United States Senate elections, 1942

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United States Senate elections, 1942
United States
← 1940 / 1941 November 3, 1942[1] 1944 →

33 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  AlbenBarkley.jpg WallaceWhiteJr.jpg
Leader Alben Barkley Wallace White
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky Maine
Seats before 65 29
Seats won 57 38
Seat change Decrease 8 Increase 9
Popular vote 6,329,426 6,661,196
Percentage 46.7% 49.2%
Swing Decrease 0.8% Increase 1.4%
Seats up 23 9
Races won 15 18

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Progressive Independent
Seats before 1 1
Seats won 1 0
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Popular vote [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Percentage [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Seats up 0 1
Races won 0 0

US 1942 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Republican gain      Democratic hold      Republican hold

Majority Leader before election

Alben Barkley
Democratic

Elected Majority Leader

Alben Barkley
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1942 were held November 3, 1942, midway through Franklin D. Roosevelt's third term as President.

Background[edit]

Although this election took place during World War II, the opposition Republican party made major gains, taking eight seats from the Democrats and one from an independent. The Democrats nonetheless retained a significant majority, though the smallest since Roosevelt was first elected in 1932.

The New York Times ascribed the results to "voters' dissatisfaction with the conduct of the war, both at home and abroad" but not evidence of a lack of enthusiasm for the war effort. It found that a candidate's stance as isolationist or interventionist before Pearl Harbor had little impact on his success at the polls.[2] The paper's editorial board welcomed a return to normal political alignments after the unbalanced majorities of the previous decade.[3] The election not only changed the numbers of Democrats and Republicans in the Senate, but also accomplished an ideological shift, as several longtime enthusiastic supporters of the New Deal were replaced by Republicans of the most conservative sort.[4]

Gains and losses[edit]

Republicans had a net gain of nine seats.

Nine came from wins over Democrats:

  1. Delaware: First-term Democrat James H. Hughes lost renomination to E. Ennalls Berl, who then lost the general election to Republican Clayton D. Buck.
  2. Iowa: First-term Democrat Clyde L. Herring lost re-election to Republican George A. Wilson.
  3. Michigan: First-term Democrat Prentiss M. Brown narrowly lost re-election to Republican Homer Ferguson.
  4. New Jersey: First-term Democrat William H. Smathers lost re-election to Republican Albert W. Hawkes.
  5. Oklahoma: First-term Democrat Joshua B. Lee lost re-election to Republican Edward H. Moore.
  6. South Dakota: Second-term Democrat William J. Bulow lost renomination to Tom Berry, who then lost the general election to Republican Harlan J. Bushfield.
  7. West Virginia: First-term Democratic appointee Joseph Rosier retired and Republican Edward H. Moore easily beat Democratic former three-term senator Matthew M. Neely.
  8. Wyoming: First-term Democrat Henry H. Schwartz lost re-election to Republican Edward V. Robertson.

Republicans picked up an Independent seat:

  1. Nebraska: Five-term Independent George W. Norris lost re-election to Republican Kenneth S. Wherry, as Democrat Foster May split the vote.

Also, in a special election, Republicans gained a seat from the Democrats, which would later be held by a different Republican from the general election, see above:

  1. West Virginia: First-term Democratic appointee Joseph Rosier lost election to finish the term to Republican Hugh Shott, who did not run for the next term.

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

At the beginning of 1942.

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43
Ran
D44
Ran
D45
Ran
D46
Ran
D47
Ran
D48
Ran
Majority → D49
Ran
D58
Ran
D57
Ran
D56
Ran
D55
Ran
D54
Ran
D53
Ran
D52
Ran
D51
Ran
D50
Ran
D59
Ran
D60
Ran
D61
Ran
D62
Ran
D63
Ran
D64
Retired
D65
Retired
P1 I1
Ran
R29
Ran
R19 R20 R21
Ran
R22
Ran
R23
Ran
R24
Ran
R25
Ran
R26
Ran
R27
Ran
R28
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43
Re-elected
D44
Re-elected
D45
Re-elected
D46
Re-elected
D47
Re-elected
D48
Re-elected
Majority → D49
Re-elected
P1 D57
Hold
D56
Hold
D55
Re-elected
D54
Re-elected
D53
Re-elected
D52
Re-elected
D51
Re-elected
D50
Re-elected
R38
Gain
R37
Gain
R36
Gain
R35
Gain
R34
Gain
R33
Gain
R32
Gain
R31
Gain
R30
Gain
R29
Re-elected
R19 R20 R21
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R25
Re-elected
R26
Re-elected
R27
Re-elected
R28
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the special elections[edit]

