Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar

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Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cinta muraria di Palmanova.jpg
The fortress at Palmanova, one of the 6 sites
Location
CriteriaCultural: (iii), (iv)
Reference1533
Inscription2017 (41st Session)
Area378.37 ha (935.0 acres)
Buffer zone1,749.62 ha (4,323.4 acres)
Coordinates45°42′12″N 9°39′49″E / 45.70333°N 9.66361°E / 45.70333; 9.66361Coordinates: 45°42′12″N 9°39′49″E / 45.70333°N 9.66361°E / 45.70333; 9.66361
Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar is located in Earth
Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar
Location of the World Heritage Site

Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar is a UNESCO World Heritage Site comprising six bastion forts built by the Republic of Venice on its mainland domains (Stato da Terra) and its Domains of the Sea (Stato da Mar).[1]

The extent of the Republic of Venice

With the increase in firearm warfare in the Renaissance came significant shifts in military strategy and fort design. One of these changes was the development of the bastion fort, or alla moderna fortifications, with a polygon-shaped fortress with bulwarks at the corners.[1] These designs originated from the Republic of Venice, but would soon spread throughout Europe and remain the standard for defence until the 19th century.[2] In 2017, six of these fortifications in Italy, Croatia, and Montenegro were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list. These six sites provide quintessential examples of this fort design, demonstrate the influence of Renaissance-era Venice, and pay testimony to a major advancement in the history of warfare.[1]

Properties[edit]

The sites that make up the World Heritage site demonstrate the breadth of the architectural styles and fortresses employed by the Venetians. Built in the 15th century, the fortified town of Kotor is the oldest site, displaying a transitional period between traditional fortress design and alla moderna design.[2] In the 16th century, the fortifications in Bergamo and the Fort of St. Nikola were built, showing the addition of a more complex and centralized system of bastions, walls, and moats.[2] The defences at Zadar, Peschiera del Garda, and Palmanova were completed in the 17th century.

Site Image Location
Fortified City of Bergamo BG MuraVenete 08.JPG ItaLombardy, Italy
45°42′12″N 9°39′49″E / 45.70333°N 9.66361°E / 45.70333; 9.66361
Fortified City of Peschiera del Garda Porta Verona1.jpg ItaVeneto, Italy
45°26′20″N 10°41′39″E / 45.43889°N 10.69417°E / 45.43889; 10.69417
City Fortress of Palmanova Cinta muraria di Palmanova.jpg ItaFriuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
45°54′22″N 13°18′35″E / 45.90611°N 13.30972°E / 45.90611; 13.30972
Defensive System of Zadar Stadt Tor Porta terraferma, Zadar 3.JPG CroZadar County, Croatia
44°6′42″N 15°13′49″E / 44.11167°N 15.23028°E / 44.11167; 15.23028
Fort of St. Nikola, Šibenik-Knin County St. Nicholas Fortress 0048.jpg CroŠibenik-Knin County, Croatia
43°43′17″N 15°51′17″E / 43.72139°N 15.85472°E / 43.72139; 15.85472
Fortified City of Kotor Mura di cattaro, 05.JPG MonKotor Municipality, Montenegro
42°25′25″N 18°46′19″E / 42.42361°N 18.77194°E / 42.42361; 18.77194

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th Centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b c International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) (27 January 2016). Advisory Body Evaluation (ICOMOS): The Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th Centuries (Italy, Croatia, Montenegro): No 1533 (Report). Retrieved 22 May 2021.

See also[edit]