Walking with Beasts
|Walking with Beasts|
The original DVD cover of Walking with Beasts
|Also known as||'Walking with Prehistoric Beasts'|
|Created by||Tim Haines
|Developed by||Andrew Wilks|
|Written by||Kate Bartlett
|Directed by||Jasper James
|Creative director(s)||Mike Milne|
|Narrated by||Kenneth Branagh (UK)
Stockard Channing (US)
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
|No. of episodes||6|
|Executive producer(s)||Tim Haines|
|Location(s)||Arizona, Brazil, Ethiopia, Florida, Java, Mexico, South Africa, Yukon|
|Running time||30 minutes|
|Production company(s)||BBC Natural History Unit
|Original network||BBC, Discovery Channel, ProSieben|
|Original release||15 November– 21 December 2001|
|Preceded by||Walking with Dinosaurs|
|Followed by||Walking with Monsters|
|Related shows||Other shows in the Walking with... series|
Walking with Beasts (Walking with Prehistoric Beasts in North American releases) is a 2001 six-part television documentary miniseries, produced by the BBC Natural History Unit. It is the second installment of the Walking With... series and a sequel to Walking with Dinosaurs. Beasts takes place after the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago depicted in Walking with Dinosaurs, and recreates animals of the Cenozoic with computer-generated imagery and animatronics. Like Dinosaurs, its narrative is presented in the style of a traditional nature documentary. Some of the concepts it illustrates are the evolution of whales, horses, and humans.
In North America, Beasts was broadcast on the Discovery Channel with Stockard Channing replacing Kenneth Branagh as the narrator. It would later be re-edited and re-narrated for the second season of Prehistoric Planet for the Discovery Kids lineup.
List of episodes
|No.||Title||Time||Director||Original air date|
|1||"New Dawn"||49 mya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||15 November 2001|
The episode starts by showing how the dinosaurs were dominating the land and that mammals were small. Then it shows how a comet demolished the dinosaurs. It then shows how mammals then evolved into new forms. The first episode depicts the warm tropical world of the early Eocene which was 16 million years after the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs. Birds, including the giant carnivorous Gastornis, rule this world, while mammals are still very small. The setting is near the Messel pit in Germany. Due to volcanic activity, sudden bulk escapes of carbon dioxide trapped underneath lakes pose a significant hazard to the local wildlife. The episode centers around a Leptictidium family, a leaping, shrew-like mammal, which has emerged in the dawn hours to forage for food. As the mother Leptictidium forages, first in solidarity, and then with her pups, she wanders near a large predatory mammal, identified as an Ambulocetus, a "walking whale". Despite its crocodilian similarity, the Ambulocetus is shown swimming by caudal undulation like a modern cetacean. A female Gastornis, who has been taking care of the single egg in her nest, makes two attempts to hunt a small herd of Propalaeotherium, early horses. The first attempt fails when sounds among the vegetation betray her presence. The second attack proves successful when the Propalaeotherium consume fermenting grapes and are unable to evade her attack. The Gastornis also defends her territory from another Gastornis. Unfortunately, while the mother hunts, a horde of Titanomyrma, giant carnivorous ants, encounter the egg when it was just starting to hatch. When the female discovers her dead offspring at dusk she leaves the forest to try and start another family.
With the arrival of night, a band of lemur-like Godinotia, socialize and copulate in the dark. Ambulocetus finally manages to catch a Creodonta near the lake edge. As the night wears on, an earth tremor unleashes trapped carbon dioxide out from underneath the lake and the gas suffocates most of the surrounding life. The Leptictidium survive because the nest was upwind of the gas, and Gastornis also survived because she left that area in the forest.
It is mentioned that although the Leptictidium survived the gas, they would ultimately leave no descendants, while the Ambulocetus, who was killed by the lethal gases, would evolve into the whales, hereby setting the scene for the next episode.