  D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
P1 D57
Hold
D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
R38
Gain, same as general
R37
Hold
R36
Appointee elected
R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
I# Independent
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 77th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winner was seated during 1942 or before January 3, 1943; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
West Virginia
Class 2
Joseph Rosier Democratic 1941 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish term.
New senator elected November 3, 1942 and qualified November 17, 1942.[5]
Neither candidate ran in the contemporaneous election for the next term, see below.
Republican gain.
Hugh Shott (Republican) 52.3%
Joseph Rosier (Democratic) 47.7%
Colorado
Class 3
Eugene D. Millikin Republican 1941 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1942. Eugene D. Millikin (Republican) 56.1%
James A. Marsh (Democratic) 42.1%
Nevada
Class 1
Berkeley L. Bunker Democratic 1940 (Appointed) Appointee lost nomination to finish term.
New senator elected November 3, 1942 and qualified December 7, 1942.[6]
Democratic hold.
James G. Scrugham (Democratic) 58.7%
Cecil W. Creel (Republican) 41.3%
Minnesota
Class 2
Joseph H. Ball Republican 1940 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
Arthur E. Nelson (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 78th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1943; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John H. Bankhead II Democratic 1930
1936
Incumbent re-elected. John H. Bankhead II (Democratic)
Unopposed
Arkansas George L. Spencer Democratic 1941 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
John L. McClellan (Democratic)
Unopposed
Colorado Edwin C. Johnson Democratic 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Edwin C. Johnson (Democratic) 50.2%
Ralph L. Carr (Republican) 49.2%
Delaware James H. Hughes Democratic 1936 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Clayton D. Buck (Republican) 54.2%
E. Ennalls Berl (Democratic) 44.9%
Georgia Richard Russell, Jr. Democratic 1933 (Special)
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Richard Russell, Jr. (Democratic)
Unopposed
Idaho John Thomas Republican 1939 (Appointed)
1940 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. John Thomas (Republican) 51.5%
Glen H. Taylor (Democratic) 48.5%
Illinois C. Wayland Brooks Republican 1940 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. C. Wayland Brooks (Republican) 53.2%
Raymond S. McKeough (Democratic) 46.4%
Iowa Clyde L. Herring Democratic 1936 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
George A. Wilson (Republican) 58.0%
Clyde L. Herring (Democratic) 41.7%
Kansas Arthur Capper Republican 1918
1924
1930
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Arthur Capper (Republican) 57.1%
George McGill (Democratic) 40.3%
Kentucky Happy Chandler Democratic 1939 (Appointed)
1940 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Happy Chandler (Democratic) 55.3%
Richard J. Colbert (Republican) 44.7%
Louisiana Allen J. Ellender Democratic 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Allen J. Ellender (Democratic)
Unopposed
Maine Wallace H. White, Jr. Republican 1930
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Wallace H. White, Jr. (Republican) 66.7%
Fulton J. Redman (Democratic) 33.3%
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Republican 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (Republican) 52.4%
Joseph E. Casey (Democratic) 46.6%
Michigan Prentiss M. Brown Democratic 1936
1936 (Appointed)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Homer Ferguson (Republican) 49.6%
Prentiss M. Brown (Democratic) 47.2%
Minnesota Joseph H. Ball Republican 1940 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected.
Winner did not run to finish the term, see above.
Joseph H. Ball (Republican) 47.0%
Elmer Austin Benson (Farmer-Labor) 28.2%
Martin A. Nelson (Independent) 14.4%
Ed Murphy (Democratic) 10.4%
Mississippi Wall Doxey Democratic 1941 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
James O. Eastland (Democratic)
Unopposed
Montana James E. Murray Democratic 1934 (Special)
1936
Incumbent re-elected. James E. Murray (Democratic) 49.1%
Wellington D. Rankin (Republican) 48.4%
Nebraska George W. Norris Independent 1913
1918
1924
1930
1936
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Kenneth S. Wherry (Republican) 49.0%
George W. Norris (Independent) 28.6%
Foster May (Democratic) 22.0%
New Hampshire Styles Bridges Republican 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Styles Bridges (Republican) 54.6%
Francis P. Murphy (Democratic) 45.4%
New Jersey William H. Smathers Democratic 1936 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Albert W. Hawkes (Republican) 53.1%
William H. Smathers (Democratic) 45.8%
New Mexico Carl A. Hatch Democratic 1933 (Appointed)
1934 (Special)
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Carl A. Hatch (Democratic) 59.2%
J. Benson Newell (Republican) 40.8%
North Carolina Josiah W. Bailey Democratic 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Josiah W. Bailey (Democratic) 65.9%
Sam J. Morris (Republican) 34.1%
Oklahoma Joshua B. Lee Democratic 1936 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Edward H. Moore (Republican) 54.8%
Josh Lee (Democratic) 44.8%
Oregon Charles L. McNary Republican 1917 (Appointed)
1918 (Not elected)
1918 (Appointed)
1918
1924
1930
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Charles L. McNary (Republican) 77.1%
Walter W. Whitbeck (Democratic) 22.9%
Rhode Island Theodore F. Green Democratic 1936 Incumbent re-elected. Theodore F. Green (Democratic) 58.0%
Ira Lloyd Letts (Republican) 42.0%
South Carolina Burnet R. Maybank Democratic 1941 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Burnet R. Maybank (Democratic)
Unopposed
South Dakota William J. Bulow Democratic 1930
1936
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Harlan J. Bushfield (Republican)
Tom Berry (Democratic) 41.3%
Tennessee Tom Stewart Democratic 1938 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. A. Tom Stewart (Democratic) 70.5%
F. Todd Meacham (Republican) 21.5%
Texas W. Lee O'Daniel Democratic 1941 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. W. Lee O'Daniel (Democratic) 94.9%
Virginia Carter Glass Democratic 1920 (Appointed)
1920 (Special)
1924
1930
1936
Incumbent re-elected. Carter Glass (Democratic) 91.1%
Lawrence S. Wilkes (Socialist) 6.5%
West Virginia Joseph Rosier Democratic 1941 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Winner did not run to finish the term, see above.
Chapman Revercomb (Republican) 55.4%
Matthew M. Neely (Democratic) 44.6%
Wyoming Henry H. Schwartz Democratic 1936 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Edward V. Robertson (Republican) 54.6%
Henry H. Schwartz (Democratic) 45.4%

