% +0.21%
Socialist Labor George W. Ohls 4,665 0.16% +0.12%
N/A Other 129 0.00% N/A
Totals 2,942,275 100.00%

Vermont[edit]

United States Senate election in Vermont, 1934[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Warren Austin (inc.) 67,146 51.0
Democratic Fred C. Martin 63,632 48.4
N/A Other 3 0.0
Total votes 131,552 100

Vermont (Special)[edit]

United States Senate special election in Vermont, 1934[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Ernest W. Gibson, Sr. 28,436 58.2%
Democratic Harry W. Witters 20,382 41.7%
N/A Other 12 0.1%
Total votes 48,830 100.0%

Virginia[edit]

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1934[6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Harry F. Byrd, Sr. (inc.) 109,963 75.96% +4.65%
Republican Lawrence C. Page 30,289 20.92% -5.75%
Independent J. L. Litz 1,503 1.04%
Socialist Herman R. Ansell 1,127 0.78% +0.10%
Independent John G. Bowman 1,046 0.72%
Communist Alexander Wright 431 0.30% +0.30%
Prohibition Hewman H. Raymond 391 0.27% -0.15%
Write-ins 22 0.02% +0.02%
Majority 79,674 55.03% +10.39%
Turnout 144,772
Democratic hold

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ There was a general election September 10, 1934 in Maine, as well as special elections in January and November 1934.
  2. ^ Arthur Krock (November 7, 1934). "Tide Sweeps Nation". New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  3. ^ http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/monaco-monro.html#monarch
  4. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3286
  5. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=268000
  6. ^ a b c d "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 6, 1934" (PDF). Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 4, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "General Election Results - U.S. Senator - 1914-2014" (PDF). Office of the Vermont Secretary of State. Retrieved June 16, 2015.