Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe

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Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Beușnița (Beu) valley 42.jpg
Beușnița Waterfall in Nera Gorge-Beușnița National Park
Location(see map)
Reference1133quater
Inscription2007 (31st Session)
Extensions2011, 2017, 2021

Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe is a transnational serial nature UNESCO World Heritage Site, encompassing 94 component parts (forests of European beech, Fagus sylvatica) in 18 European countries.[1][2]

Carpathian region[edit]

The Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians include ten separate massifs located along the 185 km (115 mi) long axis from the Rakhiv mountains and Chornohora ridge in Ukraine over the Poloniny Ridge (Slovakia) to the Vihorlat Mountains in Slovakia. The Ancient Beech Forests of Germany include five locations, cover 4,391 hectares and were added in 2011.

The Carpathian site covers a total area of 77,971.6 ha (192,672 acres), out of which only 29,278.9 ha (72,350 acres) are part of the actual preserved area, while the rest is considered a "buffer zone". Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians cover areas of Zakarpattia and Prešov Regions. Over 70% of the site is located in Ukraine. The area includes two national parks, and some habitat controlled areas, mostly in Slovakia. Both national parks, along with a neighboring area in Poland, compose a separate biosphere reserve, the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve. Besides Havešová, Rožok, and Stužica (all of them located in Bukovské vrchy), there is a fourth component situated in Slovakia, named Kyjovský prales of Vihorlat. Ukrainian locations include Chornohora, Kuziy-Trybushany, Maramarosh, Stuzhytsia–Uzhok, Svydovets, and Uholka–Shyrikyi Luh. Only a few of the ten components are accessible to visitors. Stužica is the only one of three locations in Bukovské vrchy (Slovakia) with available hiking trails. In 2017, UNESCO extended the site, adding forests in Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain.[3][4]In 2021 UNESCO extended the site again adding forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, France, Italy, North Macedonia, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland.[5]

The last intact virgin forest in the temperate latitudes of Europe is to be found in the Carpathians. Trees can live to a hundred years old in these forests, providing an important habitat for organisms such as mushrooms, moss, lichen, insects, rare birds (e.g. capercaillie and black grouse) and mammals (e.g. bats, brown bear, wolf and lynx). Large parts of the forest in the Romanian part of the Carpathians have been lost due to deforestation. The pressure on timber as a resource may increase due to international demand and European companies may start large-scale felling in neighbouring Ukraine. Currently unprotected areas of virgin forest can be permanently preserved in the Ukrainian Carpathians by expanding and reinforcing conservation areas. In the Ukrainian Carpathians there are nine national parks and two biosphere reserves. There is a general ban on tree felling in coniferous forest areas above 1,100 metres. If park administrations are shown to work, management of larger, previously unprotected areas of virgin forest to preserve them on a permanent basis, may occur. There are roughly 100,000 additional hectares of forest which could be integrated into the existing conservation areas.[6]

List of component parts[edit]

Map of the distribution of Fagus sylvatica in Europe (green)

Location of Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests (component clusters) in Europe
Poloniny
Poloniny
Vihorlat
Vihorlat
Chornohora
Chornohora
Kuziy-Trybushany
Kuziy-Trybushany
Maramarosh
Maramarosh
Stuzhytsia – Uzhok
Stuzhytsia – Uzhok
Svydovets
Svydovets
Uholka – Shyrokyi Luh
Uholka – Shyrokyi Luh
Grumsin
Grumsin
Hainich
Hainich
Jasmund
Jasmund
Kellerwald
Kellerwald
Serrahn
Serrahn
Lumi i gashit
Lumi i gashit
Rrajca
Rrajca
Dürrenstein
Dürrenstein
Kalkalpen
Kalkalpen
Sonian Forest
Sonian Forest
Central Balkan
Central Balkan
Hajdučki i Rožanski Kukovi
Hajdučki i Rožanski Kukovi
Paklenica
Paklenica
Abruzzo, Lazio & Molise
Abruzzo, Lazio & Molise
Pollino
Pollino
Foresta Umbra
Foresta Umbra
Monte Cimino
Monte Cimino
Monte Raschio
Monte Raschio
Sasso Fratino
Sasso Fratino
Cheile Nerei-Beușnița
Cheile Nerei-Beușnița
Codrul Secular Șinca
Codrul Secular Șinca
Codrul Secular Slătioara
Codrul Secular Slătioara
Cozia
Cozia
Domogled - Valea Cernei-
Domogled - Valea Cernei-
Groșii Țibleșului
Groșii Țibleșului
Izvoarele Nerei
Izvoarele Nerei
Strâmbu Băiuț
Strâmbu Băiuț
Krokar
Krokar
Snežnik-Ždrocle
Snežnik-Ždrocle
Hayedos de Ayllon
Hayedos de Ayllon
Hayedos de Navarra
Hayedos de Navarra
Hayedos de Picos de Europa
Hayedos de Picos de Europa
Gorgany
Gorgany
Roztochchya
Roztochchya
Satanіvska Dacha
Satanіvska Dacha
Synevyr
Synevyr
Zacharovanyi Krai
Zacharovanyi Krai
Prašuma Janj
Prašuma Janj
Jizera Mountains
Jizera Mountains
Chapitre
Chapitre
Grand Ventron
Grand Ventron
Massane
Massane
Valle Infernale
Valle Infernale
Dlaboka Reka
Dlaboka Reka
Bieszczady
Bieszczady
Forêt de la Bettlachstock
Forêt de la Bettlachstock
Valli di Lodano, Busai & Soladino
Valli di Lodano, Busai & Soladino
Location of Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests (component clusters) in Europe