Complete list of elections[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. 721,239 52.44 +3.91
Democratic Joseph E. Casey 641,042 46.61 +5.62
Socialist George Lyman Paine 4,802 0.35 -0.19
Socialist Labor Horace I. Hillis 4,781 0.35 +0.35
Prohibition George L. Thompson 3,577 0.26 +0.26

Montana[edit]

United States Senate election in Montana, 1942[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic James E. Murray (inc.) 83,673 49.07% -5.91%
Republican Wellington D. Rankin 82,461 48.36% +21.25%
Prohibition Charles R. Miller 2,711 1.59%
Socialist E. H. Helterbran 1,669 0.98%
Majority 1,212 0.71% -27.16%
Turnout 170,514
Democratic hold Swing

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1942
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Burnet R. Maybank (incumbent) 22,556 100.0 0.0
No party Write-Ins 2 0.0 0.0
Majority 22,554 100.0 0.0
Turnout 22,558
Democratic hold
  65+% won by Maybank

Virginia[edit]

United States Senate election in Virginia, 1942[7]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Carter Glass (inc.) 79,421 91.08% +0.58%
Socialist Lawrence S. Wilkes 5,690 6.53% +6.53%
Communist Alice Burke 2,041 2.34% -1.00%
Write-ins 48 <0.01% -0.07%
Majority 73,731 84.55% -2.40%
Turnout 87,200
Democratic hold

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ There was a general election September 14, 1942 in Maine.
  2. ^ Lawrence, W.H. (November 5, 1942). "Margin is Narrow". New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  3. ^ "The New Congress". New York Times. November 5, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  4. ^ Malsberger, John W. (2000). From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938-1952. Susquehanna University Press. p. 100. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  5. ^ "WV US Senate - Special". Our Campaigns. June 19, 2004. Retrieved April 9, 2015. 
  6. ^ "NV US Senate - Special". Our Campaigns. August 2, 2003. Retrieved April 9, 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 3, 1942" (PDF). Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved July 2, 2014.