Uckfield

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Uckfield
Uckfield High Street.jpg
Uckfield town centre
Uckfield is located in East Sussex
Uckfield
Uckfield
 Uckfield shown within East Sussex
Area  7.5 km2 (2.9 sq mi) [1]
Population 13,873 (2007) [1]
   – density  4,810/sq mi (1,860/km2)
OS grid reference TQ473212
   – London  38 miles (61 km) NNW 
District Wealden
Shire county East Sussex
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Uckfield
Postcode district TN22
Dialling code 01825
Police Sussex
Fire East Sussex
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Wealden
Website Uckfield Town Council
List of places
UK
England
East Sussex

Coordinates: 50°58′N 0°06′E / 50.97°N 0.10°E / 50.97; 0.10

Uckfield is a town in the Wealden District of East Sussex in South East England. The town is on the River Uck, one of the tributaries of the River Ouse, on the southern edge of the Weald.

Etymology[edit]

The town was originally called Uccafield. Uccafield derives from the Celtic word for 'High' or 'Height' - Uchafedd, this in turn coming from the Indo European 'Uchch'ya'. When the Anglo Saxons heard this word they changed the 'fedd' part to something they understood - 'Feld' from which 'field' derives. The original river Uck name was most likely related to the ancient Celtic word for 'water' or 'stream' - Uisge, derivations uske, usci, that give river names still existing such as the Usk. When the Celts came along the sound of the river name was so close to the sound of Ucha that the name became Uch or Ucca over time and eventually Uck. So Uckfield really means something like 'high place' - Uchafedd - and the river derived its modern name from this Celtic word. There are, however, other theories as to how the name came about. One theory suggests that it came from "Oak in Field", something which is reflected in several town crests. Another theory is that it used to be the free land of a Saxon man called Ucca.

History[edit]

A comprehensive historical timeline can be found at The Weald of Kent, Surrey and Sussex website.[2]

The first mention in historical documents is in the late thirteenth century. Uckfield developed as a stopping-off point on the pilgrimage route between Canterbury, Chichester and Lewes. The settlement began to develop around the bridging point of the river, including the locally-famous Pudding Cake Lane where travellers visited a public house for slices of pudding cake; and the 15th-century Bridge Cottage, the oldest house still standing in Uckfield, now a museum. The town developed in the High Street and in the New Town areas (the latter to the south of the original town centre).

The Eversfield family, who later became prominent in Sussex history, giving their name to the prime waterfront street of St Leonards-on-Sea, first settled in Uckfield from their Surrey beginnings.[3] The family, who later owned the mansion Denne Park in Horsham, which they represented in Parliament, acquired a large fortune through marriage, real estate acquisition and iron foundering.[4] Their climb to wealth and prominence was a heady one: in fifteenth-century Sussex they were described as 'yeomen', but within a generation they were already among the first rank of Sussex gentry.[5]

Church Street Uckfield[edit]

As its name indicates, Church Street was at the heart of the original settlement of Uckfield, near the medieval chapel (built c.1291), which was replaced by the present parish church in 1839. Situated on an ancient ridgeway route from the direction of Winchester in the west to Rye and Canterbury in the east, it would have seen many travellers (in the traditional sense) well before 1500. Some would have been on short journeys, either on foot or on horseback, to or from local markets and fairs, but others, bound for destinations further afield, would have spent the night at local hostelries along their route such as the Maiden's Head, the King's Head (now the Cinque Ports) or the Spread Eagle. Since Uckfield was part of the Archbishop's extensive Manor of South Malling, some of these travellers could have been bound for Canterbury for business or other (e.g. religious) reasons, though others had destinations elsewhere along the route.

Church Street contains a number of post-medieval buildings. These include the Old Grammar School, Bakers Cottage and the Malt House with Malt Cottage (all built before 1700), and Church House with Andertons, Copping Hall and Milton Cottage (all 18th century). Notable inhabitants of these properties were the Markwicks (builders and carpenters, from 1700) at Coppinghall and Milton Cottage (Interestingly, the current generation of notable Markwicks in Uckfield run the local picture house), Edward Kenward (19th century maltster) at the Malt House, Thomas Pentecost (a Victorian leather cutter and local poet) in a cottage near the Grammar School and General Sir George Calvert Clarke (commander of the Royal Scots Greys at Balaclava) at Church House.

Governance[edit]

The town council consists of 15 councillors, representing four wards: Central ward (3 councillors); New Town (3); North (6); and Ridgewood (3) mayoral elections take place every year.[6]

Geography[edit]

The town of Uckfield[7] has grown up as a road hub, and on the crossing point of the River Uck. Traffic on the A26 between Tunbridge Wells and Lewes, from the north-east to the south-west, joins with that on the A22 London - Eastbourne road around the town on its bypass; whilst the long-distance cross-country A272 road (the old pilgrimage route) crosses them both north of the town.

As the town has grown, new housing estates were developed: Hempstead Fields, Harlands Farm, Rocks Park, West Park, Manor Park and Ringles Cross among them.