The component parts included in the site as of August 2021 are:[1][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][2]

Country Serial ID No.
or ID
Component part Component cluster Property [ha] Buffer
zone [ha]
Year
inscrib.
Centre point
coordinates
Carpathian Beech Forest Region
Ukraine 1133-001 Chornohora 2,476.80 12,925.00 2007 48°8′25″N 24°23′35″E / 48.14028°N 24.39306°E / 48.14028; 24.39306
1133-003 Kuziy-Trybushany 1,369.60 3,163.40 2007 47°56′21″N 24°8′26″E / 47.93917°N 24.14056°E / 47.93917; 24.14056
1133-004 Maramorosh 2,243.60 6,230.40 2007 47°56′12″N 24°19′35″E / 47.93667°N 24.32639°E / 47.93667; 24.32639
1133-007 Stuzhytsia-Uzhok 2,532.00 3,615.00 2007 49°4′58″N 22°35′45″E / 49.08278°N 22.59583°E / 49.08278; 22.59583[n 1]
1133-008 Svydovets 3,030.50 5,639.50 2007 48°11′21″N 24°13′37″E / 48.18917°N 24.22694°E / 48.18917; 24.22694
1133-009 Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh[n 2] 11,860.00 3,301.00 2007 48°18′22″N 23°41′46″E / 48.30611°N 23.69611°E / 48.30611; 23.69611
1133ter-055 Gorgany 753.48 4,637.59 2017 48°28′19″N 24°17′58″E / 48.47194°N 24.29944°E / 48.47194; 24.29944
1133ter-058 Darvaika Synevyr 1,588.46 312.32 2017 48°29′14″N 23°44′56″E / 48.48722°N 23.74889°E / 48.48722; 23.74889
1133ter-059 Kvasovets 561.62 333.63 2017 48°23′6″N 23°42′46″E / 48.38500°N 23.71278°E / 48.38500; 23.71278
1133ter-060 Strymba 260.65 191.14 2017 48°27′11″N 23°47′48″E / 48.45306°N 23.79667°E / 48.45306; 23.79667
1133ter-061 Vilshany 454.31 253.85 2017 48°21′20″N 23°39′36″E / 48.35556°N 23.66000°E / 48.35556; 23.66000
1133ter-062 Irshavka Zacharovanyi Krai 93.97 1,275.44 2017 48°27′9″N 23°5′23″E / 48.45250°N 23.08972°E / 48.45250; 23.08972
1133ter-063 Velykyi Dil 1,164.16 2017 48°25′21″N 23°9′42″E / 48.42250°N 23.16167°E / 48.42250; 23.16167
Slovakia 1133-002
1133quater-103
SK-POLO-01*
Havešová Poloniny 167.88 6,474.84 2007
2021*
49°0′35″N 22°20′14″E / 49.00972°N 22.33722°E / 49.00972; 22.33722
1133-005
1133quater-104
SK-POLO-02*
Rožok 74.37 1,138.89 2007
2021*
48°58′40″N 22°27′52″E / 48.97778°N 22.46444°E / 48.97778; 22.46444
1133-006
1133quater-105
SK-POLO-03*
StužicaBukovské Vrchy 1,742.47 5,694.84 2007
2021*
49°5′3″N 22°29′42″E / 49.08417°N 22.49500°E / 49.08417; 22.49500
1133-006
1133quater-106
SK-POLO-04*
Udava 455.82 814.69 2007
2021*
49°10′31″N 22°13′39″E / 49.17528°N 22.22750°E / 49.17528; 22.22750
1133-010
1133quater-108
SK-VIHO-02*
Vihorlat 1,553.06 854.08 2007
2021*
48°54′56″N 22°11′13″E / 48.91556°N 22.18694°E / 48.91556; 22.18694
Romania 1133ter-035 Cheile Nerei-Beușnița 4,292.27 5,959.87 2017 44°54′19″N 21°48′40″E / 44.90528°N 21.81111°E / 44.90528; 21.81111
1133ter-036 Sinca secular forest (Codrul secular Șinca) 338.24 445.76 2017 45°40′0″N 25°10′14″E / 45.66667°N 25.17056°E / 45.66667; 25.17056
1133ter-037 Slătioara secular forest (Codrul secular Slătioara) 609.12 429.43 2017 47°26′36″N 25°37′39″E / 47.44333°N 25.62750°E / 47.44333; 25.62750
1133ter-038 Cozia Massif Cozia 2,285.86 2,408.83 2017 45°19′54″N 24°19′32″E / 45.33167°N 24.32556°E / 45.33167; 24.32556
