Venda Defence Force

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Venda Defence Force
Flag of the Venda Defence Force.png
Flag of the Defence Force
Founded1979
DisbandedApril 1994
Service branches1st and 2nd Battalion
Air wing
HeadquartersSibasa, Venda
Leadership
Chief of DefenseBrigadier General Ramushawana
Manpower
Military age18-49
Related articles
HistoryMilitary history of South Africa
RanksMilitary ranks of Venda

The Venda Defence Force (VDF) was established in September 1982 from the 112 Battalion of the South African Defence Force and the military branch of the Venda National Force which itself had been formed when the Venda homeland became independent from South Africa in September 1979.

Venda Defence Force[edit]

Origin[edit]

The Venda National Force was established with Venda’s independence in 1979 and included defence and other services such as police and prisons. Strange enough, traffic policing was part of this national force, but by 1981 it was transferred to the Department of Justice. The Fire Brigade was however still part of the Venda National Force although there was plans to transfer this to the civilian government.

Development of the VDF[edit]

Colonel Gabriel Ramushwana was appointed the Chairman of the Council and Minister of Defence and National Intelligence was second in command as well as the Venda Security Police before being transferred to the VDF as Chief of Staff by State President Mphephu with the aim of his eventual succession as Chief of the VDF.

112 Battalion and One Venda Battalion[edit]

The VDF itself was formally separated from the National Force on the 27 September 1982 when the SADF’s 112 Battalion from Madimbo, part of the Soutpansberg Military Area, which was outside the Venda territory, was disbanded and re-established to form One Venda Battalion at Manenu. At that stage this battalion consisted of three companies and was to all purposes a light infantry battalion.

SADF 112 battalion emblem

Two Venda Battalion[edit]

Two Venda Battalion was established around 1985/86 and was initially housed in temporary quarters until 1986/1987.

Air Wing[edit]

The VDF also consisted of a small air wing consisting of light helicopters (BK117s and Allouette 3) and fixed wings (CASA C-212 and Citations).

Coup[edit]

A bloodless coup occurred on 5 April 1990, the then Colonel Ramushwana was attending a SADF Army Staff Course in Pretoria. Until that date the Chief of the VDF was a seconded SADF officer, Brigadier Steenkamp, with Ramushwana as his Chief of Staff. State President Ravele was the Commander in Chief and was advised by a Security Council.

Aftermath[edit]

After the coup, Ramushwana became Chief of the VDF as well as the Chairman of the Council of National Unity. A Security Working Committee was established to replace the Security Council. The SEWOCOM consisted of:

  • Ramushwana, now a Brigadier, as chairman,
  • the Chief of Staff of the VDF, a Colonel W. Swanepoel,
  • the Senior Staff Officer intelligence,
  • the Senior Staff Officer Operations,
  • the Police Commissioner,
  • the Director General of the Venda National Intelligence,
  • the Advocate-General and
  • two other members of the Council of National Unity.

This committee dealt with all security related issues in Venda including the quality of government, since the coup followed widespread allegations of corruption and maladmistration.

Insignia[edit]

Venda Defence Force insignia

Ranks[edit]

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Venda Venda
(Edit)
No equivalent
VDF Brigadier rank.jpg VDF Colonel slip on rank.jpg VDF Lt Colonel slip on rank.jpg VDF Major rank.jpg VDF Captain rank.jpg VDF Lieutenant rank.jpg VDF 2nd Lieutenant rank.jpg Unknown
Brigadier
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
Lieutenant
2nd Lieutenant
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Venda Venda
(Edit)
Venda Defence Force Warrant Officer Class 1.jpg VDF Warrant Officer class 2 rank.jpg Venda Defence Force Staff Sergeant.jpg India-Army-OR-6.svg No equivalent India-Army-OR-4.svg India-Army-OR-3.svg No insignia
Chief Warrant Officer
Warrant Officer
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
Private

Disbandment[edit]

With the end of the Apartheid era in 1994 in South Africa, the former defence forces of the Bantustans were incorporated into the newly formed South African National Defence Force.

Equipment[edit]

The VDF was equipped for counter-insurgency (COIN) operations. The VDF used:

  • R4/R5 assault rifles,
  • 7.62 mm Light Machine Gun,
  • 40 mm Multiple Grenade Launcher,
  • 60 mm and
  • 81 mm mortars
  • 7.62 mm Browning

Vehicles included:

  • Mambas,
  • Buffels,
  • Samil 20,
  • seven ton Isuzu trucks and
  • 4x4 vehicles

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]