Bexhill-on-Sea

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Coordinates: 50°51′N 0°28′E / 50.85°N 0.47°E / 50.85; 0.47

Bexhill-on-Sea
Bexhill-on-Sea -28Oct2005.jpg
Bexhill seafront
Bexhill-on-Sea is located in East Sussex
Bexhill-on-Sea
Bexhill-on-Sea
 Bexhill-on-Sea shown within East Sussex
Area  32.31 km2 (12.47 sq mi) [1]
Population 41,173 (2007)[1]
    - Density  1,274 /sq mi (492 /km2)
OS grid reference TQ737092
    - London  51 miles (82 km) NNW 
District Rother
Shire county East Sussex
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town BEXHILL-ON-SEA
Postcode district TN39-40
Dialling code 01424
Police Sussex
Fire East Sussex
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Bexhill and Battle
List of places
UK
England
East Sussex

Bexhill-on-Sea (often simply Bexhill) is a town in the local government county of East Sussex, within the ancient and historic county of Sussex, in the south of England, within the District of Rother. It has a population of approximately 40,000. The Anglo-Saxon name for the settlement was Bexelei, from leah—a glade where the box tree grows.[2]

History[edit]

Bexhill manor in 2002

The earliest evidence of occupation of the site came from the discovery of primitive boats at Egerton Park. The town came into official existence with the Charter of 772. In this charter, King Offa II, King of Mercia, granted land to Bishop Oswald to build a church. Three hundred years later, around 1066, William the Conqueror gave the Rape of Hastings, including the captured town of Bexhill (also referred to as the "Badman Town"), to Robert, Count of Eu, as the spoils of victory.

The coastal confederation of Cinque Ports consisted, during the Middle Ages, of a confederation of 42 towns and villages in all. This included Bexhill, under the 'limb' of Hastings.[3]

The manor of Gotham in Bexhill was held by the de Lyvet (Levett) family from an early date. (The Levetts held land at Firle, Catsfield, Ninfield, South Heighton and West Dean and elsewhere, some of which was lost due to an heir's bankruptcy.) Thomas de Lyvet, son of Richard, granted Gotham manor to James Fiennes, 1st Baron Saye and Sele. Thomas's daughter Elizabeth, who married William Gildredge of Withyham, unsuccessfully disputed Gotham manor in 1445.[4] The Gildredge family later lived at nearby Eastbourne, where by 1554 they owned much of the land. Today's Gildredge Park in Eastbourne is named for the family. Most of the Gildredge lands were carried by marriage into the Gilbert (now Davies-Gilbert) family of Eastbourne, who made the Gildredge manor house their own.

The church owned Bexhill Manor until Queen Elizabeth I acquired it in 1590 and granted it to Thomas Sackville, then Baron Buckhurst. Thomas became the first Earl of Dorset in 1603. In 1813, when the male line of the earldom had died out, Elizabeth Sackville married the fifth Earl De La Warr, and she and her husband inherited Bexhill. This early history can still be seen in street names, with Sackville Road, Buckhurst Road, De La Warr Parade, and King Offa Way being some of the most significant roads in the town. On 20 May 1729, a waterspout came ashore, became a tornado, and travelled 12 miles (19 km) inland to Battle and Linkhill; nine farms and properties received serious damage.[5]

In the early 1800s the fashion for seaside recreation was boosted by The Prince of Wales, later to become George IV, with the building of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. The 7th and 8th Earls De La Warr dived enthusiastically into the creation of a resort at Bexhill with an ambitious building program which included shops and houses in London Road (then called Station Road), residential building on Hastings Road and beginning a sea wall and esplanade between Galley Hill and Sea Lane in 1883. John Webb, the London building contractor who constructed the Eastern Esplanade also developed the land which he had received in part payment and laid out Western Road and built the Devonshire Hotel. In 1884 the 7th Earl De La Warr added the suffix 'on-Sea' to Bexhill.[6]

Smuggling was rife in the area in the early 19th century. In 1828, the local Little Common Gang were involved in what was known as the Battle of Sidley Green,[7] Sidley being an area in the north of Bexhill.

Governance[edit]

During local government reform in 1974, Bexhill became part of Rother District Council, thereby losing its Town Council. In its place, Bexhill became a Charter Trustees town, represented by the Bexhill councillors of Rother District Council.[8] A quarterly forum is held to provide a voice to the community at a local level.[9] There have been recent plans to recreate a Bexhill Town Council.[10]

Bexhill is the home of Rother District Council; District Council Elections are held every four years. Thirty-eight Councillors in total are elected, eighteen of these from the nine wards that make up Bexhill. The May 2011 election returned 11 Conservatives, 4 Independents, 2 Liberal Democrats, and 1 Labour.[11]

The next level of government is the East Sussex County Council, with responsibility for Education, Libraries, Social Services, Civil Registration, Trading Standards, and Transport. Elections for the County Council are held every four years. For these elections, Bexhill is divided into three wards: West, King Offa, and East.[12]

The 2005 East Sussex County Council election resulted in 29 Conservatives, 15 Liberal Democrats, 5 Labours, and 1 Independent, of which Bexhill provided 1 Liberal Democrat and 2 Conservatives.[12]

The Parliament Constituency for Bexhill includes the nearby town of Battle. The constituency was created in 1983 and was served by Charles Wardle until the 2001 election, when Wardle left the Conservative party. He was replaced by Gregory Barker, who remains the current serving MP.