1133ter-039 Lotrisor 1,103.30 2017 45°17′43″N 24°15′33″E / 45.29528°N 24.25917°E / 45.29528; 24.25917
1133ter-040 Domogled-Coronini-Bedina Domogled –
Valea Cernei
5,110.63 51,461.28 2017 44°56′31″N 22°28′7″E / 44.94194°N 22.46861°E / 44.94194; 22.46861
1133ter-041 Iauna Craiovei 3,517.36 2017 45°6′31″N 22°34′41″E / 45.10861°N 22.57806°E / 45.10861; 22.57806
1133ter-042 Ciucevele Cernei 1,104.27 2017 45°14′40″N 22°49′23″E / 45.24444°N 22.82306°E / 45.24444; 22.82306
1133ter-043 Izvorul Șurii Groșii Țibleșului 210.55 563.57 2017 47°32′59″N 24°11′9″E / 47.54972°N 24.18583°E / 47.54972; 24.18583
1133ter-044 Preluci 135.82 2017 47°32′5″N 24°13′13″E / 47.53472°N 24.22028°E / 47.53472; 24.22028
1133ter-045 Izvoarele Nerei 4,677.21 2,494.83 2017 45°7′21″N 22°3′59″E / 45.12250°N 22.06639°E / 45.12250; 22.06639
1133ter-046 Strâmbu Băiuț[n 3] 598.14 713.09 2017 47°37′33″N 24°4′23″E / 47.62583°N 24.07306°E / 47.62583; 24.07306
Poland 1133quater-094
PL-BIES-01
Border Ridge and
Górna Solinka valley[n 4]
Bieszczady 1,506.05 24,330.52 2021 49°5′58″N 22°33′24″E / 49.09944°N 22.55667°E / 49.09944; 22.55667
1133quater-095
PL-BIES-02
Połonina Wetlińska and Smerek[n 5] 1,178.03 2021 49°10′51″N 22°30′12″E / 49.18083°N 22.50333°E / 49.18083; 22.50333
1133quater-096
PL-BIES-03
Terebowiec stream valley 201.00 2021 49°5′37″N 22°43′29″E / 49.09361°N 22.72472°E / 49.09361; 22.72472
1133quater-097
PL-BIES-04
Wołosatka stream valley 586.66 2021 49°4′1″N 22°44′41″E / 49.06694°N 22.74472°E / 49.06694; 22.74472
Polonic-Podoloc-Moldovan Beech Forest Region
Ukraine 1133ter-056 Roztochchya[n 6] 384.81 598.21 2017 49°57′44″N 23°38′58″E / 49.96222°N 23.64944°E / 49.96222; 23.64944
1133ter-057 Satanіvska Dacha 212.01 559.37 2017 49°10′26″N 26°14′56″E / 49.17389°N 26.24889°E / 49.17389; 26.24889
Baltic Beech Forest Region
Germany 1133bis-011 Jasmund 492.50 2,510.50 2011 54°32′53″N 13°38′43″E / 54.54806°N 13.64528°E / 54.54806; 13.64528
1133bis-012 Serrahn 268.10 2,568.00 2011 53°20′24″N 13°11′52″E / 53.34000°N 13.19778°E / 53.34000; 13.19778
1133bis-013 Grumsin 590.10 274.30 2011 52°59′11″N 13°53′44″E / 52.98639°N 13.89556°E / 52.98639; 13.89556
Subatlantic-Hercynic Beech Forest Region
Germany 1133bis-014 Hainich 1,573.40 4,085.40 2011 51°04′43″N 10°26′08″E / 51.07861°N 10.43556°E / 51.07861; 10.43556
1133bis-015 Kellerwald 1,467.10 4,271.40 2011 51°08′43″N 8°58′25″E / 51.14528°N 8.97361°E / 51.14528; 8.97361
Czech Republic 1133quater-076
CZ-JIZE-01
Jizera Mountains 444.81 2,279.40 2021 50°51′30″N 15°9′20″E / 50.85833°N 15.15556°E / 50.85833; 15.15556
France 1133quater-082
FR-GRAN-01
Grand Ventron 319.00 1,328.00 2021 47°58′20″N 6°56′23″E / 47.97222°N 6.93972°E / 47.97222; 6.93972
Switzerland 1133quater-074
CH-BETT-01
Bettlachstock Forest
(Forêt de la Bettlachstock)
195.43 1,094.16 2021 47°13′22″N 7°24′43″E / 47.22278°N 7.41194°E / 47.22278; 7.41194
Alpic Beech Forest Region
Austria 1133ter-003 Dürrenstein 1,867.45 1,545.05 2017 47°46′12″N 15°2′51″E / 47.77000°N 15.04750°E / 47.77000; 15.04750
