Wanyan

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This article is about the clan of the Heishui Mohe tribe. For the surname, see Wanyan (surname).

The Wanyan (Chinese: 完颜; pinyin: Wányán; Manchu:ᠸᠠᠩᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ Wanggiya; Jurchen script: Wo-on gia-an.png) clan was among of the clans of the Heishui Mohe tribe living in the drainage region of the Heilong River during the time of the Liao dynasty, which was ruled by the Khitan. Of the Heishui Mohe, the clan was counted by the Liao among the "uncivilized Jurchen" (生女真) indicating that the clan was not subject to the direct rule of the Khitan Emperors. Those Heishui Mohe clans ruled by the Liao dynasty/Khitan Empire were referred to as "civilized Jurchen" (熟女真).

Origins[edit]

The origins of the clan are obscure. According to sources such as the "History of the Jin" (Jinshi 金史) and the Research on the Origin of the Manchus (Manzhou yuanliu kao 滿洲源流考), the clan's progenitor Hanpu emigrated from the kingdom of Goryeo at the age of sixty.[1] However, controversy exists as to the ethno-cultural identity of Hanpu, and the factual validity of the story itself.

Founding of the Jurchen Jin Dynasty[edit]

A bixi stone originally erected on the grave of Wanyan Asikui (阿思魁, ?-1136), one of Aguda's generals, near modern-day Ussuriysk in 1193. The monument is now exhibited in Khabarovsk Regional Museum.

In 1115 AD, Wanyan Aguda, the chieftain of the Wanyan clan at the time, founded the Jurchen Jin dynasty. Before his death in 1123, he also ended the Liao dynasty. Two years later, his brother Wanyan Wuqimai invaded the Song dynasty and conquered northern China in the Jin–Song Wars. Thereafter the Jurchens became sinicized; this can be seen in the sinicization of the surname "Wanyan" to "Wang" in the official Jurchen historical records.

Downfall and in the modern day[edit]

The Jurchen Jin dynasty was destroyed in 1234 AD by an allied Mongol and Han Chinese (under the Southern Song dynasty) force. After their victory, both Mongol and Chinese entities declared that people with the surname "Wanyan" were considered to be related to the royal line of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, and therefore such individuals were to be executed immediately.[citation needed] For the sake of survival, those people with the surname "Wanyan" either changed the name to a Han Chinese form or moved to a remote area to avoid capture and execution. In present-day China, only the villagers in the small town of Jingchuan, in Gansu Province, keep the surname "Wanyan."

See also[edit]

Category:Wanyan family – Wanyan family members (Chinese)
List of Manchu clans

References[edit]

  1. ^ Original passage: 金之始祖諱函普,初從高麗來,年已六十餘矣. From Jinshi 金史, chapter 1; Zhonghua shuju edition (1974), p. 2. The same claim was later made in Chapter 7 of Research on the Origin of the Manchus (Manzhou yuanliu kao 滿洲源流考), which was presented to the Qing throne in 1777. That book referred to Hanpu as "Hafu" (哈富).