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PDB 1of2 EBI.jpg
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesVIPR1, HVR1, II, PACAP-R-2, PACAP-R2, RDC1, V1RG, VAPC1, VIP-R-1, VIPR, VIRG, VPAC1, VPAC1R, VPCAP1R, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1
External IDsMGI: 109272 HomoloGene: 3399 GeneCards: VIPR1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 3 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 3 (human)[1]
Chromosome 3 (human)
Genomic location for VIPR1
Genomic location for VIPR1
Band3p22.1Start42,489,299 bp[1]
End42,537,573 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE VIPR1 205019 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 3: 42.49 – 42.54 MbChr 9: 121.64 – 121.67 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 also known as VPAC1, is a protein, that in humans is encoded by the VIPR1 gene.[5] VPAC1 is expressed in the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala), lung, prostate, peripheral blood leukocytes, liver, small intestine, heart, spleen, placenta, kidney, thymus and testis.[6][7][8]


VPAC1 is a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase.[5]

VIP acts in an autocrine fashion via VPAC11 to inhibit megakaryocyte proliferation and induce proplatelet formation.[9][10]

Clinical significance[edit]

Patients with idiopathic achalasia show a significant difference in the distribution of SNPs affecting VIPR1.[11]

VIP and PACAP levels were decreased in anterior vaginal wall of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse patients, they may participate in the pathophysiology of these diseases.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000114812 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000032528 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: VIPR1 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1".
  6. ^ Ishihara T, Shigemoto R, Mori K, Takahashi K, Nagata S (Apr 1992). "Functional expression and tissue distribution of a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide". Neuron. 8 (4): 811–9. doi:10.1016/0896-6273(92)90101-I. PMID 1314625.
  7. ^ Usdin TB, Bonner TI, Mezey E (Dec 1994). "Two receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide with similar specificity and complementary distributions". Endocrinology. 135 (6): 2662–80. doi:10.1210/en.135.6.2662. PMID 7988457.
  8. ^ Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ (Mar 1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (7): 2939–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.7.2939. PMC 42334. PMID 7708752.
  9. ^ Nam C, Case AJ, Hostager BS, O'Dorisio MS (Feb 2009). "The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in megakaryocyte proliferation". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 37 (2): 160–7. doi:10.1007/s12031-008-9119-x. PMID 18663606.
  10. ^ Freson K, Peeters K, De Vos R, Wittevrongel C, Thys C, Hoylaerts MF, Vermylen J, Van Geet C (Feb 2008). "PACAP and its receptor VPAC1 regulate megakaryocyte maturation: therapeutic implications". Blood. 111 (4): 1885–93. doi:10.1182/blood-2007-06-098558. PMID 18000164.
  11. ^ Paladini F, Cocco E, Cascino I, Belfiore F, Badiali D, Piretta L, Alghisi F, Anzini F, Fiorillo MT, Corazziari E, Sorrentino R (Jun 2009). "Age-dependent association of idiopathic achalasia with vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 gene". Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 21 (6): 597–602. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01284.x. PMID 19309439.
  12. ^ Hong X, Huang L, Song Y (Aug 2008). "Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the vaginal wall of women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse". International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. 19 (8): 1151–7. doi:10.1007/s00192-008-0585-z. PMID 18351280.

Further reading[edit]