1133ter-004 Hintergebirg Kalkalpen 2,946.20 14,197.24 2017 47°44′58″N 14°28′56″E / 47.74944°N 14.48222°E / 47.74944; 14.48222
1133ter-005 Bodinggraben 890.89 2017 47°47′14″N 14°21′12″E / 47.78722°N 14.35333°E / 47.78722; 14.35333
1133ter-006 Urlach 264.82 2017 47°48′15″N 14°14′22″E / 47.80417°N 14.23944°E / 47.80417; 14.23944
1133ter-007 Wilder Graben 1,149.75 2017 47°50′00″N 14°26′1″E / 47.83333°N 14.43361°E / 47.83333; 14.43361
Switzerland 1133quater-075
CH-LODA-01
Forest reserves of Lodano, Busai and Soladino Valleys 806.78 2,330.74 2021 46°15′49″N 8°39′11″E / 46.26361°N 8.65306°E / 46.26361; 8.65306
France 1133quater-078
FR-CHAP-01
Chapitre 371.30 41.65 2021 44°38′4″N 5°59′55″E / 44.63444°N 5.99861°E / 44.63444; 5.99861
Atlantic Beech Forest Region
Belgium 1133ter-008 Forest Reserve “Joseph Zwaenepoel” Sonian Forest
(Forêt de Soignes)
187.34 4,650.86 2017 50°45′23″N 4°25′00″E / 50.75639°N 4.41667°E / 50.75639; 4.41667
1133ter-009 Grippensdelle A 24.11 2017 50°46′54″N 4°25′36″E / 50.78167°N 4.42667°E / 50.78167; 4.42667
1133ter-010 Grippensdelle B 37.38 2017 50°47′1″N 4°25′57″E / 50.78361°N 4.43250°E / 50.78361; 4.43250
1133ter-011 Réserve forestière du Ticton A 13.98 2017 50°44′3″N 4°26′13″E / 50.73417°N 4.43694°E / 50.73417; 4.43694
1133ter-012 Réserve forestière du Ticton B 6.50 2017 50°43′37″N 4°25′51″E / 50.72694°N 4.43083°E / 50.72694; 4.43083
Moesian-Balcanic Beech Forest Region
Albania 1133ter-001 Lumi i gashit 1,261.52 8,977.48 2017 42°28′53″N 20°3′26″E / 42.48139°N 20.05722°E / 42.48139; 20.05722
1133ter-002 Rrajca 2,129.45 2,569.75 2017 41°12′11″N 20°30′2″E / 41.20306°N 20.50056°E / 41.20306; 20.50056
North Macedonia 1133quater-093
MN-DLAB-01
Dlaboka Reka 193.27 234.70 2021 41°45′47″N 20°35′16″E / 41.76306°N 20.58778°E / 41.76306; 20.58778
Bulgaria 1133ter-013 Boatin Reserve Central Balkan 1,226.88 851.22 2017 42°48′10″N 24°16′9″E / 42.80278°N 24.26917°E / 42.80278; 24.26917
1133ter-014 Tsarichina Reserve 1,485.81 1,945.99 2017 42°46′32″N 24°24′18″E / 42.77556°N 24.40500°E / 42.77556; 24.40500
1133ter-015 Kozya stena Reserve 644,43 289.82 2017 42°47′47″N 24°31′2″E / 42.79639°N 24.51722°E / 42.79639; 24.51722
1133ter-016 Steneto Reserve[n 7] 2,466.10 1,762.01 2017 42°44′43″N 24°42′26″E / 42.74528°N 24.70722°E / 42.74528; 24.70722
1133ter-017 Stara Reka Reserve[n 8] 591.20 1,480.04 2017 42°42′11″N 24°49′8″E / 42.70306°N 24.81889°E / 42.70306; 24.81889
1133ter-018 Dzhendema Reserve 1,774.12 2,576.63 2017 42°41′44″N 24°58′23″E / 42.69556°N 24.97306°E / 42.69556; 24.97306
1133ter-019 Severen Dzhendem Reserve 926.37 1,066.47 2017 42°44′44″N 24°56′5″E / 42.74556°N 24.93472°E / 42.74556; 24.93472
1133ter-020 Peeshti skali Reserve[n 9] 1,049.10 968.14 2017 42°45′54″N 25°4′29″E / 42.76500°N 25.07472°E / 42.76500; 25.07472
1133ter-021 Sokolna Reserve 824.90 780.55 2017 42°41′52″N 25°8′18″E / 42.69778°N 25.13833°E / 42.69778; 25.13833
Illyric Beech Forest Region
Croatia 1133ter-022 Forest reserves Hajdučki i Rožanski kukovi 1,289.11 9,869.25 2017 44°45′59″N 15°0′39″E / 44.76639°N 15.01083°E / 44.76639; 15.01083
