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|Town rights||1287-1869, 1916|
|• Mayor||Piotr Wąsowicz|
|• Total||12.28 km2 (4.74 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||250 m (820 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||220 m (720 ft)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+48 41|
Busko-Zdrój [ˈbuskɔ ˈzdrui̯] ( listen) is a spa town in Poland, in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. It is the capital of Busko County. As of 2010, its population was 32,274. It was known as Bużsk since the 12th century, and Busk in the 13th. It has the 7th largest population in its province. From 1975-1998 the city administratively belonged to the Kielce Voivodeship.
The cargo ship MS "Busko Zdrój" was named after this city.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Climate
- 5 Monuments
- 6 Religion
- 7 Transport
- 8 Health Spa
- 9 Spa's park
- 10 Health resort
- 11 Education
- 12 Culture
- 13 Media
- 14 Sport and recreation
- 15 Outdoor recreation
- 16 Name of the city
- 17 Sister Cities
- 18 Busko-Zdrój in films
- 19 People associated with Busko-Zdrój
- 20 References
- 21 External links
The origin of Busko goes back to the 12th century, when a group of shepherds settled around St. Leonard's church. In 1185, Knight Dersław, the owner of Busko and its surroundings, brought Norbertine nuns to the land.
Knight Dersław left his property to the nuns in 1241. In 1251, it received a revenue privilege from King Bolesław V the Chaste (Bolesław Wstydliwy) allowing the convent to use the salt water. This is the first record of the use of Busko's mineral waters.
In 1287, Busko was granted civic rights by King Leszek II the Black. The advantageous location of the town on trade routes led King Władysław Jagiełło to grant local burghers the right to have a weekly market and two fairs a year beginning in 1412. The 15th and 16th centuries were considered the "heyday" of the town. It was famous for its trade and cloth production.
Spa House, designed by Enrico Marconi
The following major events occurred in the years noted:
- 1166 - Dzierżko (Dersław), knight of the Janina family, founded the first church, where the NPNMP church is today.
- 1166 – The first written mention of Busko-Zdrój is made in a papal edict and recorded in Kraków's diocese chronicle about Busko-Zdrój. The record mentions a city named "Bugsk" and the church.
- 1180–1186 – Dzierżko founded the Norbertine priory attached to the church. It is a branch of the Witowski convent, which was founded by Dzierżko's brother – bishop of Płock, Wit from Chotla.
- 1241 - The city was destroyed by the Tatars. It is believed that during the Battle of Chmielnik the knight Derslaw was lost and the city came under the ownership of the Premonstratensian order.
- 1252 - The oldest write-up on a salt spring in Busko. Bolesław V the Chaste granted the priory a treasure immunity and right to boil the salt.
- 1287 - Prince Leszek II the Black granted city rights to the colony and established Busko–Zdrój agreeably to law of Środa Śląska.
- 1347 - Jan from Busko became a secretary, and in 1360 he became deputy chancellor of the king Kazimierz Wielki.
- 1393 - December 6 Queen Jadwiga bathes in a local saline
- 1412 - King Władysław II Jagiełło gives civic rights and the privilege of weekly markets and two fairs a year in honor of Saint Floriana and Saint Prokopa. Local brine no longer exploited.
- 1537 - King Zygmunt Stary officially names Buska-Zdrój a city
- 1563 - There is a great fire in the town
- 1578 - Busko's population consists of 81 artisans, 13 distillers, 3 market stalls, 17 butcheries, a public sauna, a mill, and a fabric factory
- 1590 - The church NPNMP burns down
- 1595 - Cardinal Jerzy Radziwiłł paid for the rebuilding of the church
- 1661 - The town suffers the Great Plague (Black Death).
- 1699 - In place of the old church is the new Church of St. Leonard made of larch
- 1776 - The Commissary of the Norbertine Nunnery, Fr. Francis Belina Ossowski, begins the preparations for the re-opening of the spas in Busko
- 1780 - 8 mining shafts were operated to obtain underground brine. Famous geologist Hr. Harss
- 1783 - Under the privilege of Royal Charter, as a result of the work of Stanisław Staszic, a salt company was founded in Busko, to produce salt on a large scale fron the Busk springs.
- 1784 - King Stanisław August Poniatowski visited the city and salt-works.
- 1795 - Austrians occupied the city. Brewing of salts ceased.
- 1787 - June 12 King Stanislaw August Poniatowski visited again
- 1804 - Church NPNMP was rebuilt with a new altar
- 1809 - Busko-Zdrój was incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw.
