Antigonid dynasty

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Antigonids
Ἀντιγονίδαι
Antigonidai

 

306 BC–168 BC
 

Capital ?
Languages Greek
Religion Ancient Greek religion
Government Monarchy
King
 -  306 BC – 301 BC Antigonus I Monophthalmus
 -  179 BC – 168 BC Perseus of Macedon
Historical era Hellenistic
 -  Established 306 BC
 -  Antioch conquered by Pompey
 -  Defeat by Rome 168 BC

The Antigonid dynasty (/ænˈtɪɡɵnɪd/; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

History[edit]

Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC.[2]

Legacy[edit]

It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.[3]

Dynasty[edit]

The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were:

Antigonid Rulers
King Reign (BCE) Consort(s) Comments
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Western Asian Antigonid kingdom) 306 BC – 301 BC Stratonice
Demetrius I Poliorcetes (Macedon, Cicilia) 294 BC-287 BC Phila
Ptolemais
Deïdameia
Lanassa
 ?Eurydice
 ?Unnamed Illyrian woman
Phila was a daughter of Antipater, and ancestor of all subsequent Antigonid kings of Macedon, except Antigonus III Doson, through her son Antigonus II Gonatas. Antigonus III Doson was descended from the marriage of Demetrius and Ptolemais, who was a daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, the ephemeral King of Cyrene. Deïdameia was a daughter of Aeacides of Epirus and sister of Pyrrhus, she had one son, Alexander, by Demetrius. Demetrius had a further two sons, Demetrius the Thin and Corrhagus, the former by an unnamed Illyrian woman, the latter by a woman named Eurydice. Demetrius I Poliorcetes was the first Antigonid king of Macedon.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Macedon) 276 BC-239 BC Phila Son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus.
Demetrius the Fair (Cyrene) c. 250 BC Olympias of Larissa
Berenice II
Son of Demetrius I Poliorcetes and Ptolemaïs. Father of Antigonus III Doson and, apparently, Echecrates by Olympias.
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Macedon) 239 BC-229 BC Stratonice of Macedon
Phthia of Epirus
Nicaea of Corinth
Chryseis
Son of Antigonus II and Phila. Stratonice of Macedon was a daughter of Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice. Phthia of Epirus was a daughter of Alexander II of Epirus and Olympias II of Epirus. Nicaea of Corinth was the widow of Demetrius' cousin, Alexander of Corinth. Chryseis was a former captive of Demetrius.[4] Only known son, Philip by Chryseis, also had a daughter by Stratonice of Macedon, Apama III.
Antigonus III Doson (Macedon) 229 BC - 221 BC Chryseis Son of Demetrius the Fair and Olympias of Larissa. Children unknown.
Philip V (Macedon) 221 BC-179 BC Polycratia of Argos Son of Demetrius II and Chryseis.[4] At least four children, all by Polycratia: Perseus of Macedon, Apame, Demetrius and Philippus.
Perseus (Macedon) 179 BC-168 BC Laodice V Laodice V was a daughter of the Seleucid king, Seleucus IV Philopator. At least two sons, Philip and Alexander.

The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus.

Coin gallery[edit]

Antigonid Dynasty Coins

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959. 
  2. ^ J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-534-64603-4. 
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Antigonid dynasty, 2008, O.Ed. But Perseus’ failure to deploy his full resources brought about his defeat (168) at Pydna in Macedonia and signaled the end of the dynasty."
  4. ^ a b Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; Syncellus Chronicle 535.19