1133ter-023 Suva draga-Klimenta Paklenica National Park 1,241.04 414.76 2017 44°20′26″N 15°30′1″E / 44.34056°N 15.50028°E / 44.34056; 15.50028
1133ter-024 Oglavinovac-Javornik 790,74 395.35 2017 44°23′4″N 15°26′59″E / 44.38444°N 15.44972°E / 44.38444; 15.44972
Slovenia 1133ter-047 Krokar 74.50 47.90 2017 45°32′31″N 14°46′8″E / 45.54194°N 14.76889°E / 45.54194; 14.76889
1133ter-048 Snežnik-Ždrocle 720.24 128.80 2017 45°35′5″N 14°27′19″E / 45.58472°N 14.45528°E / 45.58472; 14.45528
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
1133quater-073
BH-JANJ-01
Prašuma Janj 295.04 380.74 2021 44°8′48″N 17°16′52″E / 44.14667°N 17.28111°E / 44.14667; 17.28111
Central Mediterranean Beech Forest Region
Italy 1133ter-025 Cervara Valley (Valle Cervara) Abruzzo, Lazio & Molise 119.70 751.61 2017 41°49′56″N 13°43′43″E / 41.83222°N 13.72861°E / 41.83222; 13.72861
1133ter-026 Selva Moricento 192.70 2017 41°50′49″N 13°42′20″E / 41.84694°N 13.70556°E / 41.84694; 13.70556
1133ter-027 Coppo del Morto 104.71 415.51 2017 41°51′37″N 13°50′48″E / 41.86028°N 13.84667°E / 41.86028; 13.84667
1133ter-028 Coppo del Principe 194.49 446.62 2017 41°47′15″N 13°44′39″E / 41.78750°N 13.74417°E / 41.78750; 13.74417
1133ter-029 Fondillo Valley (Val Fondillo) 325.03 700.95 2017 41°45′15″N 13°53′9″E / 41.75417°N 13.88583°E / 41.75417; 13.88583
1133ter-030
1133quater-088
IT-POLL-01*
Cozzo Ferriero Pollino National Park 95.75 2,851.83 2017
2021*
39°54′19″N 16°6′4″E / 39.90528°N 16.10111°E / 39.90528; 16.10111
1133quater-089
IT-POLL-02
Pollinello 477.94 2021 39°53′43″N 16°11′54″E / 39.89528°N 16.19833°E / 39.89528; 16.19833
1133quater-090
IT-VALL-01
Infernale Valley (Valle Infernale) 320.79 2,191.36 2021 38°7′55″N 15°57′41″E / 38.13194°N 15.96139°E / 38.13194; 15.96139
1133ter-031
1133quater-086
IT-FUMB-01*
Falascone Umbra Forest
(Foresta Umbra)
254.30 3,486.29 2017
2021*
41°48′21″N 15°58′41″E / 41.80583°N 15.97806°E / 41.80583; 15.97806
1133quater-087
IT-FUMB-02
Pavari-Sfilzi 667.13 2021 41°50′20″N 16°1′25″E / 41.83889°N 16.02361°E / 41.83889; 16.02361
1133ter-032 Monte Cimino 57.54 87.96 2017 42°24′31″N 12°12′11″E / 42.40861°N 12.20306°E / 42.40861; 12.20306
1133ter-033 Monte Raschio 73.73 54.75 2017 42°10′25″N 12°9′40″E / 42.17361°N 12.16111°E / 42.17361; 12.16111
1133ter-034 Sasso Fratino 781.43 6,936.64 2017 43°50′40″N 11°48′11″E / 43.84444°N 11.80306°E / 43.84444; 11.80306
Pyrenaic-Iberian Beech Forest Region
Spain 1133ter-049 Tejera Negra Beech forests of Ayllón
(Hayedos de Ayllón)
255.52 13,880.86 2017 41°14′43″N 3°23′19″W / 41.24528°N 3.38861°W / 41.24528; -3.38861[n 10]
1133ter-050 Montejo 71.79 2017 41°6′44″N 3°29′58″W / 41.11222°N 3.49944°W / 41.11222; -3.49944
1133ter-051 Lizardoia Beech forests of Navarra
(Hayedos de Navarra)
63.97 24,494.52 2017 43°0′23″N 1°6′46″W / 43.00639°N 1.11278°W / 43.00639; -1.11278
1133ter-052 Aztaparreta 171.06 2017 42°54′39″N 0°48′58″W / 42.91083°N 0.81611°W / 42.91083; -0.81611
1133ter-053 Cuesta Fria Beech forests of
Picos de Europa

