United States Senate elections, 1888 and 1889

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United States Senate elections, 1888 and 1889
United States
← 1886 / 1887 Dates vary by state 1890 / 1891 →

26 of the 76 seats in the U.S. Senate
(as well as special elections)

39 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Republican Democratic
Seats before 38 37
Seats won 12 13
Seats after 38 37
Seat change Steady Steady
Seats up 12 13

  Third party
 
Party Readjuster
Seats before 1
Seats won 0
Seats after 1
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Republican

Elected Majority Party

Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1888 and 1889 were elections that coincided with Benjamin Harrison's victory over incumbent President Grover Cleveland. Both parties were unchanged in the general elections, but later special elections would give Republicans an eight-seat majority, mostly from newly admitted states.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 51st Congress (1889–1891)

  • Majority Party: Republican (39 to 51)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (37 to 35)
  • Other Parties: (0)
  • Total Seats: 76 to 88

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Ran
D27
Ran
D26
Ran
D25
Ran
D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
D32
Ran
D33
Ran
D34
Ran
D35
Ran
D36
Ran
D37
Ran
RA1
Retired
Majority with Readjuster in caucus → R38
Retired
R29
Ran
R30
Ran
R31
Ran
R32
Ran
R33
Ran
R34
Ran
R35
Ran
R36
Unknown
R37
Unknown
R28
Ran
R27
Ran
R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

After the elections[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28
Re-elected
D27
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D25
Re-elected
D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
D32
Re-elected
D33
Re-elected
D34
Re-elected
D35
Re-elected
D36
Re-elected
D37
Gain
V1
R Loss
Majority due to vacancy → R38
Gain
R29
Re-elected
R30
Re-elected
R31
Re-elected
R32
Re-elected
R33
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R35
Hold
R36
Hold
R37
Hold
R28
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18
D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22 D21 D20 D19
D29 D30 D31 D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 D37 R39
Gain
Majority →
R29 R30 R31 R32 R33 R34 R35 R36 R37 R38
R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22 R21 R20 R19
R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18
R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2 R1

End of 1889[edit]

D1
D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2
D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 D17 D18 D19 D20 D21
D31 D30 D29 D28 D27 D26 D25 D24 D23 D22
D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 D37 R45
New state
R44
New state
R43
New state
R42
New state
Majority →
R32 R33
Hold
R34
Hold
R35 R36 R37 R38 R39 R40
New state
R41
New state
R31 R30 R29 R28 R27 R26 R25 R24 R23 R22
R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21
R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5 R4 R3 R2
R1
Key:
D# Democratic
RA# Readjuster
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 50th Congress[edit]

There were no special elections during 1888 or in 1889 before March 4.

Races leading to the 51st Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1889; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John Tyler Morgan Democratic 1876
1882
Incumbent re-elected in 1888. John Tyler Morgan (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas James Berry Democratic 1885 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1889. James Berry (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Colorado Thomas M. Bowen Republican 1882 or 1883 Unknown if retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1889.
Republican hold.
Edward O. Wolcott (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware Eli M. Saulsbury Democratic 1870
1876
1883
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1888 or 1889.
Republican gain.
Anthony C. Higgins (Republican)
Eli M. Saulsbury (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Alfred H. Colquitt Democratic 1883 Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Alfred H. Colquitt (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Shelby M. Cullom (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Iowa James F. Wilson Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1888. James F. Wilson (Republican)[1]
T. J. Anderson (Democratic)
Daniel Campbell[2]
J. R. Reed[2]
John A. T. Hull (Republican)[2]
Henry Wallace (Republican)[2]
Kansas Preston B. Plumb Republican 1877
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Preston B. Plumb (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky James B. Beck Democratic 1876
1882
Incumbent re-elected in 1888. James B. Beck (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Randall L. Gibson Democratic 1882 Incumbent re-elected in 1889. Randall L. Gibson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maine William P. Frye Republican 1881 (Special)
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. William P. Frye (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Massachusetts George Frisbie Hoar Republican 1877
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. George Frisbie Hoar (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan Thomas W. Palmer Republican 1882 or 1883 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1889.
Republican hold.
James McMillan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Minnesota Dwight M. Sabin Republican 1883 Incumbent lost renomination.
Winner elected in 1888.
Republican hold.
William D. Washburn (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Mississippi Edward C. Walthall Democratic 1885 (Appointed)
1886 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. Edward C. Walthall (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Nebraska Charles F. Manderson Republican 1883 Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Charles F. Manderson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire William E. Chandler Republican 1887 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
An interim senator was appointed to start the next term and the incumbent was later elected to finish that term, see below.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Jersey John R. McPherson Democratic 1877
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. John R. McPherson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina Matt W. Ransom Democratic 1872 (Special)
1876
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. Matt W. Ransom (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Oregon Joseph N. Dolph Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Joseph N. Dolph (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island Jonathan Chace Republican 1885 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Jonathan Chace (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina Matthew Butler Democratic 1876
1882
Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Matthew Butler (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Tennessee Isham G. Harris Democratic 1877
1883
Incumbent re-elected in 1889. Isham G. Harris (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Texas Richard Coke Democratic 1876
1882
Incumbent re-elected in 1888. Richard Coke (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia Harrison H. Riddleberger Readjuster 1881 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected early December 20, 1887.[3]
Democratic gain.
John S. Barbour Jr. (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
West Virginia John E. Kenna Democratic 1883 Incumbent re-elected in 1889. John E. Kenna (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 51st Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1889 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Jonathan Chace Republican 1885 (Special)
1888
Incumbent resigned April 9, 1889.
Winner was elected April 10, 1889.
Republican hold.
Nathan F. Dixon III (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Gilman Marston Republican 1889 (Appointed) Unknown if interim appointee retired or lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected June 18, 1889.
Republican hold.
William E. Chandler (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Dakota
(Class 2)
New state South Dakota admitted to the Union November 2, 1889.
First senators elected October 16, 1889, in advance of statehood.[4]
Republican gain.
Richard F. Pettigrew (Republican) 108
Bartlett Tripp (Democratic) 14
Absent/not voting 2[4]
South Dakota
(Class 3)
New state South Dakota admitted to the Union November 2, 1889.
First senators elected October 16, 1889, in advance of statehood.[4]
Republican gain.
Gideon C. Moody (Republican) 107
Merritt H. Day (Democratic) 14[4]
Washington
(Class 1)
New state Washington admitted to the Union November 11, 1889.
First senator elected November 20, 1889.
Republican gain.
John B. Allen (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Washington
(Class 3)
New state Washington admitted to the Union November 11, 1889.
First senator elected November 20, 1889.
Republican gain.
Watson C. Squire (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Dakota
(Class 1)
New state North Dakota admitted to the Union November 2, 1889.
First senators elected November 25, 1889.[5]
Republican gain.
Lyman R. Casey (Republican) 62
Martin N. Johnson (Republican) 26
Daniel W. Maratta (Democratic) 4[5]
North Dakota
(Class 3)
New state North Dakota admitted to the Union November 2, 1889.
First senators elected November 25, 1889.[5]
Republican gain.
Gilbert A. Pierce (Republican) 56
Michael L. McCormack (Democratic) 6[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clark, p. 214
  2. ^ a b c d Campbell, Reed, Hull, and Wallce each received between one and three votes. Clark, p. 215.
  3. ^ John S. Barbour Jr. at Encyclopedia Virginia
  4. ^ a b c d Journal of the House of Representatives…, p. 11
  5. ^ a b c d Journal of the House of the First Legislative Assembly…, p. 63-64