Brazilians in Suriname form a large community consisting mostly of miners. The number of Brazilians in the country is estimated at 40,000, nearly 10 percent of the population. Suriname allegedly has the largest community of Brazilians in any CARICOM nation.
Suriname's low population density and abundant natural resources have attracted numerous migrants from neighboring Brazil. Over the past decade or so, as many as 40,000 Brazilians, mostly illegal immigrants, have moved to Suriname, a country with fewer than half a million citizens. Many if not most Brazilians in Suriname work as small-scale gold miners in the town of Albina which has became primarily a base for nomadic gold prospectors.
Gold mining in Albina is typically environmentally destructive and it often results in clashes between the miners and indigenous peoples.
In late December 2009, a series of riots occurred when local maroon inhabitants attacked Brazilian, Chinese, Colombian and Peruviangolddiggers after a man was allegedly stabbed to death by a Brazilian.  The Brazilian government sent a diplomatic mission on December 27, 2009 to attend the Brazilian victims. Five Brazilians returned to Brazil on December 27 on an airplane of the Brazilian Air Force. On December 28, an airplane with capacity for 40 people was sent to the city with the purpose of rescuing more Brazilians.