(Hayedos de Picos de Europa)
213.65 14,253.00 2017 43°10′21″N 4°59′16″W / 43.17250°N 4.98778°W / 43.17250; -4.98778
1133ter-054 Canal de Asotin 109.58 2017 43°10′16″N 4°53′21″W / 43.17111°N 4.88917°W / 43.17111; -4.88917
France 1133quater-083
FR-MASS-01
Massane 239.50 1,432.30 2021 42°28′58″N 3°1′45″E / 42.48278°N 3.02917°E / 42.48278; 3.02917

* Only boundary modification.

Udava (Bukovské Vrchy, Slovakia) was created by modifying the boundary of Stužica before. Falascone (Italy) in turn was named previously Umbra Forest (Foresta Umbra).[13][14][2]

This is a transnational serial nature UNESCO World Heritage Site, encompassing 94 component parts (forests) in 18 European countries.[1][2] The total area of component parts is 98,125.15 ha (242,472.5 acres), including buffer zones 392,846.02 ha (970,743.7 acres). The largest total area of component parts is in Ukraine and Romania – 54% total (41% including buffer zones).

Forms of protection[edit]

Component parts of this property overlap more or less with various protected areas like national parks, nature reserves, Natura 2000 network.[15][16][17][11][13][18][19]
Abbreviations:
C – count of component parts in a given cluster
N – overlapping with Natura 2000 areas

Country Component cluster C Protected area N Region
Albania Lumi i Gashit 1 Strict nature reserve of Gashi River Kukës
Rrajca 1 Shebenik – Jabllanicë National Park Elbasan
Austria Dürrenstein 1 Wilderness Area Dürrenstein Yes Lower Austria
Kalkalpen 4 Kalkalpen National Park Yes Upper Austria
Belgium Sonian Forest
(Forêt de Soignes)
5 3 strict forest reserves within Sonian Forest Protected Landscape – “Joseph Zwaenepoel”, Grippensdelle and Ticton Yes Flanders, Brussels Capital Region, Wallonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina Prašuma Janj 1 Prašuma Janj strict nature reserve Bosanska Krajina
Bulgaria Central Balkan 9 9 strict reserves in the Central Balkan National ParkBoatin, Dzhendema, Kozya stena, Peeshti skali[n 9], Severen Dzhendem, Sokolna, Stara reka, Steneto and Tsarichina Yes Lovech, Plovdiv, Stara Zagora, Gabrovo (central Balkan Mountains)
Croatia Hajdučki i Rožanski kukovi 1 Hajdučki and Rožanski Kukovi strict reserve within Northern Velebit National Park Yes Lika-Senj
Paklenica National Park 2 Paklenica National Park Yes Lika-Senj, Zadar
(Dinaric region, or Dinaric Alps)
Czech Republic Jizera Mountains 1 Jizerské hory National Nature Reserve Yes Liberec
France Chapitre 1 Chapitre-Petit-Buëch biological strict reserve Yes Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Grand Ventron 1 Massif du Grand Ventron National Nature Reserve Yes Grand Est
Massane 1 Massane National Nature Reserve Yes Occitanie
Germany Grumsin 1 Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve Yes Brandenburg
Hainich 1 Hainich National Park Yes Thuringia
Jasmund 1 Jasmund National Park Yes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Kellerwald 1 Kellerwald-Edersee National Park Yes Hesse
Serrahn 1 Müritz National Park Yes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Italy Abruzzo, Lazio & Molise 5 Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park Yes Abruzzo
Umbra Forest (Foresta Umbra) 2 Strict reserves within Gargano National ParkSfilzi, Falascone and Foresta Umbra Yes Apulia
Monte Cimino 1 Regional Natural Monument and municipal strict reserve Yes Lazio
Monte Raschio 1 Regional Natural Park Bracciano-Martignano Yes Lazio
Pollino National Park 2 Cozzo Ferriero and Pollinello strict reserves within Pollino National Park Yes Calabria, Basilicata
Sasso Fratino 1 Sasso Fratino strict reserve in Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna National Park Yes Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany
Infernale Valley (Valle Infernale) 1 Valle Infernale strict reserve within Aspromonte National Park Yes South Calabria
North Macedonia Dlaboka Reka 1 Forest reserves within Mavrovo National Park Mavrovo and Rostuša and Gostivar
Poland Bieszczady 4 Bieszczady National Park, East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Yes Podkarpackie Voivodeship
Romania Cheile Nerei-Beușnița 1 Strictly protected zone of the Cheile Nerei-Beușnița National Park Yes Caraș-Severin
Sinca secular forest
(Codrul secular Șinca)
1 Strictly protected through the forest management plan Yes Brașov
Slătioara secular forest
(Codrul secular Slătioara)
1 Part of Codrul Secular Slătioara forest reserve, Secular Meadows Todirescu floristic reserve Yes Suceava
Cozia 2 Cozia National Park Yes Vâlcea
Domogled – Valea Cernei 3 Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park Yes Mehedinți, Caraș-Severin, Gorj
Groșii Țibleșului 2 Strictly protected through the forest management plan Yes Maramureș
Izvoarele Nerei 1 Izvoarele Nerei strict reserve within Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park Yes Caraș-Severin
Strâmbu Băiuț[n 3] 1 Strictly protected through the forest management plan Yes Maramureș
Slovakia Poloniny 4 National nature reserves Stužica, Jarabá skala, Pľaša and Borsukov vrch (Stužica – Bukovské Vrchy), Rožok, Havešová, nature reserve Udava within Poloniny National Park, East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Yes Prešov
Vihorlat 1 Vihorlat national nature reserve within Vihorlat Protected Landscape Area Yes Prešov
Slovenia Krokar 1 Forest reserve Virgin forest Krokar Yes Kočevje
Snežnik–Ždrocle 1 Snežnik–Ždrocle forest reserve Yes Inner Carniola
Spain Beech forests of Ayllón
(Hayedos de Ayllón)
2 Tejera Negra: Sierra Norte de Guadalajara Natural Park, Montejo: Sierra del Rincón Biosphere Reserve Yes Castilla-La Mancha
Beech forests of Navarra
(Hayedos de Navarra)
2 Integral (strict) reserves of Lizardoia and Aztaparreta Yes Navarre
Beech forests of
Picos de Europa