Animals: Leptictidium · Gastornis · Ambulocetus · Propalaeotherium · Godinotia · Eurotamandua (unnamed) · Titanomyrma (unnamed identified as ants) · Creodonta · Crusafontia · Didelphodon · Kentisuchus (unnamed idenitifed as crocodile) · Tokay Gecko · Green Tree Frog[disambiguation needed]
|2||"Whale Killer"||36 mya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||22 November 2001|
The second episode is set in late Eocene, when the polar caps froze over and drastically changed the Earth's ocean currents and climate. The first part of the episode explains how an early whale, Basilosaurus mates and how the world is changing into an ocean famine. On land there is an Andrewsarchus driven to the beach to feed on sea turtles. The narrator explains that Andrewsarchus, the largest land mammal predator ever to walk the earth, has hooves and is related to sheep, so it is, in a sense, a "sheep in wolf's clothing". Back in the ocean, a starving mother Basilosaurus is forced to hunt in the mangrove swamps of Africa, which will later become the Sahara Desert. Unable to catch a primate called Apidium due to a shark killing one of the primates and spooking the others, she is then hunting a lone Moeritherium. The Moeritherium crawls on to land, but in the mangroves, land does not last long. However the Moeritherium escapes and the Basilosaurus returns to the sea. The cast moves on to land where a herd of Embolotherium struggle to survive: one of their calves dies after birth and two Andrewsarchus feast on it but the mother Embolotherium drives them away because she has a strong bond with her offspring, even if it is dead. Back in the sea the mother Basilosaurus preys on a group of Dorudon and is successful. The episode ends with the mother Basilosaurus swimming with her newborn calf.
|3||"Land of Giants"||25 mya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||29 November 2001|
The third episode takes place during the late Oligocene, in Mongolia, where there were seasonal rains followed by a long drought. It tells the story of a mother Paraceratherium, a massive hornless rhinoceros that was the largest land mammal to have ever lived. The episode first shows the mother Paraceratherium giving birth, and then tending to the male calf as it matures. A few minutes after giving birth, the mother defends the helpless calf from several Hyaenodon. It gives a snapshot into the future of the calf. The mother raises her calf for three years, but eventually chases him away after she mates with another male. The episode then chronicles the young Paraceratherium travels until it reaches adulthood, including encounters with the Cynodictis, and the large aggressive Entelodon.
|4||"Next of Kin"||3.2 mya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||6 December 2001|
The fourth episode takes place in the Great Rift Valley in northeastern Africa of the late Pliocene. The climate has changed, and now great grasslands have replaced trees. The episode focuses around a tribe of small hominids known as Australopithecus, one of the first apes able to walk upright and a close ancestor to humans. The Australopithecus has evolved to walk upright so as to better maneuver the plains as well as the climb the trees. However, it notes that although the Australopithecus looks human, it still only has the mind the size of a chimpanzee's. Some of the topics explored in the episode are the close social bonds among the tribe, how they use grooming as a means of communication, and how they work together to forage for food and to defend one another from attacks from such animals as an angry male Deinotherium, an ancestor of the modern elephant which they have to run from to avoid being crushed, and the feline predator Dinofelis. It touches upon how competing tribes of Australopithecus war among one another, although most of fighting is for show. It also explains the hierarchy in the tribe among the males ,who are much larger than the females, and tells a story of how the dominating male is eventually overcome by another male, who wins the right to feed first at a carrion and to mate with the females. The main story tells of a young Australopithecus nicknamed Blue whose mother has been killed by malaria. He and his tribe are later forced to flee their homeland during a fight over a waterhole with a rival tribe. After a long journey in search of a new home, Blue fits into his tribe by causing them to scare off a hungry Dinofelis.
|5||"Sabre Tooth"||1 mya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||13 December 2001|
The fifth episode shows the strange fauna of the isolated continent of South America and explores the effects of the Great American Interchange, which had happened 1.5 million years earlier. Since South America had drifted apart from Antarctica 30 million years ago, many unique mammals had evolved, including the Doedicurus, an armored armadillo-like mammal with a cannon ball-sized spiked club on its tail; the Macrauchenia, a camel-like mammal with a long trunk; and the Megatherium, a giant ground sloth. Before the continents of South America and North America collided, a 10-foot-tall predatory terror bird called Phorusrhacos, had reigned as top predator. However, the great cats migrating from the north, soon displaced them as top predators. The episode focuses on a male Smilodon, a sabre-toothed cat, called Half Tooth, whose leadership of a pride is threatened by two rival males who are brothers and work together against him. Half Tooth backs off wisely without any serious injuries, feeling that the rival males would be too strong for him. The rival males kill Half Tooth's cubs, and take over his pride. Next, the episode shows the Smilodon hunting down Macrauchenia and trying to protect the young from the two males. In the background, Phorusrhacos still hunt, but give way to the Smilodon. However, a Megatherium, who wanted to eat meat as diet supplement, charges the pride of Smilodon, in order to eat some of the carrion. In the process, the Megatherium kills the dominant rival male, enabling Half Tooth to return, kill the other male and reclaim his territory. A year later, his mate has another litter of cubs.