At the European level, Bexhill is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. The June 2004 election returned four Conservatives, two Liberal Democrats, two UK Independents, one Labour, and one Green—none of whom live in East Sussex.[13]

Landmarks[edit]

A Site of Special Scientific Interest lies within the Bexhill district—High Woods. It is of biological importance because it is the only known sessile oak Quercus petraea woodland in East Sussex.[14] Fossils are also commonly found in Bexhill. In 2009 the world's oldest spider web was found encased in amber in the town. It was 140 million years old.[15] In June 2011 it was reported that the world's smallest dinosaur had been discovered at Ashdown Brickworks near the town. A single vertebra was found.[16]

Areas[edit]

  • Old Town: The original town on the hill, chartered by King Offa in 772.
  • Cooden: In the southwest/west and plays host to a golf club and tennis club.
  • Little Common: A small village in the west near Cooden.
  • Pebsham: An area to the east of the town, it is near Sidley.
  • Sidley: Another area, it is in the north.
  • Collington: A residential area near Cooden.
  • Bexhill New Town: The main part of Bexhill. There are several roads with a variety of shops, a railway station, a library and the De La Warr Pavilion on the seafront.
  • Ninfield: A rural area to the north.
  • Barnhorn: An area west of Bexhill; its name survives in Barnhorne Manor and Barnhorn Road (a section of the A259). The name was recorded in AD 772 in an Anglo-Saxon charter as Berna horna.[17]

Economy[edit]

The Promenade, August 1999.

Reginald Sackville, seventh Earl De La Warr, decided to transform what was then a village on a hill around its church into an exclusive seaside resort, which he named Bexhill-on-Sea. He was instrumental in building a sea wall south of the village, and the road above it was then named De La Warr Parade. Large houses were built inland from there, and the new town began. In 1890, the luxurious Sackville Hotel was built.

Bexhill was the location for the first motor race in the United Kingdom, in May 1902.[18] Signs at the town's outskirts have the text 'Birthplace of British Motor Racing' appended below the town's name. The Bexhill 100 Festival of Motoring, held on Bexhill's seafront, celebrated this important milestone in motoring history from 1990 until 2002. This final festival commemorated the Centenary of the original "Races". During the life of the festival, in 1999, the organisers launched the Bexhill 100 Motoring Club, so although the Festival no longer exists, the club still exists, and their committee organises each year, the Bexhill 100 Motoring Club Classic Car Show held on August bank holiday Monday in the Polegrove, Bexhill.

The De La Warr Pavilion, brainchild of the ninth Earl De La Warr, opened in 1935 as one of the earliest examples of Modern architecture in a major British public building. It closed for major restoration work in December 2003 and reopened in October 2005.

During the Second World War, Bexhill was named as a point to attack as part of Operation Sea Lion by Nazi Germany.[19]

The town, like many other English seaside resorts, is now much more a settled community. Although there is a small entertainment area on the seafront, it now has a large retired population, like much of the south coast.

Bexhil has one remaining cinema that Eddie Izzard is a patron of.[20] A small group of residents has been fighting to save the cinema for the last five years and has a Facebook site called Friends Of Bexhill Cinema. Information is available on the Bexhill-on-Sea message board.[21]

Transport[edit]

The A259 Bypass for Bexhill town centre.

Bexhill is on the A259 road which forms the coast road between Folkestone and Brighton. Plans of an A259 Bexhill and Hastings bypass have repeatedly been postponed over the past 40 years but the plans were cancelled due to environmental concerns. A new road was approved in 2012 and is expected to be completed by 2015 at a cost of £100m [22]

The town is served by the coastal railway line between Ashford and Brighton and has three railway stations, including Cooden Beach, Collington, and Bexhill. Regular trains run to Brighton, Ashford and London. Bexhill is served by 13 bus routes including school routes which serve the surrounding areas like Hastings, Battle, Conquest Hospital, Eastbourne and Pevensey Bay Asda (Free bus on Wednesday's). The area with the most bus services is between Sidley & Bexhill which has the route 2 (Asda free bus), 95, 97 & 98.

The railway built by the Brighton, Lewes and Hastings Railway (later part of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway) arrived on 27 June 1846, although the present station was not built until 1891, when the town had become popular as a resort. A second line, this time built by the South Eastern Railway and approaching the town from the north, was a branch line from Crowhurst via an intermediate station at Sidley to a terminus at Bexhill West. The line opened on 1 June 1902 and closed on 15 June 1964.[23] The branch was also closed temporarily between 1 January 1917 and 1 March 1919 as an economy measure during the First World War.[24]

Sport and leisure[edit]

Bexhill-on-sea has two Non-League football clubs Bexhill United F.C. who play at The Polegrove and Little Common F.C. who play at the Recreation Ground.