(Hayedos de Picos de Europa)
2 Picos de Europa National Park, Biosphere Reserve Yes Castile and León
Switzerland Bettlachstock Forest
(Forêt de la Bettlachstock)
1 Forest reserve BettlachstockHasenmatt Canton of Solothurn
Forest reserves of Lodano, Busai and Soladino Valleys 1 Lodano Valley forest reserve, Busai and Soladino Valleys forest reserve Canton of Ticino
Ukraine Chornohora 1 Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia
Kuziy – Trybushany 1 Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia
Maramarosh 1 Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia
Stuzhytsia – Uzhok 1 Uzhanian National Nature Park Zakarpattia
Svydovets 1 Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia
Uholka – Shyrokyi Luh[n 2] 1 Carpathian Biosphere Reserve Zakarpattia
Synevyr 4 Synevyr National Nature Park Zakarpattia
Zacharovanyi Krai 2 Zacharovany Krai National Nature Park Zakarpattia
Gorgany 1 Gorgany Nature Reserve Ivano-Frankivsk
Roztochchya[n 6] 1 Roztochchya Nature Reserve, Roztochia Biosphere Reserve Lviv
Satanіvska Dacha 1 Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park Khmelnytskyi

Tentative list[edit]

This forest is placed on the World Heritage Tentative list as a proposal for the expansion of the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe site:

Montenegro[20]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Geographic coordinates corrected from "N49 4 14 E22 3 1" to N49°4’58’’ E22°35’45’’
  2. ^ a b "Uholka-Shyrikyi Luh" corrected to "Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh".
  3. ^ a b "Strimbu Băiuț" changed to "Strâmbu Băiuț".
  4. ^ "Gorna Solinka" corrected to "Górna Solinka".
  5. ^ "Polonina Wetlinska" corrected to "Połonina Wetlińska".
  6. ^ a b "Roztochya" corrected to "Roztochchya".
  7. ^ "Stara reka Reserve[10][12]" corrected to "Steneto Reserve[7][10]".
  8. ^ "Severen Dzhendem Reserve[10][12]" corrected to "Stara Reka Reserve[7][10]".
  9. ^ a b "Peesh skali" corrected to "Peeshti skali".
  10. ^ Latitude corrected from "N41 143" to N41°14’43’’