|6||"Mammoth Journey"||30,000 ya||Jasper James & Nigel Paterson||20 December 2001|
The sixth episode takes place during the last Ice Age of the late Pleistocene. It starts in the peak of the summer. The North Sea has become a grassy plain because the ice at the polar caps has caused the sea levels to drop significantly. Grazing on the plain are herds of woolly mammoths, saiga antelopes, and bison. A clan of Cro-Magnon is also there spending the summer. The central focus of the episode is the migration of the herd of mammoths as they travel 400 kilometers from the North Sea to the Swiss Alps for the winter and then back again in the spring. As the mammoth herd migrates south, the episode shows two large deer, the Megaloceros, fighting for rights to a harem of females. As the male elk fight, a group of Cro-Magnons ambushes them and kills one. A mother mammoth and her baby are separated from the herd, but survive an encounter with a European cave lion. When the herd of mammoths reaches the Swiss Alps, the mother and baby mammoth reunite with their herd. The episode also depicts a clan of Neanderthals, who have especially evolved to survive in the cold climate. One is charged by a woolly rhinoceros, but escapes, in part because of his stocky constitution. The climax of the episode is when the clan of Neanderthals attack the herd of mammoth as they turn back to the north. The Neanderthals are gifted hunters who are able to chase two mammoths off a cliff by using fire and spears, one of them being the matriarch of the herd. The episode ends in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History with people looking at various skeletons of some descendants of the animals featured in the series. The camera then pulls back through the roof of the museum until the whole world is visible. The narrator states that, "We have since built museums to celebrate the past, and spent decades studying prehistoric lives. And if all this has taught us anything, it is this: no species lasts forever."
Animals: Woolly Mammoth · Megaloceros · Woolly Rhinoceros · Cro-Magnon (unnamed simply identified as humans) · Panthera leo spelaea (identified as cave lion) · Neanderthal · Saiga Antelope (unnamed) · Grey Wolf (unnamed) · European Bison (unnamed)
Producer Tim Haines wanted to create a sequel to Walking with Dinosaurs so the general public could discover the fascinating mammals of the Cenozoic, which were less represented in popular culture than dinosaurs.
As with Walking with Dinosaurs, the film crews would go to locations that matched the depicted time periods fairly closely and shoot either empty landscapes (when the animals would be created later with CGI) or animatronic animals for close-ups. Sometimes it was necessary to replicate the impact the animated animals would have on their environment—such as footprints left in the snow by a woolly mammoth. The animatronics' broad movements were controlled by puppeteers, while their more subtle movements were remote-controlled and operated via servo motors.
The visual effects budget was around 7 or 8 million dollars, much lower than a feature film of the time. Tim Haines attributed this to solid planning. The fur coats and moving parts of mammals made the creatures in Beasts more challenging to animate than the scaly reptiles of Walking with Dinosaurs. Short fur was animated with tricks, and long shaggy coats (like the woolly mammoth's) with fur shaders.
Walking with Beasts was originally broadcast in the United Kingdom on the BBC1 from 12 November to 21 December 2001. In North America, it aired in December on the Discovery Channel. The UK broadcast was the first non-sports BBC interactive programme. Beasts was released on VHS on 26 November 2001. A DVD release came the next year on 12 February for North America (as Walking with Prehistoric Beasts) and 8 April in the United Kingdom. The North American release restores the original narration by Kenneth Branagh. The DVD contains several special features: two 50-minute documentaries on prehistoric life, "Triumph of the Beasts" (about Cenozoic life at large) and "The Beasts Within" (which focuses on the humans and primates in the show); interviews with Tim Haines; animated storyboards; a photo gallery; and several fact files on the animals featured in the series. This edition was bundled with The Complete Walking with... Collection which came out on 23 July 2002.