- 1815 - Agreeable to decisions of Congress of Vienna, the city was incorporated to the Kingdom of Poland, which was annexed by Russia.
- 1819 - Seizure of the Norbertine priory. Busko, as a religious good, was transferred to the government of Poland. The government leased Busko to Feliks Rzewuski.
- 1820 - A fire burnt a large portion of the city.
- 1827 - Busko reaches a population of 647
- 1828 - Official opening of the health resort, with the first list of visitors.
- 1833 - Dr. Jakub Berends becomes the official doctor of the spa. A hot spring was built and called "Rotunda". Busko saw 1040 patients.
- 1836 - Surrendered the baths to use, later location of Sanatorium "Marconi". This date marks the beginning of Busko as a health resort.
- 1837 - Tsar Nicholas I commissioned architect Jakub Gaya to build a hospital, St. Nicholas, for the poor.
- 1852 - An epidemic of cholera descends upon the city
- 1859 - City has a population of 933.
- 1862 - Busko gains its first Jewish community
- 1869 - The city rights were lost.
- 1873 - Another epidemic of cholera visits the town
- 1875 - Henry Łubieński wins the auction to lease the spa and its facilities
- 1878 - Dr. Andrew Dobrzański leased the spa's facilities for 15 years
- 1880 - Busko reaches a population of 1585, with 193 houses, 21 of which were built from brick.
- 1894 - May 12 The spa facilities come under the ownership of the "Board of Revenue of Mineral Waters in Busko" (until 1914)
- 1915 - June The Austrian occupation authorities move the county seat from Stopnica to Busko
- 1916 - The city rights were restored.
- 1917 - January 17 The first meeting of the newly created Miejska Council consisting of 2 councilors appointed by Austrians. On the same day the Council decided to build Kosciuszko Mound.
- 1918 - December 13 Last meeting of the Council created by the Austrians. December 14 - First City Council meeting consisting of councilors elected by the people.
- 1939 - On 9 September, the battle of the 22nd Mountain Infantry Division against the German detachment at Bronina village. In this battle, 200 Polish soldiers died.
- 1939-1945 - German occupation during World War II
- 1945 - On 13 January, Busko was liberated by the Soviet forces (5th Guards Army, 1st Ukrainian Front)
- 1966 - Busko won first place at a competition for most beautiful health resort in Poland.
- 1987 - Celebration of the allocation of city rights.
- 1994 - First international music festival in honor of Krystyny Jamroz
|date of appointment||date of appeal||position||name and surname|
|1917||1918||mayor||Ludwik Jarczyński – the first mayor after getting independent|
|2002-11-19||2004-09-27||mayor||Stefan Komenda – the first direct election of mayor|
Busko is located in the south part of the Świętokrzyskie voivodeship, 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Kielce and 80 km (50 mi) from Kraków. The city is in the part of Świetokrzyskie voivodeship called Ponidzie. The name "Ponidzie" came from the river Nida.
According to information from 2002, the area of the Busko–Zdrój is 12.28 square kilometres (4.7 sq mi).
- parish: all soil – 23,588 hectares (58,287.2 acres)
- forests: 1,532 hectares (3,785.7 acres)
- waters: 207 hectares (511.5 acres)
- rivers: 16.7 hectares (41.3 acres)
Busko-Zdrój composes 4.95% of the surface area of the parish.
|Rate of occupancy
Busko's climate is low-lying and continental. This weather is typical about 39% of the days of the year. The number of 'hot and scorching' days -13%, 'very cold' – under 1.5%. The average year-round temperature is 7.8 °C (46.0 °F). The maximum temperature of the year is 60 °C (140 °F). In Busko, there are almost 1151 hours of sunshine per year. The average humidity is between 71% to 80%.
- Parish church Niepokalanego Poczęcia NMP 1592-1621, renovated in 1820.
- St .Leonard's church built in 1699 (wooden).
- zespół poklasztorny z lat 1720-1730xxxxxxxxxx
- St. Anna's chapel, built from 1884 to 1886.
- Sanatorium Marconi built in 1836.
- Dersław's castle – Construction of the castle began in 1911 by a doctor at the health resort Wasyl Wasylewicz Jakobs. A few years later, Leon Sulimierski finished building the castle. During the First World War, on May 13, 1915, after an offensive on Nida, General Stanisław Szeptycki, a commander in the Austrian army, arrived in Busko and set up residence in the castle.
