Yuntang

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Yuntang
Beizi
Yintang.jpg
Portrait of Yuntang
Beizi
Tenure 1709–1725
Born (1683-10-17)17 October 1683
Died 22 September 1726(1726-09-22) (aged 42)
Spouse Primary spouse:
Lady Donggo
Concubines:
Lady Liu
Lady Lang
Lady Zhou
Lady Zhu
Lady Tong
Lady Joogiya
Lady Wanyan
Lady Chen
Issue Eldest daughter
Second daughter
Third daughter
Fourth daughter
Fifth daughter
Hongzheng
Hongzhang
Sixth daughter
Hongxiang
Hongkuang
Hongding
Dongxi
Sibao
Full name
Aisin-Gioro Yuntang
(愛新覺羅·允禟)
or
Aisin-Gioro Yintang
(愛新覺羅·胤禟)
House House of Aisin-Gioro
Father Kangxi Emperor
Mother Consort Yi
Yuntang
Chinese 允禟
Yintang
Chinese 胤禟

Yuntang (Manchu: ᠶᡡᠨ ᡨᠠᠩ; 17 October 1683 – 22 September 1726), born Yintang (Manchu: ᠶᡳᠨ ᡨᠠᠩ, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty. He was the ninth son of the Kangxi Emperor and an ally of his eighth brother Yunsi, who was the main rival to their fourth brother Yinzhen in the power struggle over the succession. In 1722, Yinzhen succeeded their father and became historically known as the Yongzheng Emperor, after which he started purging his former rivals. In 1725, the Yongzheng Emperor stripped Yuntang off his beizi title, banished him from the Aisin Gioro clan, and imprisoned him in Baoding. Yuntang died under mysterious circumstances later. In 1778, the Qianlong Emperor, who succeeded the Yongzheng Emperor, posthumously rehabilitated Yuntang and restored him to the Aisin Gioro clan.

Life[edit]

Yintang was born in the Aisin Gioro clan as the ninth son of the Kangxi Emperor. His mother was Consort Yi (宜妃) from the Gorolo clan.[1] He was not one of the Kangxi Emperor's favourite sons, but nonetheless managed to gain substantial wealth and influence among his brothers.[1]

The Kangxi Emperor had designated his eldest surviving son, Yinreng, as Crown Prince, but had also stripped Yinreng from his position twice due to Yinreng's arrogance and violent behaviour.[2] During that two periods of time when the position of Crown Prince was vacant, Yintang supported his eighth brother, Yinsi, in his bid to secure that position, but Yunsi did not succeed both times. The Kangxi Emperor eventually decided to secretly designate an heir apparent, whose identity would only be revealed after his death.

In 1722, after the Kangxi Emperor died, his fourth son, Yinzhen, was revealed to be his chosen successor. Yinzhen ascended the throne and became historically known as the Yongzheng Emperor. Yintang and all his brothers had to change the character Yin (胤) in their names to Yun (允) to avoid naming taboo, because the reigning emperor's name also contained the character Yin. In the same year, Yuntang was sent to the military garrison at Xining and placed under the supervision of the general Nian Gengyao.[1]

Three years later, in 1725, the Yongzheng Emperor stripped Yuntang off his beizi title, banished him from the Aisin Gioro clan, and forced him to change his name to "Seshe" (Manchu: ᠰᡝᠰᡥᡝ; 塞思黑; Sàisīhēi).[1] Yuntang reportedly pleaded with the emperor to send him to a Buddhist monastery and allow him to spend the rest of his life as a monk, but the emperor refused.[3] Yuntang was later imprisoned in Baoding. He died from an unspecified "abdominal illness".[4] However, there are speculations that Yuntang died from poisoning.[4]

In 1778, Yuntang was posthumously rehabilitated by the Qianlong Emperor, who had succeeded the Yongzheng Emperor in 1735. Yuntang was restored to the Aisin Gioro clan and had his name changed back from "Seshe" to "Yuntang".[5]

Meaning of "Seshe"[edit]

"Seshe" is a Manchu term which has traditionally been translated as "dog" in Chinese.[4] However, there is some dispute as to whether that is an accurate translation. Some scholars suggest "Seshe" actually means "shameless"[4] or "annoying person".[5]

Legacy[edit]

Yuntang has been viewed as a pioneer in the romanisation of the Manchu language. He was known to have had ties with the Portuguese missionary Joannes Mourão (穆景遠).[6] Mourão allegedly introduced Yuntang to literature written in the Latin alphabet, which allowed Yuntang to establish a basic Manchu romanisation system around 1723, supposedly as a secret code for communication between himself and other supporters of Yunsi.[6]

While Paul Georg von Möllendorff's Möllendorff system is often seen as the first Manchu transliteration system, Yuntang's system predates Möllendorff's by over 150 years.[6]

Family[edit]

  • Father: Kangxi Emperor
  • Mother: Consort Yi (宜妃; d. 1733), from the Gorolo (郭絡羅) clan, daughter of Zuoling (佐領; a type of military commander) Sanguanbao (三官保).
  • Spouses:
    • Primary spouse: Lady Donggo (棟鄂氏), daughter of Qishi (七十).
    • Concubines:
      • Lady Liu (劉氏), daughter of Liu Da (劉大).
      • Lady Lang (郎氏), daughter of Lang Tu (郎圖).
      • Lady Zhou (周氏), daughter of Zhou Da (周大).
      • Lady Zhu (朱氏), daughter of Zhu Da (朱大).
      • Lady Tong (佟氏), daughter of Tong Da (佟大).
      • Lady Joogiya (兆佳氏), daughter of Manaha (瑪納哈).
      • Lady Wanyan (完顏氏), daughter of Wangda (王達).
      • Lady Chen (陳氏), daughter of Chen Da (陳大).