Bexhill-on-sea also has a sports and social club - Bexhill Amateur Athletic Community Association. This club is located on Little Common Road, and also has a football club, Judo, Keepfit classes and a fully equipped gym

Notable people (in alphabetical order)[edit]

  • John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor of the television, resided in a house by the station towards the end of his life.
  • James Beeching (1788–1858), shipbuilder and inventor of the self-righting lifeboat.
  • Joyce Lankester Brisley (1896-1978), writer of the Milly-Molly-Mandy stories, inter alia, exact place of birth as yet unidentified.
  • Michael Cowpland, founder of high-tech companies Mitel, Corel, and ZIM, lived in Bexhill and went to Bexhill College until he was 18.
  • Fanny Cradock and Johnnie Cradock lived in Cooden Drive, Bexhill.
  • Max Faulkner OBE, professional golfer and Open champion in 1951
  • Norman Franks Aviation historian and author of over 120 books covering military aviation.
  • Sir David Hare, British dramatist, comes from Bexhill.
  • Eddie Izzard, comedian, spent part of his childhood years in Bexhill-on-Sea.
  • Peter Katin, concert pianist, recitalist, chamber musician, and concerto soloist, has made Bexhill his home.
  • Desmond Llewelyn, the James Bond actor who played Q, lived in the town until his death in 1999.
  • The Maharajas of Cooch Behar, the Indian princely family had a house in Bexhill in the early 1900s.
  • Kate Marsden FRGS (1859–1931), a nurse known for her travel through Siberia to help Yakut lepers, lived in Bexhill in the 1910s and became one of the founders of Bexhill Museum.[25]
  • Spike Milligan was stationed in Bexhill while in the army during the second world war, and most of the first volume of his war memoirs takes place there.
  • Indie-rock band Mumm-Ra came from Bexhill. The topic of their hometown frequently came up in interviews.
  • Graham Norton, Irish actor, comedian and television presenter, lives in a contemporary house in the Cooden Beach area.
  • Eric Slater (1896-1963), English artist and printmaker, lived in Bexhill and created images of the surrounding countryside.
  • Hayley Okines, patient with the rare premature aging disease progeria
  • Oli Thompson - strongman and 2006 winner of Britain's Strongest Man.
  • Leslie Weatherhead, renowned preacher and theologian, retired to Bexhill.
  • Ronald Skirth (1897–1977), conscientious objector and author of the First World War memoir The Reluctant Tommy, grew up in Bexhill and describes it at length in his book.
  • Edward Victor Grace Day (1896–1958), Malaya Civil Service, Resident Commissioner of Malacca from (1946–1947), and British Adviser, Kedah (1947–1951).
  • Ted Lowe, commentator on BBC's 'Pot Black', which brought snooker to prominence on British TV, was a longtime resident of Bexhill until his death in May 2011.

Cultural references[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  2. ^ Whynne-Hammond, Charles (2007). English Place-Names Explained. Countryside Books. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-85306-911-6. 
  3. ^ "Cinque Ports 1155 to 1500 - VillageNet History - History effecting Kent & Sussex". Villagenet.co.uk. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  4. ^ Page, William; Louis Francis Salzman (1937). The Victoria History of the County of Sussex. T. P. Hudson, A. Constable. A. Constable. 
  5. ^ Gallery of Natural Phenomena
  6. ^ Kaye, Charles (2002). Old Bexhill. Catrine, Ayrshire: Stenlake Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-84033-188-2. 
  7. ^ "The Sidley Green Home Page". Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  8. ^ "Ask the leader 2006, Question 331". Rother District Council. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  9. ^ "Bexhill Town Forum". Rother District Council. Retrieved 2007-11-22. 
  10. ^ "Bexhill Town Council". Rother District Council. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  11. ^ "Rother District Election Results 2011". Rother District Council. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  12. ^ a b "County Council Election 5th May 2005". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  13. ^ "UK MEPs". UK Office of the European Parliament. Archived from the original on 2007-01-24. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 
  14. ^ "Natural England - SSSI". English Nature. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  15. ^ BBC
  16. ^ New dinosaur found at brickworks in east Sussex, Independent
  17. ^ Anglo-Saxons.net ": S 108". Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  18. ^ http://royalautomobileclub.co.uk/archive/archive_navmain5.asp?groupid=675&tabstyle=main
  19. ^ "Operation Sealion". Historylearningsite.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  20. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-19611619
  21. ^ http://www.discoverbexhill.com/messageboard/index.php?messageid=2260
  22. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-23201587
  23. ^ H P White, Southern England (A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Volume 2), David & Charles, 1961-1982, page 36.
  24. ^ "Railway Magazine", July 1958
  25. ^ "About Bexhill Museum". The Society of Bexhill Museums. Retrieved 2011-12-14. 

External links[edit]