Bolivarian Circles

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The Bolivarian Circles (Spanish: Círculos bolivarianos) are a loosely-knit political and social organization of workers' councils in Venezuela originally begun by President Hugo Chávez in 2001. They are named in honor of Simón Bolívar, the leader who transformed most of South America from Spanish colonial outposts to the independent states now in place.[1] Since then the government has sponsored the creation of Community Planning Councils, which evolved into the Communal Councils.

Background[edit]

Chávez organized these circles, which he cites as examples of grassroots and participatory democracy.[citation needed] The circles were made as state-sanctioned groups that were to be the "principle organizing unit of popular power".[2] The founding documents of Venezuela's Bolivarian Circles state that "the Supreme leader of Bolivarian Circles will be the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" and that "the national and international headquarters for the registration of Bolivarian Circles will be the Palace of Miraflores".[2] In 2001, Chávez authorized then-Vice President Diosdado Cabello to financially support them, which made Chávez's opponents skeptical of any claims of autonomy.[3]

Works[edit]

According to pro-Chavez website Venezuelanalysis.com, improvement projects undertaken by Bolivarian Circles include health, public transportation, and urban clean-ups. [4][better source needed]

In January 2002, Bolivarian Circles were reported to have blocked the entrance of the newspaper office El Nacional for over an hour. Numerous journalists have been threatened, berated, and abused physically and verbally, particularly by people that identified with the Bolivarian Circles. Bolivian Circles also took part in demonstrations which partly became violent against the 2002 coup attempt.[1]

During the 2014 Venezuelan protests, circles in Canada protested in the streets and near embassies to show support for the Venezuelan government.[2]

According to a study by two Brigham Young University scholars, the Bolivarian circles embodied democratic values, in addition to "a charismatic mode of linkage to Chávez"; they performed valuable social work, but also often reinforced "clientelistic relations between Chávez and the voters, and they did not significantly enhance the level of pluralism in the broader civil society."[5]

Outside Venezuela[edit]

Pro-Chávez Bolivarian circles exist in other countries and are widespread in Europe, North America and Australia.[6] In a June 2014 publication by the Center for a Secure Free Society, it was stated that even though some Bolivarian Circles in Canada had disbanded, some are growing and are even attempting to merge with the UK-based Hands Off Venezuela group.[2]

Oath[edit]

In 2001, Chávez swore in all official Bolivarian Circles at the first national reunion under the following oath, which was adapted from Bolívar's own oath on the hill of Monte Sacro in 1805:

I swear in front of you, for the God of my parents; I swear for them. I swear for my honor and for my motherland that I will not rest my arms nor my soul until we have broken, finally, the chains that oppress Venezuela as an inheritance of the powerful who destroyed the motherland. I swear that I will completely dedicate my work to the Bolivarian ideology, to the popular organization, to popular mobilization, to popular power, to never abandon the struggle; every day and every night that I have left with the Bolivarian circles in the Bolivarian web, in the Bolivarian current, in the Bolivarian forces and in the Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement 200 that today is born again after 19 years, by the will of the Venezuelan people. I swear that I will fight without rest for the defense of the revolution, even if I have to sacrifice my life, for the glory of Venezuela. I swear that we will consolidate forever the Bolivarian revolution and the motherland of our children. I swear.[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.htm?tbl=RSDCOI&page=research&id=3dec9b4b4 UNHCR
  2. ^ a b c d Henderson, Victoria L.; Humire, Joseph M.; Menendez, Fernando D. "Canada on Guard: Assessing the Immigration Security Threat of Iran, Venezuela and Cuba". Center for a Secure Free Society. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Morsbach, Greg. (BBC, 12 Jun 2002). "Chavez accused of fostering militia links". Retrieved 13 Jun 2006.
  4. ^ Sanchez, Alvaro ("Venezuela Analysis," 30 Sep 2003). "Bolivarian Circles: A Grassroots Movement". Retrieved 14 Nov 2005.
  5. ^ Dependent Civil: Society: The Círculos Bolivarianos in Venezuela, Kirk A. Hawkins Brigham Young UniversityDavid R. Hansen Brigham Young University found at, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/latin_american_research_review/v041/41.1hawkins.html Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: 16 Jun 2006. p. A1.
  6. ^ [1] Bolivarian Circles in Australia
  7. ^ http://www.bauleros.org/TEMAS/PAISES/ARGENTINA/2001-12-21_emancipacion.html. A version of Bolívar's oath had also been used by Chávez at the foundation of the "Ejército de Liberación del Pueblo de Venezuela" on 17 December 1982. See http://elies.rediris.es/elies27/APONTE_MORENO_FINAL_THESIS.pdf.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]