Buchanan Medal

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Richard Doll, who won the medal in 1972 "for his outstanding studies on the aetiology, prevention and treatment of disease, especially cancer"

The Buchanan Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every year "in recognition of distinguished contribution to the medical sciences generally". The award was created in 1897 from a fund to the memory of London physician Sir George Buchanan (1831–1895). It was to be awarded once every five years, but since 1990 the medal has been awarded every two years.[1] Since its creation, it has been awarded 28 times, and unlike other Royal Society medals such as the Royal Medal, it has never been awarded to the same individual multiple times. As a result of the criteria for the medal, most of the winners have been doctors or other medical professionals; an exception was Frederick Warner, an engineer who won the medal in 1982 "for his important role in reducing pollution of the River Thames and of his significant contributions to risk assessment".[2]

One winner has also won a Nobel Prize: Barry Marshall, who was awarded the Buchanan Medal in 1998 "in recognition of his work on discovering the role of Helicobacter pylori as a cause of diseases such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer and gastritis-associated dyspepsia" and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2005.[3] The first winner was John Simon, who won his medal in 1897 "for his distinguished services as an organizer of medical sanitary administration in this country, and as a promoter of scientific research relating to public health"; the most recent winner was Peter Cresswell, who won the medal in 2010 "for his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to our understanding of the processing of foreign protein antigens within cells to stimulate T-cell immune responses."[1]

List of recipients[edit]

Year Name Rationale Notes
1897 Simon, JohnJohn Simon "for his distinguished services as an organizer of medical sanitary administration in this country, and as a promoter of scientific research relating to public health" [4]
1902 Copeman, SydneySydney Copeman "for his experimental investigations into the bacteriology and comparative pathology of vaccination" [5]
1907 Power, William HenryWilliam Henry Power "for his services to sanitary science"
1912 Craw, WilliamWilliam Craw "for his sanitary administration of the works of the Panama Canal"
1917 Wright, AlmrothAlmroth Wright "for his contributions to preventive medicine" [6]
1922 Bruce, DavidDavid Bruce "for his researches and discoveries in tropical medicine" [7]
1927 Greenwood, MajorMajor Greenwood "for his statistical researches and other work in relation to public health" [8]
1932 Madsen, ThorvaldThorvald Madsen "for his very important theoretical and practical work on immunity, especially in relation to diphtheria antitoxin"
1937 Russell, Frederick FullerFrederick Fuller Russell "for his work in relation to public health problems in many parts of the world on behalf of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation"
1942 Jameson, WilsonWilson Jameson "for his distinguished administrative service to hygienic science and practice" [9]
1947 Mellanby, EdwardEdward Mellanby "for his distinguished researches on the physiology of nutrition, especially in relation to the causation of deficiency diseases" [10]
1952 Christophers, RickardRickard Christophers "for his outstanding research on malaria and on the Anopheles mosquitos [sic] which transmit that disease" [11]
1957 Fairley, Neil HamiltonNeil Hamilton Fairley "for his distinguished contributions to the control of malaria" [12]
1962 Thomson, LandsboroughLandsborough Thomson "for his long and distinguished services to the support and administration of medical and biological research" [13]
1967 Wilson, GrahamGraham Wilson "for his distinguished work on the medical aspects of bacteriology and immunity, and for the public health laboratory service of England and Wales" [14]
1972 Doll, RichardRichard Doll "for his outstanding studies on the aetiology, prevention and treatment of disease, especially cancer" [15]
1977 Evans, DavidDavid Evans "for his leading role in the standardization and safety control of vaccines" [16]
1982 Warner, FrederickFrederick Warner "for his important role in reducing pollution of the River Thames and of his significant contributions to risk assessment" [17]
1987 Radda, Gyorgy KarolyGyorgy Karoly Radda "for his development of high resolution NMR spectroscopy for the study of cellular energetics and cellular enzymology, and for medical diagnosis, and of the insights and advances thereby gained"
1990 Clarke, CyrilCyril Clarke "for his innovative studies on haemolytic disease of the newborn which culminated in new therapies leading to the elimination of this major fetal disease" [18]
1992 Burkitt, Denis ParsonsDenis Parsons Burkitt "for his discovery of a lymphoma which bears his name" [19]
1994 Weatherall, Sir DavidSir David Weatherall "in recognition of his notable contributions, over many years, to the application of molecular genetics to human medicine, in particular elucidating the many forms of molecular pathology that may underlie thalassaemias, and for his leadership in promoting the application of molecular genetics to medicine in the UK, not least as Director of the Institute of Molecular Medicine in Oxford." [20]
1996 Ashton, N.H.N.H. Ashton "for his contribution to vision research and his most important achievement in his discovery of the role of oxygen in the pathogenesis of retrolental fibroplasia now known as retinopathy of prematurity, together with his studies of the mechanism of hypertensive retinopathy, studies of the pathology of diabetic retinopathy and amoebic infection of the eye" [21]
1998 Marshall, Barry JamesBarry James Marshall "in recognition of his work on discovering the role of Helicobacter pylori as a cause of diseases such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer and gastritis-associated dyspepsia" [22]
2000 Peart, William StanleyWilliam Stanley Peart "for his contribution to the foundations of understanding of the renin angiotensin system in particular through his seminal work on the isolation and determination of the structure of angiotensin, purification of renin, and subsequent studies on the control of renin release"
2002 Waterfield, MichaelMichael Waterfield "Michael Waterfield for his exceptional skill in protein biochemistry which have transformed our understanding of signal transduction, and the subversion of cellular signalling pathways in cancer"
2004 Lane, David P.David P. Lane "in recognition of his discovery of the p53 protein and the subsequent research in which this basic discovery has been followed through to clinical application, exploiting the p53 pathway to find new treatments for cancer"
2006 MacIntyre, IainIain MacIntyre "for his many contributions to his field, ranging from the fundamental discoveries on the cellular origin and biochemical mode of the action of calcitonin to its application in clinical practice" [23]
2008 Marshall, ChristopherChristopher Marshall "for his outstanding contribution to understanding the process whereby cancers develop and in the identification of major targets for their therapeutic treatment" [24]
2010 Cresswell, PeterPeter Cresswell "for his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to our understanding of the processing of foreign protein antigens within cells to stimulate T-cell immune responses". [25]
2011 Jackson, StephenStephen Jackson "for his outstanding contributions to understanding DNA repair and DNA-damage-response signalling pathways". [26]
2013 Higgs, DouglasDouglas Higgs "for his seminal work on the regulation of the human alpha-globin gene cluster and the role of the ATRX protein in genetic disease" [27]

