Bojang of Goguryeo

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Bojang of Goguryeo
Hangul 보장왕
Hanja 寶臧王
Revised Romanization Bojang-wang
McCune–Reischauer Pojang-wang
Birth name
Hangul 장, 보장
Hanja 藏, 寶臧
Revised Romanization Jang, Bojang
McCune–Reischauer Chang, Pojang
Monarchs of Korea
Goguryeo
  1. King Chumo 37-19 BCE
  2. King Yuri 19 BCE-18 CE
  3. King Daemusin 18-44
  4. King Minjung 44-48
  5. King Mobon 48-53
  6. King Taejodae 53-146
  7. King Chadae 146-165
  8. King Sindae 165-179
  9. King Gogukcheon 179-197
  10. King Sansang 197-227
  11. King Dongcheon 227-248
  12. King Jungcheon 248-270
  13. King Seocheon 270-292
  14. King Bongsang 292-300
  15. King Micheon 300-331
  16. King Gogug-won 331-371
  17. King Sosurim 371-384
  18. King Gogug-yang 384-391
  19. King Gwanggaeto 391-413
  20. King Jangsu 413-490
  21. King Munja 491-519
  22. King Anjang 519-531
  23. King An-won 531-545
  24. King Yang-won 545-559
  25. King Pyeong-won 559-590
  26. King Yeong-yang 590-618
  27. King Yeong-nyu 618-642
  28. King Bojang 642-668

Bojang of Goguryeo (died 682) (r. 642–668) was the 28th and last king of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was placed on the throne by the military leader Yeon Gaesomun. His reign ended when Goguryeo fell to the allied forces of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla and the Tang Dynasty China.

Background[edit]

The period of his rule over Goguryeo is recounted in the final two books of the Goguryeo annals in the Samguk Sagi. King Bojang’s given name was Chang, though he was also known as Pojang.

Bojang was son of the younger brother of the previous king Yeongnyu. In 642, the general Yeon Gaesomun carried out a coup d'etat and killed Yeongnyu and many of his supporters. Bojang was then placed on the throne.

With the aim of inducing Goguryeo to join an expedition against Baekje, Silla dispatched Kim Chunchu to request the commitment of troops but Goguryeo did not consent

For most of his reign, Bojang was a puppet Emperor, giving a veneer of legitimacy to Yeon Gaesomun's military rule. For example, at Yeon's instigation he supported Taoism and issued edicts repressing Buddhism in the country, which had formerly been officially Buddhist.

Goguryeo experienced many natural disasters during his reign.

Reign[edit]

Goguryeo continued battle against the southern Korean kingdom of Silla, in alliance with the third of the Three Kingdoms, Baekje. Silla was further isolated by Goguryeo's restored relations with the Wa of Japan. In 642, Silla sent Kim Chun-chu to negotiate a treaty, but when Yeon Gaesomun demanded the return of the Seoul region, talks broke down, leading Silla to eventually ally with the Tang Dynasty.

In 645, the Tang Taizong led a major expedition against Goguryeo by land and sea, but Yeon Gaesomun and Yang Manchun repelled the invasion, as well as subsequent smaller attacks by the Tang. In 654, Goguryeo attacked the Khitans, who were allied with the Tang. In 655, Goguryeo and Baekje attacked Silla.

The Baekje kingdom finally fell to Silla-Tang in 660. Yeon Gaesomun defeated major invasions of Pyongyang in 661 and Sasu River in 662, but Silla and Tang were now free to focus and intensify their attacks against Goguryeo. In 663, the Baekje revival movement ended as its leader Buyeo Pung retreated to Goguryeo.

After the death of Yeon Gaesomun in 666, Bojang was unable to gain control over the country, which instead was wracked by a succession struggle between Yeon's sons.

Fall of Goguryeo[edit]

As internal struggles continued in Goguryeo, Yeon Namsaeng defected and 40 castles near the border surrendered to the Tang, while Yeon Jeong-to defected to Silla.

The Goguryeo capital fell to Silla-Tang forces in the ninth lunar month of 668, and King Bojang was captured. He was appointed to the minister of public works (工部尚書) by Tang Gaozong.

Tang faced increasing problems ruling the former inhabitants of Goguryeo, as well as Silla's resistance to Tang's remaining presence on the Korean Peninsula. In 677, Tang crowned Bojang "King of Joseon" and put him in charge of the Liaodong commandery (Hangul : 요동주도독 조선왕 Hanja:遼東州都督朝鮮王) of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East.

However, King Bojang continued to foment rebellions against Tang in an attempt to revive Goguryeo, organizing Goguryeo refugees and allying with the Malgal tribes. He was eventually banished to Szechuan in 681, and died the following year.

Because Bojang was the last ruler of Goguryeo, he did not receive a temple name after his death. There was a brief attempt at Goguryeo restoration made by Anseung, who ultimately surrendered to Silla.

King Bojang of Goguryeo, was also the last of King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo (Jumong was the founding Monarch of Goguryeo) ancestors to rule Goguryeo.

Family[edit]

  • Grandson:

In popular culture[edit]

Offices held[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Yeong-nyu
King of Goguryeo
642–668
Succeeded by
Office abolished

See also[edit]