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe". UNESCO. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION; CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE; WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE (31 July 2021). "WHC/21/44.COM/18; Decisions adopted during the extended 44th session of the World Heritage Committee (Fuzhou (China) / Online meeting, 2021); 8B. NOMINATIONS TO THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST; Decision: 44 COM 8B.32" (PDF). World Heritage. Vol. 44 COM, Extended forty-fourth session, Fuzhou (China) / Online meeting, 16 - 31July 2021. Paris: UNESCO. pp. 368–372. Retrieved 3 December 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe". UNESCO.
  4. ^ "Unesco approves the extension of the Carpathian Primary Beech forests".
  5. ^ "Decisions adopted during the extended 44th session of the World Heritage Committee" (PDF). 31 July 2021.
  6. ^ "Protecting virgin forest in the Ukrainian Carpathians". 21 June 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Jovanović, Ivana; Dragišić, Aleksandar; Ostojić, Dragana; Krsteski, Biljana (2019). "BEECH FORESTS AS WORLD HERITAGE IN ASPECT TO THE NEXT EXTENSION OF THE ANCIENT AND PRIMEVAL BEECH FORESTS OF THE CARPATHIANS AND OTHER REGIONS OF EUROPE WORLD HERITAGE SITE". Nature Conservation. 69 (1–2): 15–32. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  8. ^ UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION; CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE; WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE (11 May 2007). "WHC-07/31.COM/8B; Item 8B of the Provisional Agenda: Nominations to the World Heritage List" (PDF). World Heritage. Vol. 31.COM: Thirty first Session, Christchurch, New Zealand, 23 June – 2 July 2007. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved 7 August 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION; CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE; WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE (6 May 2011). "WHC-11/35.COM/8B; 8B. Nominations to the World Heritage List" (PDF). World Heritage. Vol. 35.COM: Thirty-fifth session, Paris, UNESCO Headquarters, 19 – 29 June 2011. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved 7 August 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b c d e UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION; CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE (19 May 2017). "WHC/17/41.COM/8B; 8B. Nominations to the World Heritage List" (PDF). World Heritage. Vol. 41.COM: Forty first session, Krakow, Poland, 2 12 July 2017. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved 7 August 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ a b "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe" as extension to the existing Natural World Heritage Site "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany" (1133bis). NOMINATION DOSSIER to the UNESCO for the Inscription on the World Heritage List. IUCN. January 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  12. ^ a b c UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION; CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE; WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE (4 June 2021). "WHC/21/44.COM/8B; 8B. Nominations to the World Heritage List". World Heritage. Vol. 31.COM: Extended forty-fourth session, Fuzhou (China) / Online meeting, 16 – 31 July 2021. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved 7 August 2021.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ a b c 'Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe' as extension to the existing Natural World Heritage Site 'Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe' (1133ter). Nomination Dossier to the UNESCO for the Inscription on the World Heritage List. IUCN. January 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  14. ^ a b "ANCIENT AND PRIMEVAL BEECH FORESTS OF THE CARPATHIANS AND OTHER REGIONS OF EUROPE; BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, CZECHIA, FRANCE, ITALY, MONTENEGRO, NORTH MACEDONIA, POLAND, SERBIA, SLOVAKIA, SWITZERLAND – ID N° 1133quater". IUCN World Heritage Evaluations 2021 (WHC/21/44.COM/INF.8B2.ADD); ADDENDUM: IUCN Evaluations of nominations of natural and mixed properties to the World Heritage List; IUCN REPORT FOR THE WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE, extended 44th Session, 16-31 JULY 2021, Fu zhou (CHina) / online. IUCN. May 2021. pp. 5–26. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  15. ^ BEECH PRIMEVAL FORESTS OF THE CARPATHIANS. Nomination dossier 2007 to the UNESCO for the Inscription on the World Heritage List; Nomination of the "Ancient Beech Forests of Germany" as Extension to the World Natural Heritage "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians" (1133). Nomination Dossier 2011 to the UNESCO for the Inscription on the World Heritage List (PDF). IUCN. 2011 [2007]. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  16. ^ WORLD HERITAGE NOMINATION – IUCN TECHNICAL EVALUATION PRIMEVAL BEECH FORESTS OF THE CARPATHIANS (SLOVAKIA AND UKRAINE) – ID No. 1133. IUCN. May 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  17. ^ WORLD HERITAGE NOMINATION – IUCN TECHNICAL EVALUATION ANCIENT BEECH FORESTS OF GERMANY (GERMANY) – ID No. 1133 bis (Extension of Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians, Slovakia and Ukraine). IUCN. May 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  18. ^ "Sonianforest". Foundation Sonian Forest. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Natura 2000 Network Viewer". European Environment Agency. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  20. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Montenegro)". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 July 2018.

External links[edit]