References[edit]

General

Specific

  1. ^ a b "The Buchanan Medal (1897)". Royal Society. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  2. ^ "Buchanan recent winners (2006 - 1962)". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  4. ^ "Simon, Sir John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36097.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ "Copeman, Sydney Arthur Monkton". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/63940.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^ "Wright, Sir Almroth Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/37032.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ "Bruce, Sir David". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32132.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ "Greenwood, Major". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/51797.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  9. ^ "News From The Field" (PDF). American Journal of Public Health 33 (2): 192. 1943. doi:10.2105/ajph.33.2.192. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  10. ^ "Mellanby, Sir Edward". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34980.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  11. ^ "Mosquito Systematics - Sir Rickard Christophers: a tribute" (PDF). Mosquito Systematics. Retrieved 2009-01-28. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Fairley, Sir Neil Hamilton (1891 - 1966) - Australian Dictionary of National Biography Online". Australian Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  13. ^ "Thompson, Sir (Arthur) Landsborough". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31757.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  14. ^ "AIM25 text-only browsing: Wellcome Library Wilson, Sir Graham Selby (1895-1987)". AIM25. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  15. ^ "Richard Doll Bio" (PDF). University of Guelf. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  16. ^ "Evans, Sir David Gwynne". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31086.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  17. ^ "Papers and correspondence of Sir Frederick Warner". Mimas. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  18. ^ "Clarke, Sir Cyril". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/74875.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  19. ^ "Burkitt, Denis Parsons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/57333.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  20. ^ "Notes and Records of the Royal Society 1995 vol 49 pp 141-151". Royal Society. Retrieved 2010-04-28. 
  21. ^ "Norman Henry Ashton CBE, DSC (LOND), FRCP, FRCS, FRCPATH, FRCOPHTH, FRS, KSTJ, b 11 September 1913, d 4 January 2000". British Journal of Ophthalmology. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  22. ^ "Barry Marshall Biography -- Academy of Achievement". Academy of Achievement. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  23. ^ "ScienceDirect - Bone:In Memoriam". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  24. ^ "Institute Professor Wins Prestigious Science Award". Institute of Cancer Research. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  25. ^ "The Buchanan Medal (1897)". The Royal Society. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Buchanan Medal (1897)". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  27. ^ "The Buchanan Medal (1897)". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 

External links[edit]