Peru

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Republic of Peru
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish)
"Firm and Happy for the Union"
Anthem: Himno Nacional del Perú  (Spanish)
National Anthem of Peru
National seal:
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
Gran Sello del Estado  (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State
Capital
and largest city
Lima
12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77.0283°W / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official languagesa Spanish (official) 84.1% Quechua (official) 13% Aymara (official) 1.7% (2007 Census)
Ethnic groups (2013[1])
Demonym Peruvian
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Ollanta Humala
 -  Vice President Marisol Espinoza
 -  Prime Minister Ana Jara
Legislature Congress
Independence from Spain
 -  Declared July 28, 1821 
 -  Consolidated December 9, 1824 
 -  Recognized May 2, 1866 
Area
 -  Total 1,285,216 km2 (20th)
496,225 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.41
Population
 -  2014 estimate 30,814,175 (40th)
 -  2007 census 28,220,764
 -  Density 23/km2 (191st)
57/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $368.777 billion[2]
 -  Per capita $11,735[2]
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $216.674 billion[2]
 -  Per capita $6,895[2]
Gini (2010) positive decrease 48.1[3]
high · 35th
HDI (2013) Steady 0.737[4]
high · 82nd
Currency Nuevo sol (PEN)
Time zone PET (UTC−5)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +51
ISO 3166 code PE
Internet TLD .pe
a. Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they predominate.

Peru Listeni/pəˈr/ (Spanish: Perú; Quechua: Piruw;[5] Aymara: Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: República del Perú, pronounced: [reˈpuβlika ðel peˈɾu] ( )), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the Coastal region in the west to the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[6]

Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization (Caral), one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. Ideas of political autonomy in Spanish America. Independence was formally proclaimed in 1821, and after the battle of Ayacucho which took place three years after proclamation is when Peru ensured its independence. After achieving independence, the country remained in recession and kept a low military profile until an economic rise based on the extraction of raw and maritime materials struck the country, which ended shortly before the war of the Pacific. Subsequently, the country had undergone changes in of government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent.[7] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Etymology

The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.[8] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[9] Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú.[10]

An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. He says the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, and goes on to relate many more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.[11]

The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[12] Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.

History

Main article: History of Peru

Prehistory and Pre-columbian period

Main article: Ancient Peru
The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-columbian Peru.

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 years BC.[13] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[14] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC.[15] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC[16] along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavin de Huantar.[17] After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the Christian millennium, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. The Mochica who reached their apogee in the first millenium AD were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador, the Chimu flourished from about 1150 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo. In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between AD. 500 and AD. 1000.[18]

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.[19] The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti . Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control upwards of a third of South America, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.[20] From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from north of southern Colombia and south to Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.[21] The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."[22]

Conquest and Colonial period

Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huascar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with Lima as its capital which became known as "The City of Kings". The conquest of the Inca Empire led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards took hold of the last Inca stronghold of Vilcabamba in 1572.

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce.[23] With the discovery of the great silver and Gold lodes at Potosí (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[24] The Viceroyalty of Peru was a melting pot of races which included Amerindian, Spanish and Afro-Peruvian, thus developed its own distinct culture. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. The viceroyalty worked to solidify the Andean colonial order in tandem with the church to which it was tied by royal patronage dating from the late fifteenth century. Having accompanied Francisco Pizarro and his force during the conquest, the Roman Catholic friars proceeded zealously to carry out their mission to convert the indigenous peoples to Christianity. In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[25] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty.[26] The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed.[27] As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The creation of Viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata (at the expense of Peru's territory) reduced the importance of Lima and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the modern-day countries of Peru, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.[28]

Independence

In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.[29] During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.[30]

Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[31]

19th century and on

Between the 1840s and 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports.[32] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[33]

Peru was defeated by Chile in the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific, ceding the provinces of Arica and Tarapacá in the treaties of Ancón and Lima. Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía.[34] The Great Depression caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[35] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades.[36]

In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. The new regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support.[37] In 1975, General Francisco Morales Bermúdez forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy.[38] During the 1980s, Peru faced a considerable external debt, ever-growing inflation, a surge in drug trafficking, and massive political violence.[39] Under the presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000), the country started to recover; however, accusations of authoritarianism, corruption, and human rights violations forced his resignation after the controversial 2000 elections.[40] Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth.[41]

Government and Politics

Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima.