- Synagoga z 1929 r., zdewastowana przed hitlerowców w czasie II wojny światowej, po wojnie zamieniona na pomieszczenia handlowe.xxxxxxxxxxxxx
- Villas : Bagatela, Sanato, Słowacki, Oblęgorek, Ormuzd, Zielona, Bristol
There are 3 Romam Catholic parishes in Busko-Zdrój
- Parish Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Mother Mary
- Church of the Immaculate Conception NMP
- Church of St. Leonard
- Parish St. Brother Albert
- Church of St. Brother Albert
- Chapel of St. Anne
- Church of St. Bishop Stanley in Chotelku
- Parish of Corpus Christi
- Church of Corpus Christi
There is also an evangelical Protestant church:
- Chapel in Busko-Zdroj
In the city there are two congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses.
- DW767 Busko – Pińczów, 5.3 km (3.3 mi) long
- DW776 Busko – Kraków, 2.7 km (1.7 mi) long
- DW973 Busko – Żabno, 14.4 km (8.9 mi) long
The Car Transport Company in Busko has maintained 132 buses. The partnership supports long distance connections with Warsaw, Kraków, Karpacz, Łódź, Lublin, Katowice, Tarnów, Częstochowa and Wrocław. There have been 23 registered cab companies in the municipality.
The nearest international airport is Kraków–Balice (100 km or 60 mi from Busko), in Katowice-Pyżowice (160 km from Busko) and in Warsaw-Okęcie (220 km or 140 mi from Busko). In Masłów, near Kielce (50 km or 31 mi from Busko) is sport's airport. In Busko is also Airport Health in 'Łowiska'.
There is a railway from Kielce, which was built in 1953 near the city, in Siesławice. Currently, Busko's train station only supports freight trains. It was closed for passenger trains in December 12, 2004. The station was sold, and a disco was built in its place.
The first document mentioning brines in Busko is the revenue privilege of Bolesław Wstydliwy from 1252. Jan Winterfeld conducted research on using health waters to treat illness in 1808. When Feliks Rzewuski leased Busko in 1820, he built the spa Amenities, which was designed by Henryk Marconi. The opening ceremony of the health spa took place in 1836. Ferdynand Werner, Warsaw's pharmacist, published a full analysis of the water from Rotunda in 1832.
The city lost its city rights in 1869. This had a negative impact on the development of the city. Aleksander Dobrzański, a doctor, became a new tenant in the 1880s. Since then, the health resort has become one of the most important health resorts in the country. Aleksander Michalski- an engineering geologist, made and launched 4 new drilled wells. Busko had three times more water for medicinal purposes. Franciszek Gervais showed exact characterisation of dynamics, physical features and chemical composition of waters from new water intake in 1897.
After the First World War, bathers began arrive at the health resorts. Very intensive expansion of the health resort occurred in the interwar years, which was started by Dr. Szymon Starkiewicz, who founded a children's sanatorium under name 'Górka'. Busko won the first place at the competition for the prettiest health resort in Poland, in 1966. 'Włókniarz' - the biggest sanatorium was handed over in 1972. On 30 December 2008, there was the opening of Uzdrowiskowy Zakład Górniczy "Las Winiarski". It gives Busko's sanatorium the waters of sulphide from a new borehole, located in the town of Las Winiarski.
In Busko, there have been 13 sanatoriums, offering a total of 2066 rooms. The yearly number of treatments approximates half a million. Treatments available in Busko-Zdrój include those for: cardiovascular disease, rheumatic diseases, orthopedic conditions, neurological conditions, dermatological disorders and children's cerebral palsy. The health resort is located in the southern part of the city, near the spa's park.
In 2013 there was also opened Słoneczny Zdrój Hotel Medical Spa&Wellness (****).
In Busko-Zdrój the following diseases are treated:
- orthopedic (children and adults)
- Cerebral Palsy
Sanatoriums and Spas
- Spa Sanatorium "Marconi"
The building "Łazienek" is situated in the middle of the spa park. It was designed, like the Roman public buildings, by the well-known architect Henryk Marconi, and then built by a tenant of Busko, Felix Rzewuski. Completed in 1836, the building has become a landmark in time for Busko, and its projection logo Zdroj. Its main body consists of a concert hall with 170 seats.