Parts of Uckfield, owing to its location on the river, have been subject to extensive flooding on a number of occasions, the earliest recorded being in 1800.[8] More recent floods have occurred approximately every nine years: in 1962, 1974, 1989, 1994, 2000 and 2007, although those in 2007 were not as severe as previous floods.[9] Local residents have long been lobbying for flood defences in the town, and recently when the local Somerfield became a Co-op, its car park's walls were rebuilt as flood defenses with a ramp to access the car park and a watertight pedestrian gate that can be closed when flooding is imminent. It is hoped that this new wall will act as a reservoir to contain the flood water until it recedes, allowing the water to flow back into the river Uck, which runs alongside the carpark.[10] Due to the positioning of the river within Uckfield, any flooding is within the lowest part of the town centre and industrial estate, and so does not affect residential areas as these are all built on higher ground. The Hempstead Meadows Nature Reserve can be accessed from the car park (now owned by Waitrose, who took over from the Co-op) and shows classic meadows formed on the flood plain.

The West Park Nature Reserve contains a wide variety of habitats; it is located on the western edge of the town.[11]

Development[edit]

The local Tesco has proposed the redevelopment of the central town area as has the town council. The Hub has recently been completed, having been acquired for an unknown figure, presumed to be about half a million pounds. A complaint from citizens was the purchase cost, that it would increase their tax bills and as a youth centre it would only benefit the town's youth however many residents have noted its far reaching benefits, such as crime prevention.[citation needed]

Demography[edit]

The population of Uckfield in 1811 was 916; in 1841 was 1,534; in 1861 was 1,740; in 1871 was 2,041; in 1881 was 2,146; in 1891 was 2,497; in 1901 was 2,895; in 1911 was 3,344; in 1921 was 3,385; and in 1931 was 3,555. In 2001 it was 13,697.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Uckfield is connected to London Bridge station by Southern rail services on its Oxted Line via East Croydon. Until 1969 the rail link continued to Lewes; after it was closed Uckfield became the terminus; the station building was rebuilt in 1991 to avoid the necessity of a level crossing. The Wealden Line Campaign hopes to reopen the closed section to Lewes.

There are 20 local bus services in the Uckfield area; Brighton And Hove, Countryliner, Renown Coaches and Stagecoach in Eastbourne all serve Uckfield. Also National Express coaches operate to London.[12][13]

Education[edit]

Uckfield Community Technology College is the secondary school in the town. There are five primary schools: There is Harlands Primary School, Holy Cross CE Primary School;[14] Rocks Park Primary School;[15] St Philips Catholic Primary School;[16] and Manor Primary School.

Churches and chapels[edit]

Statue of Jesus Christ by Marcus Cornish, Our Lady Immaculate and St Philip Neri church, dubbed "Jesus in Jeans" by the media

The Church of England parish church is dedicated to the Holy Cross. The Queen made several unannounced low-profile visits to this church.[17] The Roman Catholic church is dedicated to Our Lady Immaculate and St Philip Neri. Other churches and chapels include Baptist, Methodist, Evangelical (Grange Evangelical Church in Hempstead Road), United Reformed Church and the King's Church. Local villages and parishes also have their own sites of worship. There are no non-Christian religious houses.

Notable people[edit]

Emma Lee French was born in Uckfield in 1836. Uckfield was the last place Lord Lucan was seen, at Grants Hill House, the home of his friends Ian and Susan Maxwell-Scott. Lady Lucan, his wife was also in Uckfield. Nicholas van Hoogstraten, a property developer, owns property in the area. He is engaged in a long-running dispute with the Ramblers' Association about a local footpath running through his land. Van Hoogstraten is currently building a mansion, Hamilton Palace, on the outskirts of Uckfield.

Mysteries[edit]

There are a number of mysteries and myths associated with the town and surrounding areas. The disappearance of Lord Lucan is one. In addition, the hoax of the Piltdown Man occurred in the nearby village of Piltdown. There is also the tale of Nan Tuck's Ghost, in which an old witch is said to have lived in a wood in nearby Buxted. There is an area of the wood where nothing grows, and the ghost is said to chase people who wander along Nan Tuck's Lane at night.[18][19][20]

Culture[edit]

Uckfield is twinned with the town of Quickborn, Germany and also with Arques la Bataille, France.

The Picture House is the town's cinema, opened originally in 1915, and refurbished twice since then, the latest reopening being in February 2000.[21]

Uckfield FM is a Community Radio station that supported Uckfield for its four-week festival in June and at Christmas each year. In July 2009 was granted a licence by OFCOM to become a full-time Community Radio Station, broadcasting live to the Community of Uckfield and the surrounding areas full-time from 1 July 2010.[22] The station was founded by Mike Skinner, Paddy Rea, Gary King and Alan French and now has over 80 members who are all voluntary. In the summer of 2008, ITVs Trinny and Suzannah was filmed at the Bird in Eye studios when Mayor Louise Eastwood was the star of the show.