Sons[edit]

# Name Birth date Death date Mother Wife Concubine Issue Notes
1 Hongzheng (弘晸) 12 December 1706 26 December 1787 Lady Liu Lady Nara (納喇氏), daughter of Imperial Secretary (尚書) Sheng'an (盛安) Lady Yang (楊氏), daughter of Yang Da (楊大) Eldest son: Shuosui (碩綏)
Second son
Served as a Minister of Miscellaneous Affairs (散秩大臣)
2 Hongzhang (弘暲) 29 March 1709 4 July 1756 Lady Liu Lady Gorolo (郭絡羅氏), daughter of Genteyi (根特宜) Son: Shitai (世泰)
3 Hongxiang (弘相) 20 February 1710 21 April 1739 Lady Joogiya Lady Zhang (張氏), daughter of Zhang Da (張大) Unnamed son
4 Hongkuang (弘曠) 15 December 1711 20 February 1737 Lady Lang
5 Hongding (弘鼎) 19 December 1711 28 November 1782 Lady Wanyan 1. Lady Balinnamu (巴林訥穆氏), daughter of Chahar Province Administrator (察哈爾總管) Butan (布坦)
2. Lady Joogiya (兆佳氏), daughter of Qiwei (騎尉) Tanggutu (唐古圖)
Lady Liu (劉氏), daughter of Balang (巴朗) Eldest son: Jixing (吉興)
Second son: Yanrui (延瑞)
Third son: Yanheng (延恆)
Fourth son: Yingfu (穎福)
Fifth son: Gengfu (庚福)
Sixth son: Yongde (永德)
Seventh son: Yonghui (永輝), Second Class Imperial Guard (二等侍衛)
Served as a Third Class Imperial Guard (三等侍衛)
6 Dongxi (棟喜) 24 July 1719 19 January 1791 Lady Zhu Lady Penggiya
彭佳氏
Eldest son: Zongyu (宗餘)
Second son: Fucuntai (福存泰)
Third son: Fubaotai (福保泰)
Fourth son: Fuyouzhu (福佑住)
Fifth son: Fuchen (福琛)
7 Sibao (四保) 22 October 1719 12 April 1771 Lady Zhou Lady Jin (金氏), daughter of Chengzhu (誠住) Eldest son: Guoxing'a (國星阿)
Second son: Zhu'erhang'a (祝爾杭阿)
Served as an Imperial Guard (侍衛) but was stripped off his post.

Daughters[edit]

The personal names of Yuntang's daughters are unknown.

# Birth date Death date Mother Spouse Notes
1 1701 1725 Lady Wanyan Sebutengwangbu (色卜騰旺布) of the Elutechuoluosi (厄魯特綽絡斯) clan, a Prince of the Second Rank (m. 1718)
2 1702 1741 Lady Joogiya Kanbu (侃布) of the Balin Borjigit (巴林博爾濟吉特) clan, a Prince of the Second Rank (m. 1719)
3 1704 1727 Lady Wanyan Yongfu (永福), an Imperial Guard (侍衛) (m. 1720)
4 1705 1726 Lady Donggo Zhao Shiyang (趙世揚) (m. 1721)
5 1706 1742 Lady Joogiya Sebuteng (色卜騰) (m. 1739)
6 1719 1767 Lady Chen Chen Bu (陳布; d. 1744) Chen Bu died before they married, but she was regarded as Chen Bu's widow for the rest of her life.

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Xia, Xin (12 October 2012). "揭秘康熙所有兒子們的下場 (Revealing The Ending Of All Of Kangxi's Sons)". Xinhuanet.com (in Chinese). Huasheng Online (華聲在線). Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "弒兄屠弟狠絕懲貪:為何雍正一朝無官不清 (Massacring Brothers And Harshly Punishing Corrupt Officers: Why All Of Yongzheng's Court Officers Are Incorruptible)". Sina Taiwan (in Chinese). Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Wang, Ruifen. "康熙大帝17個兒子的生死命運 (The Fate Of Kangxi Emperor's 17 Sons)". CRI Online (in Chinese). Chinese Radio International. Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Yu, Yuanxuan (28 January 2013). "【如是觀史】   阿其那與塞斯黑 (Looking At History: Acina and Seshe)". Merit Times (in Chinese). Retrieved 28 July 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c Huake, Zhang. "允禟、穆景遠的滿文十九字頭解讀 (Deciphering Yuntang, Mourão's Manchurian 19 Letters)". Retrieved 29 July 2014.