Government

Peru is a Presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and can only seek re-election after standing down for at least one full term and during his term.[42] The President designates the Prime Minister and, with his advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[43] Congress is unicameral with 130 members elected for a five-year term.[44] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[45] The judiciary is nominally independent,[46] though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues today.[47]

The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[48] General elections held in 2011 ended in a second-round victory for presidential candidate Ollanta Humala of the Gana Perú alliance (51.4% of valid votes) over Keiko Fujimori of Fuerza 2011 (48.5%).[49] Congress is currently composed of Gana Perú (47 seats), Fuerza 2011 (37 seats), Alianza Parlamentaria (20 seats), Alianza por el Gran Cambio (12 seats), Solidaridad Nacional (8 seats) and Concertación Parlamentaria (6 seats).[50]

Foreign Relations

Peruvian foreign relations have been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[51] Recently, Peru disputed its maritime limits with Chile in the Pacific Ocean.[52] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Military

The Peruvian military is composed of an army, a navy and an air force; its primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.[53] The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army, Navy and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity against any threat. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks.[54]

The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organisation and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru, through the Ministry of Interior.

Regions

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms.[55] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[56] The province of Lima is administered by a city council.[57] The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralisation process and still influence local politics.[58]

Regions
Province

Geography

Main article: Geography of Peru

Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán.[59] The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region.[60]

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River are longer, have a much larger flow, and are less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.[61] Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón, the Putumayo, the Yavarí, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.[62]

Peru does not have an exclusively tropical climate; the influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current cause great climatic diversity within the country. The costa has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches.[63] In the sierra, rain is frequent during summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes.[64] The selva is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.[65] Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003; 5,855 of them endemic.[66]

Economy

Main article: Economy of Peru
Buildings in Lima's financial district of San Isidro, and the Callao seaport, Peru's main export outlet.

The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank[67] and is the 39th largest in the world.[68] Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s.[69] It has a high Human Development Index of .752 based on 2011 data; Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.[70] Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive.[71] According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in poverty.[72] Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%.[73] The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%.

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. The 1968–1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations.[74]

Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies.[75] Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[76]

Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%).[77] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.[78] Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006.[79] Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.[80]

Demographics

Throughout its history, Peruvian society has been diverse

Peru is a multiethnic country formed by different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest of the 16th century; according to historian Noble David Cook their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[81] Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and indigenous peoples. Gradual European immigration from Italy, Spain, France, Britain, and Germany followed independence.[82] Peru freed its black slaves in 1854.[83] Chinese arrived in the 1850s, replacing slave workers, and have since greatly influenced Peruvian society.[84]

The last Peruvian census that attempted to classify persons according to ethnicity was in 1940, when 53% of the population was found to be white or mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) and 46% was found to be Amerindian.[85] According to the CIA World Factbook, the majority of the people in Peru are Amerindians, mostly Quechua and Aymara, followed by mestizos.[68] Yet, in a 2006 survey from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI), the Peruvian population self-identified primarily as mestizo (59.5%), followed by Quechua (22.7%), Aymara (2.7%), Amazonian (1.8%), Black/Mulatto (1.6%), white (4.9%), and "Others" (6.7%).[86]

With about 29.5 million inhabitants, Peru is the fifth most populous country in South America.[87] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[88] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[89] Major cities include Lima (home to over 8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[90] There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.[91]

Spanish, the first language of 83.9% of Peruvians aged five and older in 2007, is the primary language of the country. It coexists with several indigenous languages, the most common of which is Quechua, spoken by 13.2% of the population. Other native and foreign languages were spoken at that time by 2.7% and 0.1% of Peruvians, respectively.[92]

In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical, 3.3% as of other denominations, and 2.9% as non-religious.[93] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[94] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[95]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Peru
Anonymous Cuzco School painting, 18th century

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,[96] though it has also been influenced by various Asian, African, and other European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.[97]

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative.[98] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century.[99] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.[100]

Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.[101] The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría[102] and José María Arguedas.[103] César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.[104]

Ceviche is a popular lime marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru

Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking.[105] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, and pachamanca. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking.[106] Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim.[107]

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots.[108] In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments.[109] Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango.[110] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the cajón, a percussion instrument.[111] Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno.[112]

See also

References

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Bibliography

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  • Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú. El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico. Lima: Auge, 1996.
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  • Ley N° 27867, Ley Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales. November 16, 2002.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3–45.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Narrative since c. 1920". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 133–225.
  • Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. El nombre del Perú. Lima: Talleres Gráficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968.
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  • Romero, Raúl. "Andean Peru". In: John Schechter (ed.), Music in Latin American culture: regional tradition. New York: Schirmer Books, 1999, pp. 383–423.
  • Thorp, Rosemary and Geoffrey Bertram. Peru 1890–1977: growth and policy in an open economy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978, ISBN 0231034334

Further reading

Economy
  • (Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva. Cuadros Anuales Históricos.
  • (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Perú: Perfil de la pobreza por departamentos, 2004–2008. Lima: INEI, 2009.
  • Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920–1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227–260.

External links