  • "[Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]" [Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 222 (4): 997–1000. Jun 1975. PMID 807467.
  • Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ (Mar 1995). "Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (7): 2939–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.7.2939. PMC 42334. PMID 7708752.
  • Couvineau A, Gaudin P, Maoret JJ, Rouyer-Fessard C, Nicole P, Laburthe M (Jan 1995). "Highly conserved aspartate 68, tryptophane 73 and glycine 109 in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the human VIP receptor are essential for its ability to bind VIP". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 206 (1): 246–52. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1034. PMID 7818527.
  • Gagnon AW, Aiyar N, Elshourbagy NA (Mar 1994). "Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a human liver vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor". Cellular Signalling. 6 (3): 321–33. doi:10.1016/0898-6568(94)90037-X. PMID 7917790.
  • Sreedharan SP, Patel DR, Xia M, Ichikawa S, Goetzl EJ (Aug 1994). "Human vasoactive intestinal peptide1 receptors expressed by stable transfectants couple to two distinct signaling pathways". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 203 (1): 141–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2160. PMID 8074647.
  • Couvineau A, Rouyer-Fessard C, Darmoul D, Maoret JJ, Carrero I, Ogier-Denis E, Laburthe M (Apr 1994). "Human intestinal VIP receptor: cloning and functional expression of two cDNA encoding proteins with different N-terminal domains". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 200 (2): 769–76. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1517. PMID 8179610.
  • Moody TW, Zia F, Draoui M, Brenneman DE, Fridkin M, Davidson A, Gozes I (May 1993). "A vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 90 (10): 4345–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.10.4345. PMC 46507. PMID 8389448.
  • Sreedharan SP, Patel DR, Huang JX, Goetzl EJ (Jun 1993). "Cloning and functional expression of a human neuroendocrine vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 193 (2): 546–53. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1658. PMID 8390245.
  • Couvineau A, Fabre C, Gaudin P, Maoret JJ, Laburthe M (Feb 1996). "Mutagenesis of N-glycosylation sites in the human vasoactive intestinal peptide 1 receptor. Evidence that asparagine 58 or 69 is crucial for correct delivery of the receptor to plasma membrane". Biochemistry. 35 (6): 1745–52. doi:10.1021/bi952022h. PMID 8639654.
  • Pozo D, Guerrero JM, Segura JJ, Calvo JR (Sep 1996). "Thymosin alpha 1 interacts with the VIP receptor-effector system in rat and mouse immunocompetent cells". Immunopharmacology. 34 (2–3): 113–23. doi:10.1016/0162-3109(96)00131-2. PMID 8886855.
  • Couvineau A, Maoret JJ, Rouyer-Fessard C, Carrero I, Laburthe M (Dec 1998). "Cloning and functional characterization of the human VIP1/PACAP receptor promoter". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 865: 59–63. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb11163.x. PMID 9927997.
  • Knudsen SM, Tams JW, Wulff BS, Fahrenkrug J (Dec 1998). "Importance of conserved cysteines in the extracellular loops of human PACAP/VIP1 receptor for ligand binding and stimulation of cAMP production". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 865: 259–65. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb11186.x. PMID 9928020.
  • Marie J, Wakkach A, Coudray A, Chastre E, Berrih-Aknin S, Gespach C (Feb 1999). "Functional expression of receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the human thymus and thymomas from myasthenia gravis patients". Journal of Immunology. 162 (4): 2103–12. PMID 9973484.
  • Mimuro H, Suzuki T, Suetsugu S, Miki H, Takenawa T, Sasakawa C (Sep 2000). "Profilin is required for sustaining efficient intra- and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (37): 28893–901. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003882200. PMID 10867004.
  • Nicole P, Maoret JJ, Couvineau A, Momany FA, Laburthe M (Sep 2000). "Tryptophan 67 in the human VPAC(1) receptor: crucial role for VIP binding". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 276 (2): 654–9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3375. PMID 11027527.
  • Bajo AM, Juarranz MG, Valenzuela P, Martínez P, Prieto JC, Guijarro LG (Sep 2000). "Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in human uterus". Peptides. 21 (9): 1383–8. doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(00)00282-5. PMID 11072126.
  • Lara-Marquez M, O'Dorisio M, O'Dorisio T, Shah M, Karacay B (Feb 2001). "Selective gene expression and activation-dependent regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 1 and type 2 in human T cells". Journal of Immunology. 166 (4): 2522–30. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.166.4.2522. PMID 11160313.
  • Martin Shreeve S (Feb 2002). "Identification of G-proteins coupling to the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VPAC(1) using immunoaffinity chromatography: evidence for precoupling". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 290 (4): 1300–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6342. PMID 11812005.
  • Dorsam G, Goetzl EJ (Apr 2002). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VPAC-1) is a novel gene target of the hemolymphopoietic transcription factor Ikaros". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (16): 13488–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107922200. PMID 11812772.
  • Branch DR, Valenta LJ, Yousefi S, Sakac D, Singla R, Bali M, Sahai BM, Ma XZ (Feb 2002). "VPAC1 is a cellular neuroendocrine receptor expressed on T cells that actively facilitates productive HIV-1 infection". AIDS. 16 (3): 309–19. doi:10.1097/00002030-200202150-00001. PMID 11834941.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.