Sport and leisure[edit]

Uckfield has two Non-League football clubs A.F.C. Uckfield who play at The Oaks on Old Eastbourne Road and Uckfield Town F.C. who play at Victoria Recreation Ground.

Nature Reserves[edit]

  • West Park

West Park is a Local Nature Reserve.[23][24] It has several access points and a board-walk which runs through parts of the Reserve. The Reserve is a vestige of ancient parkland, containing herb rich uncultivated wet meadow, woodland, some thriving wildlife and the remains of Mesolithic settlement.

  • Hempstead Meadows

Hempstead Meadows is also a Local Nature Reserve.[25][26] The River Uck runs through the flood plain, also occupied by the Hempstead Nature Reserve, and is an important area of wetland. The area has an abundance of unusual flora and fauna, which flourish on this ideal site. A new footpath, the River walk is a recent introduction to this area.

  • Harlands Pond

Harlands Pond, located via Mallard drive, home of the common toad. Regular visitors include the Heron, in addition to its permanent residents, the coot and moorhen.[27]

  • Nightingale Wood

Almost adjacent to the pond is nightingale Wood. This is a cool, shady haven, containing many different tree species and is a valuable site for early purple orchids.[28]

  • Millennium Green

To the south of the town in Ridgewood the Uckfield Millennium Green is present on a site of disused clay pits (now a SSSI)

References in literature[edit]

Uckfield has featured several times in notable literary works.

2012 High Street Fire[edit]

The 2012 High Street Fire (dubbed "The Great Fire of Uckfield" by residents) was a large fire caused by teenagers that in the late hours of September 3, 2012 destroyed 5 businesses. At around 11 o'clock, 3 teenagers set fire to a small row of shops on the High Street via the bins[29] located off a small side road. The fire spread up the wall with the help of a ventilation fan into the roof and eventually cost damage amounting to an estimated £2 million[30] pounds, taking 2 years to rebuild. The fire destroyed two charity shops (Sense and British Heart Foundation), a small independent nail bar, the local Halifax bank and some offices located in the roof space. Local residents described it as a "surreal experience" that was "horrible to watch".[31] The next day, the High Street remained closed to traffic[32] whilst the safe from the Halifax bank was removed. 3 teenagers were arrested for Arson with intent to danger lives, the ring leader was jailed for 12 months for the arson, and was also sentenced to two years for a string of burglaries across East Sussex. Several homes were evacuated whilst the flames spread through the roof space, and it was thought the neighbouring HSBC bank may also catch on fire. The blaze could be seen from many miles around and it is considered a major event in the recent history of Uckfield.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 26 April 2008. 
  2. ^ Historical notes about Uckfield
  3. ^ A Compendious History of Sussex: Topographical, Archaeological & Anecdotical, Vol. I, Mark Antony Lower, London, 1870
  4. ^ Sussex Archaeological Collections Relating to the History and Antiquities, Sussex Archaeological Society, 1862
  5. ^ "Nicholas Eversfeld of Boxstede, yeoman, to Francis Chaloner, Gent., of lands in Maresfeld," Archive of Frere and Company, London, solicitors, East Sussex Record Office, The National Archives, nationalarchives.gov.uk
  6. ^ Uckfield Town Council
  7. ^ Website includes maps of the town
  8. ^ "ibid" The Weald of Kent, Surrey and Sussex"
  9. ^ Report on the flooding of the Ouse catchment in 2000
  10. ^ http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/news/112405.aspx
  11. ^ West Park Local Nature Reserve
  12. ^ Bus and coach services
  13. ^ Brighton & Hove Buses
  14. ^ Holy Cross CE Primary School
  15. ^ Rocks Park Primary School website
  16. ^ St Philips Catholic Primary School
  17. ^ "The Queen's low-key visits to Uckfield (video story)". BBC News Online. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2012. "call at 11pm Saturday The Queen is coming to church tomorrow" ... "bit late to prepare a special sermon!"" 
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ [2]
  20. ^ [3]
  21. ^ The Picture House, Uckfield
  22. ^ "Uckfield FM (Uckfield)". Ofcom. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  23. ^ "West Park, Uckfield". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Map of West Park, Uckfield". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  25. ^ "Hempstead Meadows". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  26. ^ "Map of Hempstead Meadows". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  27. ^ http://www.eastsussex.gov.uk/leisureandtourism/countryside/walks/harlandspond.htm
  28. ^ http://www.eastsussex.gov.uk/leisureandtourism/countryside/walks/nightingalewood.htm
  29. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-19461903
  30. ^ http://www.theargus.co.uk/news/10549235.Teenagers_sentenced_for__Great_Fire_of_Uckfield__arson_that_caused___2m_damage_to_Sussex_town/
  31. ^ http://www.itv.com/news/meridian/2012-09-03/five-businesses-destroyed-after-high-street-fire/
  32. ^ http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/news/9906657.Huge_blaze_in_Uckfield_High_Street/

External links[edit]