- Sanatorium "Włókniarz"
Modern therapeutic complex which holds 480 beds over 6 acres
- Spa hospital "Krystyna" (320 beds)
- Spa Sanatorium "Rafał" (178 beds)
- Spa Sanatorium "Nida-Zdój" (190 beds)
- Sanatorium "Willa Zielona" (34 beds)
- Spa Sanatorium "Mikołaj" (85 beds)
- Spa Sanatorium "Mikołaj" (85 beds)
- Sanatorium "Oblęgorek" (50 beds)
- Sanatorium FWP "Przystań"
- Sanatorium "Stefan" (60 beds)
- Spa Sanatorium "Astoria" (58 beds)
- Sick Children's Rehabilitation Hospital "Górka" (164 beds)
- 21 Military Spa and Rehabilitation Hospital
- Słoneczny Zdrój Hotel Medical Spa & Wellness (****) - hotel and spa (120 rooms), opened in 2013
- Hotel and Spa Pod Świerkiem (50 beds)
- Hotel Gromada
Sanato (***) – built in 1929 by the marriage of Irena and Dr. Eugeniusz Budzyński, a doctor of spa in Busko. This hotel was the most modern building among spa buildings in the town. The building was requisitioned by UB in 1950; until the end of 1990 it was used as sanatorium UB-MSW . The heir of the building requested for reimbursement in 1990. In 17 November 1996, it was restored and recovered guest house had first guests.
Dersław's Castle (***) – a guest house with a restaurant on the main street of the city- ul. Mickiewicza.
Since 1960 it has produced mineral water under the name 'Buskowianka' .
Spa's park was established in 19th century by gardener Ignacy Hanusz. The park was designed by Henryk Marconi. It is divided into three parts:
- Fenced amenity's garden, with Marconi Sanatorium and fonntana in the center.
- Mickiewicz's alley, a promenade with two rows of tree (mainly chestnut tree)
- Victory's Squerna, with fonntana in the centrum of Busko-Zdrój.
Mickiewicz's alley connects amenity's garden with market. It is representative alley of Busko-Zdrój, where one can find City Office, Starostwo Powiatowe, Police, Green Galery, three secondary schools, and one primary school.
Bandshell is located near the 'Marconi' sanatorium. The alley in front of the front door of sanatorium is called Star's promenade (just like Hollywood Walk of Fame). On this promenade we can find 'suns', which belong to the people who are associated with festival and classical music, such as: Krystyna Jamroz, Krzysztof Penderecki, Wiesław Ochman (2008) and Bogusław Kaczyński (2008).
Among the big number of trees (4500 species), almost 12% are over 100 year old. The most popular species of the park are: clone, ash, sycamore maple, common hornbeam, Robinia pseudoacacia, linden, chestnut, elm. We can find also birch, European larch, bird cherry, Gymnocladus canadensis, London plane, yellow chestnut, Catalpa bignonioides.
- Zespół Opieki Zdrowotnej in Busko-Zdrój, ZOZ- Hospital District
- Independent Public Primary Healthcare Team, SPZPOZ in Busko-Zdrój
- Center of Medical Rescue and Sanitary Transportation in Kielce
- Ambulance Service in Busko-Zdrój
- Hospice under name Blessed Mother Teresa in Busko-Zdrój
- Primary School nr 1 under name Stanisław Staszic
- Primary School nr 2 under name Janusz Korczak (till 25.06.2009, school was under name Hanka Sawicka )
- Primary School nr 3 under name Aleksander Krzyżanowski 'Wilk'
- First non-public elementary school
- Secondary School under name Tadeusz Kościuszko, Mickiewicza 13 street
- Complex Technical School and Secondary under name Kazimierz Wielki
- High School nr 1, named Mikołaj Kopernik
- School of Technology and Computer Science
- Vocational Training Centre ZDZ
- Vocational College in ZDZ
- Medical College
- Specjalny Ośrodek Szkolno Wychowawczy dla Niepełnosprawnych Ruchowo
- GÓRKA Special Primary School
Three teams of young people thrive in the House of Culture, and take care of lots of activities: vocal music groups, The Brass Band, Instrumental Quartet, Recitation Group, Photo Club, Children's Club, a Club of amateur artists. This building also houses the 'Zdrój' cinema.
The 'Zielona' gallery, established in 1990, is located near Mickiewicza street. On display in the gallery are many different types of works by Polish and foreign artists, such as paintings, carvings, and photography.