Beasts was promoted with a breakfast cereal tie-in from Kellogg's and the video game Walking with Beasts: Operation Salvage for Windows PCs. The soundtrack by Ben Bartlett was released on CD. An exhibition took place at the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum.
The first episode of Walking with Beasts attracted an audience of 8.5 million, 35 per cent of television viewers at that time.
A companion book was written by Tim Haines to accompany the first screening of the series in 2001. As with Walking with Dinosaurs, the written version of Walking With Beasts elaborated on the background for each story, went further in explaining the science on which much of the programme as based, and included descriptions of several animals not identified or featured in the series.
In the first episode, the Gastornis are depicted as carnivorous predators, which is in agreement with their perception at the time as "terror birds." However, in 2013, a scientific study found that the bird was in fact either omnivorous or a herbivore. Ambulocetus is depicted as amphibious; later studies suggest that it was fully aquatic.
Episode 2 shows Basilosaurus as a pelagic predator encumbered in shallow waters, when it was a shallow-water specialist incapable of deep-water swimming.
In the fifth episode, the Phorusrhacos are said to have lived alongside Smilodon populator and all other South American mammals, but they died out 10.5 million years before Smilodon populator even appeared. In addition, this episode states the outdated and rather unlikely idea that Phorusrhacids were outcompeted by placental carnivores. The social and hunting behaviours of Smilodon are also extremely inaccurate, due to being based on lion behaviour.
The sixth episode states that Pleistocene megafauna such as mammoths went extinct due to natural causes, but an overwhelming amount of studies indicate humans were the primary cause of extinction.
- Haines, Tim (2006). The Complete Guide to Prehistoric Life. Canada: Firefly Books. p. 176. ISBN 1-55407-125-9.
- Tim Haines (2002). Tim Haines Production Interview (DVD featurette). BBC.
- "Making Of - TV Production". bbc.co.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-12-23.
- "Making Of - Animatronics". bbc.co.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-12-21.
- Tim Haines (2002). Tim Haines Production Interview (DVD featurette). BBC.
The budget for this was between seven and eight million, but in terms of what we were trying to do, that is bargain basement. To give you some idea, when you see films like Jurassic Park ... they have effects budgets that run into many tens of millions of pounds. They have to, that's what they're selling. Seven to eight million for what is massively more effects shots and effects material is very, very cheap. But that's because we know exactly what we're doing and what we want from those effects and we're very targeted in our approach. We don't waste any effects at all.
- "Making Of - Computer Graphics". bbc.co.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-12-21.
- "The Beasts Within" (DVD featurette). BBC. 2002.
- Tim Haines (2002). Production Interviews (DVD featurette). BBC.
- "Making Of - Model Making". bbc.co.uk. 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-12-14.
- Gibson, Owen (2001-10-09). "Digital Evolution for BBC Beasts". The Guardian.
- "65 Million Years of Strategy". IGN. 2001-10-05.
- "Winner of competition for Walking with Beasts exhibition at Coventry's The Herbert". Coventry Telegraph. 2001-10-23.
- Mills, Dominic (2001-11-27). "Munching with Beasts". The Telegraph.
- Zad, Martie (2001-12-09). "Walking with Prehistoric Beasts". The Washington Post. – via HighBeam Research (subscription required)
- "First night: walking with beasts". The Guardian.
- Haines, Tim (2001). Walking with Beasts: A Prehistoric Safari. DK Publishing. ISBN 0789478293.
- Viegas, Jennifer (August 30, 2013). "'Terror bird' was scary-looking vegetarian". ABC Science. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- Ando, K.; Fujiwara, S.-I. (2016). "Farewell to life on land – thoracic strength as a new indicator to determine paleoecology in secondary aquatic mammals". Journal of Anatomy. 229 (6): 768–777. doi:10.1111/joa.12518.