Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

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Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is a condition that describes premalignant histological findings in the vagina characterized by dysplastic changes.[1]

The disorder is rare and generally has no symptoms.[2] VAIN can be detected by the presence of abnormal cells in a Papanicolaou test (Pap smear).[2]

Like cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, VAIN comes in three stages, VAIN 1, 2, and 3.[3] In VAIN 1, a third of the thickness of the cells in the vaginal skin are abnormal, while in VAIN 3, the full thickness is affected.[3] VAIN 3 is also known as carcinoma in-situ, or stage 0 vaginal cancer.[3]

Infection with certain types of the human papillomavirus ("high-risk types") may be associated with up to 80% of cases of VAIN.[4] Vaccinating girls with HPV vaccine before initial sexual contact has been shown to reduce incidence of VAIN.[5]


  1. ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1192. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
  2. ^ a b Diakomanolis, E; Stefanidis, K; Rodolakis, A; Haidopoulos, D; Sindos, M; Chatzipappas, I; Michalas, S (2002). "Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases". European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 23 (5): 457–9. PMID 12440826.
  3. ^ a b c Cancer Research UK (2002). The stages of cancer of the vagina Archived 2007-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  4. ^ Cancer Research UK (2002). Risks and causes of vaginal cancer Archived 2007-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
  5. ^ "FDA Approves Expanded Uses for Gardasil to Include Preventing Certain Vulvar and Vaginal Cancers". 2008-09-12. Retrieved 2010-02-13.

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