Permanent cultural events
- Busko's meeting with folklore (in May)
- Florian's Fair (in May)
- Nationwide review of songs name of Wojtek Belon Szukam, szukania mi trzeba (in May/June)
- International Music Festival name of Krystyna Jamroz (in June/July)
- Summer with Chopin (in July)
- Provincial review of a poem and song of Legions, a Soldiers Song and a Guerrilla Song (in November)
- The review of Art 'Ponidzie' (in November)
Local radio in Busko-Zdrój thrives under name Twoje Radio Busko on the 1584 kHz AM frequency (medium wave). Moreover, internet radio 'Radio Ponidzie' cooperates with Busko. Busko has also a local newspaper called Tygodnik Ponidzia, which shows information about Busko county and others adjacent counties.
Sport and recreation
The First Class Football Club MKS Zdrój, which has a stadium for over 1,143 seats, is tread for athletic and football field events. Near the football field is a sports hall, which organizes international sports competitions in team handball, volleyball, basketball, for an audience of 500 people.
Each spring in Busko-Zdrój, there is an organized cycling competition named of Andrzej Imosa. The residents of Busko can use many others sports fields located by education institution. The tennis court is located by spa's park, Włókniarz sanatorium and ZSTiO. In the winter the children will toboggan from small hill in Mickiewicza street, so called by the residents Byczok.
In the city there are four indoor swimming pools:
- Municipal pool name of Stefan Komenda in the center of the town, opened in 2001, with 65 metres of height pool water slide.
- Two swimming pools in the sanatoriums : 'Włókniarz' and 'Krystyna'.
- A swimming pool in the Górka Hospital.
Until recently, Busko had an outdoor swimming pool in the spa's park.
Two km south from Busko is a lake, located in Radzanów village; its area is 23 hectare. In summer time there is bathing. The area of the bath is 11 hectare. Near from the lake, only 3 km is a private hippotherapy center in Wolica.
There are 3 hiking trails:
- red - from Busko to Solec-Zdrój (27 km)
- green - from Busko to Wiślica (90 km)
- blue - from Pińczów to Wiślica (39 km)
Name of the city
The name of the city written with the hyphen is a correct form (Busko-Zdrój) and the name written without hyphen is the colloquial form. Until recently the unhyphenated form, "Busko Zdrój", was given in the dictionary as a correct form. The discrepancy was resolved in 2004 by Polish Language Council, which decided that all two part city names with the second part 'Zdrój' would be hyphenated.
- Steinheim (Germany)
- Szigetszentmiklós (Hungary)
- Specchia (Italy)
- Chmielnik (Ukraine)
Busko-Zdrój in films
The Sanatorium 'Marconi", "21 WSzUR", "Nida", spa park and a few other places in Busko-Zdrój served as a movie set in the 51st episode of "Father Matthew".
People associated with Busko-Zdrój
- Dzierżko (Dersław) – knight, in 2 half in the 12th century, co-owner of Busko, a founder of the Church and the Norbertine Monastery
- Jan from Busko, in 1360-1368 a secretary of king, a representative of polish king Kazimierz Wielki in the papal court Avignon.
- Wojciech Bellon – the singer and the poet
- Eugeniusz Budzyński – mjr dr med., killed in Katyń,a doctor of spa in Busko-Zdrój, a founder and owner of 'Sanato' Hotel
- Michał Byszewski – a director of Państwowy Zakład Zdrojowy (nowadays - "Uzdrowiska Busko-Zdrój S.A.")
- Aleksander Dobrzański - a ophthalmology, a tenant of Busko-Zdrój
- Grzegorz Gzyl – an actor
- Andrzej Imosa – well known Polish cyclist
- Krystyna Jamroz - opera singer
- Adam Jarubas - Marshal of the świętokrzyski Sejm from 2006
- Czesław Król - a sculptor, a baker, prototype of character 'Ballada o Cześku Piekarzu" by Wojtek Belon.
- Grażyna Kulawik – ps. Zajączek, a singer of Wolna Grupa Bukowina
- Liroy – Piotr Marzec, polish rapper, an actor and a composer
- Ireneusz Mazur – volleyball coucher
- Aleksander Michalski – a geologist, he discovered and explored a new water intake
- Konstanty Miodowicz – a politician, member of parliament
- Bożentyna Pałka-Koruba – The świętokrzyski Voivod from 29 November 2007
- Feliks Rączkowski – a professor, Polish composer and an organist
- Tadeusz Papier – a novelist and journalist
- Adam Tański – Former minister agriculture and rural development
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Busko-Zdrój.|